RBSE Solutions for Class 10 Rajasthan Adhyayan Chapter 1 Social Reform in Pre-Independent Rajasthan are part of RBSE Solutions for Class 10 Rajasthan Adhyayan. Here we have given Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 10 Rajasthan Adhyayan Chapter 1 Social Reform in Pre-Independent Rajasthan.
|Social Reform in Pre-Independent Rajasthan
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Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 10 Rajasthan Adhyayan Chapter 1 Social Reform in Pre-Independent Rajasthan
TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED
I. Multiple Choice Type Questions
When did the British Sanrakshak Samiti pass the Sati Abolition Act?
What is the major cause responsible for child marriages?
(d) None of the above
When did the Alwar state first passed the unmatched marriage and child marriage ban act?
(a) 5th Dec. 1902
(b) 5th Nov. 1903
(c) 10th Oct. 1904
(d) 10th Dec. 1903
In which state was the Desh Hiteshini Sabha established?
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Name the British officiai who sent an order to the rulers of Kota, Bundi and Jhalawar to declare Sati Pratha illegal?
Captain Richardson sent a circular (order) to the rulers of Kota, Bundi and Jhalawar to declare Sati Pratha illegal.
In which Indian state did the Sanrakshak Samiti first passed the Sati Abolition Act?
Sanrakshak Samiti of Jaipur state was the first to pass the Sati abolition act in 1844.
When did the first population census take place in Rajasthan?
The first population census was conducted in 1872 in Rajasthan.
For which society was, first of all, the British Agent pressurised by Maharana to enact the anti female infanticide act?
Maharana pressurised the British government to enact the anti-female infanticide act for the Rajputana samaj.
Short Answer Type Questions
What was impact of Swami Dayanand’s views on Sati Pratha?
Swami Dayanand Saraswati, during his travel to Rajasthan, condemned Sati Pratha as an inhumane and unjustified practice. He referred to shastra to condemn this heinous act and thus gave a new direction to the society.
Write your own role to prevent the child marriage.
We will meet parents and children to make them convinced of the drawbacks of the early marriage as—
- Early marriages leave adverse effect on the physical and mental health of both the sexes.
- Children married at an early age are burdened with responsibilities and liabilities for which they are not yet matured enough.
- They are hard pressed even financially and find it hard to meet two ends meet.
- The period of progeny increases and as a result the size of the families grows, leaving further impact on the health of the females and mental set up of the males.
By narrating this negative effect of the early marriages we can help to create an atmosphere unfavourable for the early marriages.
What was the aim of establishing Walter Hitakarini Sabha?
Walter Hitakarini Sabha was created with the following aims—
- To abolish completely the polygamy system.
- To fix marriage age for girls (14 years) and for boys (18 years)
- To impose complete ban on the marriage related rituals as Reet and Tika.
Long Answer Type Questions
Write about the efforts made for the eradication of the Sati Pratha.
Following attempts were made from time to time for the eradication of the Sati Pratha:
1. In 1844 the Jaipur Sanrakshak (Custodian) Samiti passed an act to abolish the Sati Pratha. This was the first legal act which was neither supported nor opposed but it inspired the A.G.G.(Agent to the Governor General) to take some constructive steps. He ordered the British Parliament agents in Udaipur, Jodhpur, Bikaner, Sirohi, Banswara, Dholpur, Jaisalmer, Bundi, Kota and Jhalawar to put their personal pressure on the rulers to frame rules to eradicate Sati Pratha. This effort was fruitful in some of the states. Dungarpur, Banswara and Pratapgarh states declared the Sati Pratha illegal in 1846. Later in 1848 Kota and Jodhpur; and in 1860 in Mewar many anti- Sati Pratha acts were enacted. Provision was made to penalise the violators of these laws.
2. In 1881 Charles Wood became the Indian Secretary. He found that all the efforts to check this evil practice were ineffective. He issued an order directing the A.G.G. Rajputana to frame rigorous rules for arrest rather than the penalty of money. In 1861 the British officers informed the rulers to enforce the new rigorous laws according to which the punishment of arrest could be possible on the information about Sati practice. There was a provision also to penalise and dismiss and the ruler as well as to declare that village ‘Khalsa’ (Confiscated). In case of failure to implement the law, the rulers could be denigraded by cutting short for them the number of gun salutes.
Thus by virtue of pressure of the British government and the cooperation of the local authorities the Sati practice was brought under control by the end of the 19th century, with the exception of few events here and there.
3. Social Awakenings also played a great role in this direction. Swami Dayanand Saraswati’s arrival in Rajasthan proved very fruitful in this direction. He condemned the Sati Pratha as an unjust and inhumane practice. He quoted Shastras to oppose it and gave a new direction to the society.
4. In the post independence era in 1987 the Rajasthan High Court declared the Sati Pratha an illegal practice. The court quoted many reference in support of its decision.
Why were Desh Hiteshini Sabha and Walter Hitkarini Sabha established? How far were they successful in their aims?
1. Desh Hiteshini Sabha was established on 2nd July, 1877 in Udaipur (Mewar) in order to find solution to the marriage related problems.
It imposed two types of bans on the matrimonial activities:
- Limiting the marriage related expenses.
- Framing rules for banning polygamy.
These aims of the Desh Hiteshini could not be successfully achieved mainly because of the non-cooperation of the British government. As stated in the commissioner report, the Mewar Resident made some amends in The Desh Hiteshini Sabha rules and sent them to other states through A.G.G. Accordingly reforms were introduced in the marriage related customs. This was the first social reform step in the state. It was a partial success. Later other states too formed the Hiteshini Sabha on the lines of Mewar.
2. Walter Hitakarini Sabha:
In 1887 Walter was appointed A.G.G. of Rajputana. He issued a circular in 1887 to the political agents in the Indian states to frame rules regarding marriage expenses for Rajputs. The March 10, 1888 sammelan in Ajmer was attended by 41 representatives except Bharatpur, Dhaulpur and Banswara. In Jan. 1889 Walter held another sammelan which was attended only by the 20 ex-members. In this sammelan the committee was renamed as Walter Rajput Hitakarini Sabha. This sammelan was continued for a week, and the report of the progress in reforms along with statistics was prepared and it was provided to hold the session every year for assessing the reform works for administrative report. In 1936 * Walter Sabha was dissolved.
Main functions of the Walter Sabha between 1889-1938 were:-
- To stop completely the polygamy.
- To fix the minimum marriageable age: 14 years for girls and 18 years for boys.
- To ban completely the marriage ceremonies such as Tika and Reet.
The Walter Hitakarini Sabha introduced many reforms but they remained unimplemented and got stuck in the bureaucratic process. Though there was not much of the constructive achievement but the ruling class was mentally and psychologically motivated.
ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS SOLVED
Multiple Choice Questions
The British Supremacy period is the-
(a) Post 1919 period
(b) Post 1857 period
(c) Pre 1919 period
(d) Pre 1857 period
Charles Wood was designated the Secretary for India in-
Lord William Bentick got an inspiration to pass the Sati abolition act from-
(a) Swami Vivekanand
(b) Pt. Madan Mohan Malviya
(c) Swami Dayanand Sarswati
(d) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
Social Reforms activities were conducted between 1919-1947 under the directions of
(a) Swami Dayanand
(b) Swami Vivekanand
(c) Political movement
(d) Walter Hitakarini Sabha
In one of its decisions the Rajasthan High Court declared Sati Pratha illegal in-
(a) Sept. 1987
(b) Sept. 1978
(c) Oct. 1978
(d) Oct. 1987
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Which two rulers of the medieval period attempted to curb the Sati Pratha?
Muhammad-Bin-Tuglaq and Akbar attempted to curb the Sati Pratha practice in the medieval period.
When was a Sanrakshak (Custodian) Samiti under the chairmanship of political agent Jaipur appointed?
A Sanrakshak Samiti under the political agent, Jaipur was appointed in 1839.
Which evils were opposed by Swami Dayanand Saraswati?
Swami Dayanand Saraswati opposed the evils of Untouchability, Sati Pratha, Child marriage, etc.
What were the evil effects of unmatched marriage?
Usually the females become widows in their tender age and they have to pass through great hardships.
What was the main cause of female infanticide according to Col. James Tod?
According to Col. James Tod, Dowry Pratha was the main cause of female infanticide.
Write the names of two prominent social reformers of India?
Two prominent social reformers of India-
- Swami Vivekanand and
- Swami Dayanand Saraswati
Short Answer Type Questions
What do the terms Tika and Reet stand for?
- Tika means the gifts given by the girl’s parental side to her in laws.
- Reet means the gifts given by the boy’s parental side.
What were the two aims of the Desh Hiteshini Sabha?
Aims of the Desh Hiteshini Sabha were
- To limit the marriage expense and
- To frame rules to ban polygamy.
What steps were taken to check the witch practice in the 19th century?
The British officers discouraged the witch practice. In 1853 A.G.G. (Agent to Governor General) pressurised the rulers to enact a law to ban this inhumane practice. In 1853 the Mewar Maharan, Jawan Singh declared the witch practice illegal, on the advice of Mewar Resident, Col. Eden.
What attempts were made in the direction of social reforms during the period of the British Supremacy?
During the period of the British Supremacy efforts were made for the social reforms in the following direction-
- The British created a favourable atmosphere through administrative, judicial, economic, religious and educational changes and motivated the people in the right direction.
- Social reformers like Swami Vivekanand and Swami Dayanand Saraswati played a major role in curbing the social evils.
- Between 1919-1947 the social reforms became a part of the political movement.
Why could the Walter Hitakarini Sabha’s reform not be enforced?
Many steps for the social reforms were taken by the Walter Hitakarini Sabha but they could not be effective. They got stuck in the Bureaucratic tables and could not be enforced successfully. Bureaucratic system posed a major problem.
What were the types of slaves in Rajputana?
There used to be four types of slaves in Rajasthan:
- Both males and females who were the prisoners of war.
- Males and females gifted as dowry in marriage.
- Local sevaks (male attendent) and Sevikas (female attendants).
- Ancestral attendants (males and females) who were the illegitimate offspring of their lord (master). Their generations (descendants) continued the practice of master and servant through ages.
Name some of the major evil practices prevailing in pre-independent Rajasthan.
Major evils practices prevailing in pre-independent Rajasthan were-
- Sati Pratha
- Female infanticide
- Child marriage
- Slavery system
- Witch Pratha
What was done by the British rulers to check the Witch Pratha?
The British officers condemned the Witch Pratha as a heinous evil. It was nothing but the blind belief. In 1853 A.G.G. (Agent? to Governor General). Rajputana pressurised the rulers to enact a law to ban this inhuman practice. In 1853 the Mewar Maharana declared the witch pratha illegal on the advice of Mewar Resident, Col. Eden.
What was done to curb the evil of unmatched and child marriage?
It was a common practice to marry the younge girls to the elderly males or to solemnise marriage of the minors. This evil practice affected adversely the mental and physical health of the boys and the girls. It was Swami Dayanand Saraswati who raised his voice against such unmatched and child marriage. On Dec. 10, 1903 Alwar state enacted the anti unmatched and child marriage act. The Royal families adhered to this act strictly.
What steps were taken to check the evil of female infanticide in the 19th century Rajputana?
The 19th century Rajputana was infected with the evil of female infanticide. Col. James Tod felt the dowry system as the main causes of this curse on society. Dowry and female infanticide were the twin ulcers for the society. Many steps were taken to curb it. First attempt was made in the Mewar region where Maharana pressurised the British agent to check the female infanticide. Following in the foot steps of Mewar, Anti female infanticide law was passed in Kota too. In 1839 the Jodhpur Maharaja framed code of rules. In 1844 Jaipur Maharaja declared the female infanticide undesirable. Though there was no law in Bikaner but in 1839 the Maharaja during his Yaga travel delivered oath on the feudals that they would not let the practice of female infanticide prevail. After 1888 the female infanticide related cases have almost become extinct.
Long Answer Type Questions
Discuss the role of the social reformers to check social evils, and the period of reforms between 1919-1947.
Social reformers like Swami Vivekanand and Swami Dayanand Saraswati played a significant role in checking the social evils. Swami Vivekanand’s travels in 1891 created a wave of new awakening and as such the people refused to accept the prevailing evils in the name of religion. They developed the power of reasoning and critical evaluation.
Swami Dayanand and his Arya samaj organisation left the maximum impact in Rajputana. Swami Dayanand was a saint. He could develop in the people the sense of understanding the existence of man and his responsibility in the social life. He also aroused the feeling of godliness and spirituality.
- He inspired the people to fight courageously against social evils.
- He stimulated the people to hold discussions and seminars so as to develop the reasoning power in the society.
- He opposed caste system, untouchability, child marriage, and supported widow remarriage.
- During his social awareness campaign he laid a great emphasis on the role of the ruler and the aristocratic class.
- The members of the Arya Samaj and Propakarini (Welfare) Sabha became active to work collectively for the reform works.
Period of Reforms between 1919-1947: The period of social reforms was between 1840-1919 but during 1919-1947 social reforms activities were linked with the political movement. The Seva Sanghs of the Rajasthan movement devoted themselves, under the Congress leadership, to work for social reforms in the rural and the tribal areas. They opened the educational institutions at many places.
Gandhiji, through his swadeshi movement took many steps as:
- He vocationalised education to make the people self dependent.
- He campaigned to provide literacy to the harijans and to give them entry to the temples. The Volunteers cleaned the toilets so as to develop the sense of dignity of labour.
- He encouraged the widow and prostitute marriages and many of the activists set an example in the society by marrying the widows and the prostitutes.
These social reforms of 1919-1947 were the part of the political campaign. They were not merely the precepts but were practical. The activists themselves wanted to form a non-violent society by eradicating social evils and for this they were inspired by Gandhiji’s constructive principle.
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