RBSE Solutions for Class 10 Rajasthan Adhyayan Chapter 2 Educational Scenario in Pre-Independent Rajasthan are part of RBSE Solutions for Class 10 Rajasthan Adhyayan. Here we have given Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 10 Rajasthan Adhyayan Chapter 2 Educational Scenario in Pre-Independent Rajasthan.
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Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 10 Rajasthan Adhyayan Chapter 2 Educational Scenario in Pre-Independent Rajasthan
TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED
Multiple Choice Questions
In the indigenous education system the education centre for the Jains was known as
Who opened the Private Public Engineering Institute of Technical Education in Rajputana?
(a) Birla Education Trust
(b) Rajasthan Vidhyapeeth
(c) Vidhya Bhawan Society
(d) Vanasthali Vidhyapeeth
The first law college was opened in Rajasthan at –
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Write the names of the Primary Education Centres of the Indigenous Education.
Names of the Primary Education Centres of the Indigenous Education
- Chatshala, Pathshala for the Hindus
- Upasara, Vanika for the Jains
- Maqtab for the Muslims
What does the Modern Education mean?
Modern Education is the education system which develops logic based scientific outlook, and has defined class sequence, examination system, curriculum, qualified teachers and a set definite administrative set up.
Where have the educational Institutions been set up by the Missionary?
The Missionary Institutions have established the educational institutions in Ajmer, Beaware, Nasirabad, Piplauda near Kota, Rajgarh in Alwar and Bandikui.
Short Answer Type Questions
What was the syllabus of Arithmetic in the Indigenous education system?
Indigenous education syllabus for Arithmetic included:
At the first stage, counting from 01 to 100 and tables from ½ to 10 and At the second stage, tables of 2 ½ and 1 ½ and 10 onwards, weights and measurements as well as formulas of multiplication, division, interest and methods of Book keeping.
The syllabus of High Indigenous education comprised Arithmetic, Algebra and Geometry.
What was the state of women education in the Indigenous Education system?
Women Education was both formal as well as Informal. Education was prevalent, mainly among the women of royal family, nobility class, Charans, Jain Sadhvis, as well as housemaids. The royal family women got education in the cultural values and military. There were many scholarly Charan women. The Jain Sadhvis studied in the Upasara. They were adept in language, literature and translation. The women from business class families acquired education in the family profession while staying in the family.
What is the five dimensional education of the Vanasthali Vidhyapeeth?
Five facet dimensional education of the Vanasthali Vidhyapeeth includes –
- Drill, Yoga, Games etc.
- Practical Education
- Beauty Manifestation – Painting, Music etc.
- Moral Education – Daily prayer, and daily thoughts, discourse.
- Intellectual Education
What is the full name of the Education Board established in 1929?
Full name of the Education Board established in 1929 was Board of High school and Intermediate Rajputana, Ajmer, Merwara, Central India and Gwalior Board.
Long Answer Type Questions
What does the Indigenous education imply? Evaluate the education system.
I. As per the prevailing beliefs and the British documents, the Indigenous education means the religion based education but this is not the appropriate interpretation of the Indigenous education because education in India since times immemorial, has been logical with scientific outlook along with the religion impact on it though its scientific aspect remained limited with the passage of time and it was inspired mainly by religion, acquisition of knowledge, individual well being and search for means of livelihood. In Rajputana the population comprised mainly the Hindus, the Jains and the Muslims, hence education system too was based on occupation, caste, and religion. Family was the primary centre of education.
II. The Indigenous Education System: There were many educational institutions to impart the Indigenous education.
Education was of two forms –
- Informal education – Family was the main school of the informal education.
- Formal Education – It started after the religious rites i.e. Upnayan in the Hindus and the Bismillah in the Muslims.
According to the Archives collections and drafted deeds of the ancient scholars
formal education can be classified as-
(a) Primary Education and
(b) Higher Education
(a) Primary Education:
1. Centers of Primary education were Pathshala and Chatshala for the Hindus, Upasara and Vanika for the Jains and Maktaba for the Muslims, besides, temples, masjid courtyard, chaupal, some renowned person’s or teachers house, and in some places, shops were also the centers of primary education.
2. Teachers were known as Guru and Joshiji in Pathsala and Chatshala, Acharya and Mahant in the Math and Asthal, Bhattark in Upasara and Maulavi and Ulema in Maktab and Madrassa.
3. Curriculum –
(i) Religious and
(i)Religious Education: It was imparted in the stories of gods and goddesses, festivals, life utility goods, worshipping materials and methods, names of fruits, cloths, ornamentation and moral education. In the Muslim Madrassas, the curriculum included study of Quran, Fatiha, Hakikat, Karima, dates etc.
(ii) Non-Religious Education:
It was limited to reading, writing and Arithmetic. Knowledge was imparted in the languages of Hindi and Sanskrit in Pathshala, Hindi and Prakrat in Upasara and Persian and Urdu in Maktaba were taught. Local language and Urdu language were also taught in Rajasthan educational institutions.
4. Teaching methods were rhythmic and melodious, unlike today’s pictorial methods.
Arithmetic: The first stage course included counting from 1 to 100 and tables from ½ to 10. The second stage included the teaching of tables of 2 ½ and 1 ½ and from 10 onwards as well as measurements weights, formulas of multiplication, interest, amount, quotient and also method of Book¬Keeping. Book-Keeping was also known as Mahajani or Vaniawati script. The symbolic language was in use to avoid the grammatical complexities.
(b) Higher Education:
It was also religious and non-religious education.
- Religious Education:
Religious education was concerned with the spiritual education. Education was imparted in rites-rituals in the Maths, study of any particular branch of religion, the Vedas and the Scriptures in Asthals, and the Islamic Law, Ilahi etc in Madrassas.
- Non-Religious Education:
The curriculum of high education included . Geography, History, language, Geometry, Algebra, Arithmetic, Astronomy and Ayurvedic and Yunani medicines. As regards technical education Jantar- Mantar of Jaipur was a great achievement. Other examples of technical education can be quoted from huge palaces, forts, Jal Mahal, canals, bridges, wells, stepwells etc. in the engineering field etc.
Narrate the evolution of women education and the obstacles in its way of evolution.
I. Evolution of Women Education:
Development of women education in Rajasthan became possible with the efforts of the government missionary institutions, social reformers and public educational institutions.
- Government Efforts –
In 1866 the first girls government school was set up in Pushkar, Ajmer, Merwara centre, followed by other girls schools in Bharatpur on 7th September 1866 and Udaipur (the same year), in Alwar and Kota in 1872 and in Jhalawar in 1883. In 1886 Haveson girls school was opened in Jodhpur. In 1885 the Muslim girls school was set up in the Tonk state and then in 1888 in Bikaner during Lady Elgin’s visit.
- Missionary Efforts –
The Missionary institution contributed largely to the women education in Rajasthan. In 1861 the first girls vernacular school was opened in Nasirabad. It was the first of its kind in many respects. It was the first school of Rajputana, where the girls scout- guide was introduced. Three girls students of this institution were sent for scholarship for further studies in the Agra Medical College in 1894. In 1910 the teachers’ training classes were started. In 1866 the Missionary village school was started in Pushkar. A central school and its seven branches were opened in the different localities in Ajmer.
- Efforts by the Social Reformers –
Swami Dayanand Saraswati started propaganda for women education through the Propakarini Sabha set up in Ajmer. The Arya Samaj made untiring efforts for the spread of education in Ajmer, Udaipur, Bharatpur, and Shekhawati. It is a founded belief that the Savitri college of Ajmer (1913) and the Udaipur, Mahila Vidhalya were the Arya Samaj inspired institution.
- Public Educational Institutions –
During the Independence movement the public voluntary Educational Institutions were established though this process had started during the Kissan Andolan but they were more ordered and organised during the national movement led by Mahatma Gandhi. In 1921 Sangasi Sammelan of Shekhawati the women education was adopted as a programme. In 1927 the Gandhi Ashram was set up at Hatundi, Ajmer.
It became the Mahila Education Sadan in 1945. From 1927- to 1945 it remained the centre of activities of the nationalists and the volunteers of Rajputana. In Nov. 1938 Mahila Mandai was formed in Udaipur. A residential school was opened in Udaipur to educate the girls in the tribal areas. Vanasthali Vidhyapeeth came into existence in Oct. 1935 for the women education.
It is known for its five dimensional education –
- Drill, Yoga, Games-sports etc.
- Practical Education
- Painting, music etc.
- Moral Education – Daily prayer, Discourse, Daily thoughts
- Intellectual education.
Besides, there was a special significance given to Charkha and Khadi. Mahila Parishad of Bhilwara and Jat-hostel of Shekhawati were also the main centres of women education. Basic education was the special feature of the educational institutions inspired by the Gandhian ideology. In these institutions women were taught to make Charkha, to run Charkha, to weave and use Khadi, to dig wells etc, so as to make them self dependent.
Curriculum of studies for women: In the beginning their education remained limited to sewing, weaving and domestic activities. In 1875 the course of studies included knowledge of language and 3 Rs i.e. reading, writing and Arithmetic’. In 1937 a proposal to introduce the common syllabus for girls and boys, was approved in the 3rd session of the National Mahila Samiti and on this basis the education Board introduced common syllabus for the primary education. System of common syllabus had already been introduced at the level of High school and college level.
II. Obstruction to the Evolution of Women Education:
On the basis of the archives documents there were many obstacles to the progress of women education as
- Purdah Pratha
- Child marriage
- lack of qualified teachers
- Natural calamities and
- Geographical distances.
Solution to these problems was however, found in the later period, especially, after the First World War. The military personnel who came from the foreign countries, had developed liberal outlook, secondly, the national revolutionaries and the social reformers made the common man understand the significance of education. Even women developed sense of importance of self dependence.
Analyse the efforts made for the education of the weaker classes.
Efforts made for the education of the weaker classes:
The southern region of Rajasthan presently Udaipur, Chittor, Dungarpur, Banswara and Pratapgarh, Sirohi, Merwara etc. are the tribals dominated regions. It was the Christian missionaries, the Arya Samaj and the national movement activists who played the major role in educating the people of these tribal areas.
- Education by the Missionaries –
The first step to educate the hilly people of these regions was taken by the Christian Missionary Institution. It established The Rowers school in Toadgarh in December, 1863
- Government and Private Educational Institutions –
By 1882, 16 government and the private educational institutions have been established in the Merwara region. The tribals of the Mewar were also benefitting from this new education system.
- Efforts by the Rulers –
Maharaja Sajjan Singh of Mewar opened schools in Rishdev and Jawar in 1875 and in Parana and Barapal in 1883. The process continued and by 1901, 10 schools had been opened in Banswara and Kushalgarh. Dungarpur had one school. By 1940 a school and the public library were set up in Kherwara.
ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS SOLVED
Multiple Choice Questions
When was the girls vernacular school started at Nasirabad in Rajasthan by the Missionary Institution?
The education centre of the Hindus in the indigenous education was known as –
Which language was taught in the Pathshala?
Prior to 1887 the educational institutions of Rajasthan were affiliated with –
(a) Ahmedabad University
(b) Kolkata University
(c) Delhi University
(d) Bombay University
The Modern Education was evolved in Rajasthan by the –
(a) Missionary Institutions
(b) British Supremacy
(c) Private and Public Institutions
(d) All of the above
Mayo college (school) was established in Ajmer in –
When was the first government school for Modern Education set up in Ajmer?
Education in the cultural values and Military under the indigenous education system was given to –
(а) Jain Sadhvi Women
(b) Charan Women
(c) Women from the Business Class families
(d) Women from the Royal (Noble) families
The main centre of Primary and Vocational Education under the Indigenous Education System were –
Very Short Answer Type Questions
What are the three stages of school education in the Modern Education System?
Three stages of education in the modern education system were-
- Middle and
- High school
Name three high education centres of rajputana under the indigenous education.
Three high school education centres in the indigenous system were-
- The Hindu Maths
- The Jain Upasaras
- The Muslim Madrassas
Which type of education system was prevalent in the Arya Samaj Schools.
It was the Gurukul System of education which prevailed in the schools set up by the Arya Samaj.
When and where was the first Ayurvedic Medicines college set up?
The first Ayurvedic Medicines college was set up in 1933 in Udaipur.
Where and when was the Rajputana University established?
The Rajputana University was established in Jaipur in January, 1947.
‘By the end of the 19th century all the Indian states except one had got the government educational institutions’ – which was that state?
It was Jaisalmer state which did not have the government educational institutions till the end of the 19th century.
Which institution was set up by Swami Dayanand in Ajmer for the spread of education?
Swami Dayanand set up the Propakarini Sabha in Ajmer for the spread of education.
Who was appointed the first chairman of the Ajmer Education Board?
K.P. Kichloo was appointed for three years the first chairman of the Ajmer Education Board.
By whom and when was the need to make technical education an integral part of education felt?
In 1901 Lord Curzon emphasised in the Lahore session to make technical education a part of the education.
When did Lord Mayo implement the Walter Plan 1869?
Lord Mayo implemented in 1870 The Walter Plan 1869.
Where and what type of education did the women from the business class families get?
Women from the business class families got education in family profession while living in the family.
Write other two names for the Book keeping method?
Other two names are :
- Mahayani script Arithmetic
- Vaniavati script Arithmetic
Short Answer Type Questions
What was the direct or immediate aim of the East India Company to start modern education in the dominion empire? Clarify it.
Ostensibly: The East India Company wanted to begin the modern education in the dominion empire to civilise the people. In 1824 the company instructed the General committee of Public Instructions in Kolkata to open four schools in Rajputana. The rulers of the Indian states were sent circulars stating therein that the social and economic reforms were possible not merely through the government machinery rather through public awakening by education.
What was the underlying purpose of the East India Company to begin the Modern education in the dominion empire?
Various documents of the time reveal that the indirect or the underlying aims of the East India Company to begin the modern education were –
- Practical Administrative Difficulties – The company was finding it difficult to correspond, discuss with, and to consult and advise the rulers.
- Administrative changes – The company needed the employees for the official works, who could understand their language, policies etc and implement the changes in the administrative matters.
- Commercial centre – Rajputana was a main commercial centre, hence there was a need of contact language from the security point of view.
- Psychological Reason – Dominion interests were the major cause. It becomes the top priority of the sovereigns to promote their own culture through their self designed style of education.
Which Christian missionary institutes were active in the field of education in Rajputana?
The following Christian Missionary Educational Institutions were active in Rajputana in the field of education –
- Roman Catholic and Methodists
- The Church Missionary Society
- The Anglican Church
- Society for the propagation of the Gospel Mission.
In respect of which fields did the technical education develop in Rajputana during the period of the British Supremacy?
The technical education developed in Rajputana during the period of the British Supremacy in respect of –
- Teachers’ training.
- Agriculture Engineering.
- Ayurvedic Medicines
- Ayurveda Science
- Forestry and Fishing
What was the religious curriculum of the Primary education in the Indigenous Education system?
The religious curriculum of the Primary education, in the Indigenous Education system included – Stories related to gods and goddesses, festivals, life-utility things, worship, Chattels, Worship-methods, Names of fruits, Clothes, ornamentations (Shringar) etc, and Quran, Fatiha, Haqiqat (Hakikat), dates etc in Maklabas (Primary schools).
What was the Walter Plan of education and how did Lord Mayo implement it?
Water Plan and its Implementation: Sir Walter had written to the Secretary of state for India to open the British Public schools as the separate institutions for the rulers so as to be relieved of any future danger to the British Empire and to alleniate the rulers from the masses. In 1870 Lord Mayo in his capacity as a viceroy enforced Walter plan of 1869 by opening the first college in Rajkot. After his murder in Andaman, the Mayo College was opened in Ajmer, and in 1886 Achison College, Lahore and Daily College, Indore were set up for the ruling families.
Why did it become necessary to launch technical education in the early 20th century?
The early twentieth century India was backward in the technical education. In the Shimla Education Sammelan 1901 Lord Curzon stressed the need for making technical education an inalienable part of education. It was not possible to export raw material from India to England due to the deteriorating economic condition. It thus, became necessary to establish the machinery factories in India and as such the technical education had to be launched in India. It was started after the First World War and was developed after the Second World War.
Long Answer Type Questions
Account for the administrative system of the modern education during the period of the British Supremacy.
Administration of Modern Education during the British Supremacy –
- Under the British Impact:
In the beginning the modern education was under the impact of the British Company and from 1858 onwards it was guided and administered by the policies of the British crown.
- Beginning of the Commissioner System:
In 1871 the British crown transferred the Ajmer Merwara administration to the North-West province and put it under the foreign political department. With this the commissioner system was introduced in Ajmer and the education Department too was brought under the commissioner.
- Education Administration in the states:
Gradually the superintendent education or Director Education were appointed for the modern education in the Indian states. They were also known as Saristey Talim. In the beginning an officer of any parliament could be appointed in this post. It was for the first time in 1854 that the representatives of the company were appointed for the education works.
- Calcutta and Allahabad University:
On the basis of the Woods despatch proposal the Calcutta University was established in 1854. The educational institutions of Rajputana were affiliated to it. On 23rd Sept. 1887 the Allahabad University was opened and all the modem educational institutions of Rajputana shifted their affiliation from the Calcutta University to the Allahabad University.
- Financial System:
It was in 1866 that the first attempt for the financial management was made with the introduction of the Settlement System in Bharatpur. A specific percentage of the land revenue was marked for education. This system became applicable in other Indian states too.
- Establishment of Education Board:
In July, 1929 the Board of High School and Intermediate Education Rajputana, Ajmer, Merwara Central India and Gwalior Board was established, with its headquarter at Ajmer. Shri K.P. Kichloo of Jaipur was appointed the first chairman of the Board for three years. In 1930, the Board conducted the examinations for the first time for the examinees from the 70 High schools and 12 intermediate colleges. The Board also prepared the common course of studies for the school education.
- University Education:
In January, 1947, the Rajputana University was established. Decision for establishing this university was taken jointly by Udaipur, Jodhpur, Bikaner, Alwar and Jaipur in Dec. 1946. Its main objective was to promote the culture and art of Rajputana.
Write about the introduction of the Modern education in Rajputana and its gradual evolution.
Modern Education in Rajasthan:
It was in the centrally administered Ajmer, Merwara region that the modern education was started. On the directions of Resident Aktarloni in 1819, Jewan Kary opened the English medium schools first in Ajmer and then in Pushkar Bhinay and Kekari, but they had to be closed due to the public resistance in 1931. In 1835 the company recoginsed English as the state language.
Consequently, in 1836 the first government school was opened in Ajmer, considering the need for knowledge of English. It was upgraded to Intermediate college in 1868 and to the graduate college in 1869. So far as states were concerned, Pt. Roop Narayan was inspired by Maharaja Banne Singh to open the first school in Alwar in 1842 and after sometimes Maharaja Balwant Singh of Bharatpur opened the school. This school was the first to adopt the modern examination system. In 1847 it was upgraded to the Intermediate college, in 1888 to the graduate college and in 1900 to the post graduate college.
In 1844 in Jaipur Darbar school was opened and in 1883 the Tonk Nawab started the government school. Thus by the end of the 19th century the government Educational Institutions had been opened in all the states of Rajputana, excluding Jaisalmer.
Gradual Evolution of the Modem Education – The Primary and the Middle schools were gradually upgraded to High schools. The government school of Ajmer (1836) was the first to become the High School in 1851. Among the Indian states Jaipur started High school studies in 1844 in the Madan Mohan temple in front of Hawa Mahal. The students were from both the communities – the Hindu and the Muslims. The process of upgrading schools continued till 1947, unfolding to university level.
The University Education:
First Stage-Intermediate college (11th and 12th classes): In 1868 the centrally administered Ajmer was the first to have intermediate college and the same year the state upgraded Jaipur Maharaja School to the intermediate college, other upgraded intermediate colleges were as: Jodhpur Intermediate college in 1853, Udaipur Intermediate college in 1922, Dungar Intermediate college of Bikaner in 1928 and Maharani Jaya college of Bharatpur in 1941.
Second Stage Le. Graduation Education: Ajmer government intermediate college was upgraded to graduate college in 1969. The states intermediate colleges were upgraded to the Degree colleges as Maharaja college of Jaipur in 1888, Jaswant college of Jodhpur in 1893, Bikaner Intermediate college in 1928 and Udaipur college in 1935.
Third State i.e. Post Graduation: Its beginning was made first in 1900 in Jaipur, followed by Bikaner and Udaipur. Thus the modern education evolved in Rajputana at the two levels i.e.
- The centrally administered region and
- The Indian states from the primary to the Graduation and from Graduation to the Post Graduation level.
Write about the beginning and evolution of technical education in Rajputana in the pre-independent India.
India lagged behind the technical education in the early 20th century. In 1901 * Lord Curzon emphasised, in the Shimla Education Sammelan, to make technical education an inseparable part of the education, but it could be introduced only after the First World War and it evolved after the Second World War. On the suggestions of the British government, on 3rd Feburary, 1945 some intellectuals from the Rajputana and Madhya Pradesh proposed in a joint session to open a technical college in each state, but the proposal could not get through.
In Rajputana the technical education was introduced in various fields as mentioned below and it evolved gradually:
- Teachers’ Training:
The first attempt was made by the missionaries by opening Normal classes in Nasirabad and Beawar to train the teachers.
Later on normal classes were started in the states too. The first teachers’ training college was opened in 1941 by the Vidhya Bhawan Education Society. The second teachers’ training college was opened at Ajmer in 1941 with the efforts of Dr. J.C, Chatterjee, the Chairman of the joint Board of Rajputana, Madhya Pradesh and Gwalior, and the third teachers’ training college was opened in 1946 in Bikaner.
- Agricultural Technology:
After the formation of the Education Board, in 1936 it was included as a compulsory subject in the syllabus for the secondary and higher secondary schools. In 1938-1939 Agricultural technology was introduced as an optional subject in the agriculture intermediate colleges. The night classes was started in Mewar villages to impart training to the farmers in the new technology of agriculture. In 1944 Secretary of State for India sent the circular to the rulers to introduce the Silon Plan. It was introduced in many states under the Silon Plan. The training was imparted in the schools in gardening, growing vegetables, use of new technology, tools and experiments.
- Ayurvedic Medical College:
In 1933 the first Ayurvedic Medical College was affiliated with the Ayurveda Board, Kanpur. It imparted knowledge only in medicines and investigation technique but not in the surgery. Ajrurvedic hospital was opened in Jaipur.
- Ayurvedic Medical Science:
As regards Ayurvedic medical treatment, Maharaja Ramsingh of Jaipur, in co-operation with Dr. Broor opened in 1947 Swai Mansingh Medical college. Prior to it four students from each state as per the quota fixed by the British sovereign were sent for medical studies. In 1894 four girls students were sent for the first time for studies in medicines to Agra Medical College. This was the first step of Rajputana in the field of medical studies for women. In the field of nurse training, there were schools in Bikaner and the Ajmer Medical Home School.
- Law Education:
In 1946 L.L.B classes were started in the Bhupal Nobles College, Udaipur. After the establishment of the Rajasthan University, the proposal to start separate law classes was moved and on the basis of the same the night classes law college was started in Maharaja College. Besides the Bhupal College, law studies were started in four other colleges, namely Law College, Jaipur, Jaswant College, Jodhpur, Raj Rishi College, Alwar and Dungar College, Bikaner.
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