RBSE Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Chapter 3 Resistance and Freedom Struggle Against the British Empire are part of RBSE Solutions for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 10 Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Resistance and Freedom Struggle Against the British Empire.
|Chapter Name||Resistance and Freedom Struggle Against the British Empire|
|Number of Questions Solved||28|
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 10 Social Science Solutions Chapter 3 Resistance and Freedom Struggle Against the British Empire
Textbook Questions Solved
Very Short Answer Type Questions
When was East India Company established?
23rd September 1600 A.D.
When was treaty of Surjigaon Sandhi held and between whom?
Treaty of Surjigaon was held between English and Scindhia when Scindhia was defeated in battle of Lalwadi on 30th December 1803 A.D.
Tipu Sultan was the ruler of which place?
When was Amritsar treaty held?
25th April, 1809 A.D.
Why were Sanyasis annoyed from English?
Sanyasis did pilgrimages regularly along agriculture. They become annoyed due to ban on visiting pilgrimage places.
From which province Vasudev Phadke belong?
Who led the revolt of 1857 in Bihar?
Kunwar Singh, Zamindar of Jagdhishpur
Who was the first Individual Satyagrahi or personal Satyagraha?
When was farmers movements of Bengal started?
Resistance and Freedom Struggle Against the British Empire RBSE Class 10 Social Science Short Answer Type Questions
Illustrate the First Anglo-Maratha Struggle.
First English Maratha War
A struggle was held between English and Marathas from 1775 to 1782 A.D.
Treaty of Badgaon : British were defeated from the organized army of the Marathas and did an insulted treaty of Badgaon on 29th January 1799 A.D.
According to it :
- Regions won by English were returned to Marathas.
- To surrender Raghunath Rao to Poona Darbar.
- To give 41,000 rupees by the British as compensation.
What were the results of forth Anglo-Mysore War?
- Tipu Sultan won Fort of Sri Rangapatnam on 4th May, 1799 A.D.
- Freedom of Mysore was ended.
- Tipu died while struggling.
What is the contribution of Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in freedom struggle?
He was a great revolutionary, great patriot and great organizer. His sacrifice for whole life for the freedom of nation cannot be described in words. People entitled him with the title of Veer’ or he was called Veer Savarkar. He was born on 28 May, 1883 A.D. in village Bhagur (Maharashtra). After matriculation in 1901 took admission in Ferguson college, where he came in the contact of Lokmanya Tilak. At the time of Bengal division, he made bonefire of foreign cloths by making an organization ‘Mitra Mela’ with his companions for which he was rusticated from the college. He was the only revolutionary to whom British gave whole life imprisonment. His book The Indian war of independence’ was banned by the British government. Before publication this book reached to India with different names. He established Abhinav Bharat in 1906 A.D. Sawarkar was the first person who called struggle of 1857 first war of Independence in place of Gadar. He spent long time in cellular Jail of Andaman. Due to unhealthiness in 1924 A.D. he was kept in Ratnagiri. He was released from jail in 1937. He did his best efforts to stop division of India.
Write a short note on champaran farmers movement.
In Champaran District European producer of Indigo put atrocities on Bihar farmers. To oppose it Gandhiji with the help of Rajendra Prasad enquired the real condition of the farmers. He asked farmers for a non-violent movement. Later an enquiry committee was appointed in 1917, on its report Champaran agriculture act was passed. According to it ban was made to compel farmers forcibly to do farming of Indigo.
When was Indian National Congress established and How?
Indian National Congress was the result of political development being held in India after 1858 A.D. It was established by a retired English Indian Civil Service Officer Allen Octavian Hume. The thinking of Brititsh government behind its establishment was to form such an organization, by which British government could know what is inside the mind of Indians beside, it would release the aggression of political leaders and their efforts could be stopped to dismiss British government. So, in 1885 the INC was formed. On 28 December 1885 A.D. in the presidentship of Wyomesh Chandra Bannerjee, a barrister from Bengal, the first session of INC was held in Gokul Das Tejpal Sanskrit College of Bombay in which 72 delegates took part.
Which movement was launched by the Govind Guru?
Bhagat Movement: Govind Guru established samp sabha for the social and moral development of Bhils and established Bhagat Sect to keep them in the limits of Hindu religion. British government expressed the possibility of estabilishing Bhil state behind the organization and reform movement being run by Govind Guru. Govind Guru was arrested on April 1913 by the Dungurpur state but was released later. He went in the Mangarh hills along his companions. He sent a message in October 1913 to collect all Bhils on the hill of Mangarh.
Explain Bijolia Farmers Movement.
It was the pioneer movement of other farmers movements in Rajasthan. Most of the farmers of here were of Dhakad Caste. Bijolia farmers had no complaints against Jagirdars till the dealth of Rao Govind Das in 1894. But the new Jagirdar Krishna Singh (Kishan Singh) changed the policy of Thikanas management and Jagir towards farmers. In 1897 in Girdharpura village at the occasion of Gangaram Dhakad’s death feast thousands of farmers openly discussed about their difficulties and it was informed to Maharana. For the enquiry of the complaints of Lagat and Begar Assistant Revenue officer Hamid Hussain was appointed.
Hamid hussain gave his report against thikana to Mehkma Khas but there was no result of it. From state only one or two lagats were asked to decrease. It boost up the courage of Krishna Singh. Due to different types of Lagats and severe famine of 1899-1900 A.D. (Chapaniya Akal) condition of farmers of Bijoliya was pitty. Chanvari tax was not only burden on Bijolia farmers but socially a great insult. Farmers opposed it saliently and for two years they did not marry their daughters. In 1917 on the day of Hariyali Amavasya by establishing a Uppar Mai Panch Board Organization started the movement under its banner.
Why did Indians oppose Simon Commission?
To analyse the government of India Act. 1919 British government appointed a commission under the presidentship of Sir John Simon in 1927 A.D. it had seven members but no Indian.
Why were Prajamandals established in Rajasthan?
The establishment of Prajamandals was done to establish a responsible government in the Deshi Riyasats of Rajasthan under the guidance of kings. To oppose atrocities and exploitation of Samantaas and high rates of revenue.
Resistance and Freedom Struggle Against the British Empire Class 10 Social Science RBSE Solutions Long Answer Type Questions
Describe the struggle done by Marathas and Mysore with English.
First English Mysore Struggle – In 1761 Haider Ali snatched the power from the king of Mysore, Nandaraj. He declared himself king in 1776 after the death of the king of Mysore. Haider Ali was an obstacle in the imperialistic race of English hence they formed an organization against Haider Ali with Marathas and Nizam, but by diplomacy Haider made Marathas neutral in war and included Nizam in his own side by giving regional allurement. In 1767 A.D. Haider Ali attacked on British occupied regions.
Treaty of Madras – English were defeated they were helpless and did treaty of Madras according to which each had to give back each other’s regions.
Second English Mysore Struggle – English wanted to take revenge of their defeat. Hindu was annoyed with English due to their control over Guntur. Hence Hindu fought with the help of Marathas and Nizam against English in July 1780 A.D. though he was succeeded but died on 7 December 1782 A.D. So, burden came on his son Tipu Sultan.
Treaty of Manglore – Tipu continued war for a year, but after tiring of war after 11 years both the sides did treaty of Manglore and returned each other’s occupied territories. English promised not to influence in Mysore matters.
Third English Mysore war :
- English wanted to end the dominance of Tipu.
- Tipu wanted to buy Dutch Fort, Kagnoor and Icot located in Cochin to secure Malabar.
- The king of Travacore who was in shelter of English purchased these and made Tipu annoyed.
Hence on April 1790 Tipu attacked on Tranvancore. Cornwalls attacked on Mysore with a large army.
Treaty of Sri Rangapatnam – Though Tipu faced the war bravely but he had to sign treaty of Sri Rangapatnam on 23 February 1792 A.D. According to this treaty half of the Mysore and 3 crores were given as war compensation to British. Beside two of his sons were kept with British as prisoners.
Fourth English Mysore War – Lord Wellesly came to India in 1798 A.D. as the Governor of East India Company. He was an imperialistic governor. He decided either to abolish Tipu Sultan completely or to take over control over him completely. So, he -decided to keep a supportive treaty. Tipu rejected it. Hence he started a campaign against Tipu in April 1799 A.D. He won fort of Sri Rangapatnam on 4 May 1799 and freedom of Mysore was ended when Tipu died.
Describe the first war of Independence, 1857 A.D.
There are conflicts regarding the nature of the first war of Independence. While British and European historians called it as a Sipoy mutiny and reaction of Samantaas or results of Muslim conspiracy. It took the form of national revolt and freedom movement. Surendra Nath has written “This war was started in the name of religion and ended in freedom movement”. Dr. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in his book (War of India’s freedom) or war of Indian independence” has told this war as India’s war of independence.
Causes of Struggle for freedom –
- British economic polity
- Lord Dalhousie’s Doctrine of Lapse
- British policy of imperialist expansion
- Social, Religious and Military causes.
Beginning of the freedom struggle and widespread – When soldiers resented the use of greased cartridges with the fat of pig and Low. They were charged of indiscipline and punished. On 29th March 1857, Mangal Pandey a Brahmin sepoy revolted and killed a British officer. British officers broke the 34th V.N.I. Regiment and Indian soldiers were punished.
Meerut – In May 1857, 85 soldiers in the cent refused to use greased cartridges, they were punished with long imprisonment by the military court. On 10th May soldiers revolted openly and killed their officers and freed their friends from the prison and marched towards Delhi.
Delhi – On 12 May they captured Delhi and declared Bahadur Shah II, the Samrat of India. Soon revolt spread in Lucknow, Allaahbad, Kanpur, Bareily, Banaras, some parts of Bihar, Jhansi and in other regions British called army from Punjab to recapture Delhi. September 1857. In this war English officer Lord Sir John Nicholson was killed. Samrat was imprisoned. Lt. Hudson murdered Samrat’s two sons and a grand son with bullets.
Lucknow – On 4th June 1857 revolt held in Lucknow Indian soldiers besieged the British officials in the Residence, in which British Resident Sir Henry Lawrence was shot dead. General Havelock and Outdrum tried to recapture Lucknow but failed. At last in November 1857 A.D. Sir Collin Compbell entered in the city with the help of Gorkha regiment and recaptured Lucknow in 1857 A.D.
Kanpur – On 5 June 1857 revolutionaries captured Kanpur and declared Nana Sahib as Peshwa but General Sir Hume Wheeler who was the commander of Cant surrendered on 27 June. On 6 December 1857 Sir Compbell recaptured Kanpur. Tantia Tope ran away and went to Jhansi.
Central India Jhansi – Revolt occurred in Jhansi in June Rani Laxmi Bai was declared ruler of Riyasat. Sir Heuroz recaptured Jhansi by attacking it in April 1858 Rani and Tantia Tope ran towards Gwalior where Indian soldiers welcomed them, but Scindia remained loyal to British and took shelter in Agra, Rani Laxmi Bai died fighting bravely in the battle field. Tantia Tope was captured with the help of one of the Samantaas of Scindia and sentenced to death by the British.
Describe the mass movements held from from 1919 to 1947 A.D.
Political/Mass movements from 1919-1947
(i) Non-Co-operation and Khilafat Movement : Rowlatt act, Jallianwala Massacre, Report of Hunter committee, division of Turkey, abolition of Khilafa’s post etc. made Gandhiji upset. So, in 1920 Congress decided not to co-operate with injustice government. Under this gave up of Government posts, legislative assemblies, courts, government schools, foreign goods, not paying taxes were included opposite to it establishment of national education institutions, settling mutual disputes by decision of panchas, use of handmade and weaved clothes were works to do. About 3000 people went to Jail. But when this movement was at peak then on 5 february, 1922 in Chauri Chaura in the Gorakhpur district of U.P. police put atrocities on a peaceful procession. The people became violent and burnt the police station in which 21 policemen and one superintendent died.
(ii) Civil Disobedience Movement : On 30 December 1929 A.D. in congress sessions, under the partnership of Jawahar Lai Nehru congress passed the revolution of complete independence.
Dandi March : To achieve the goal of complete independence Gandhiji along 78 members marched towards Dandi village 200 kms away in Gujarat on sea coast on foot from his Sabarmati Ashram on 6th April 1930 after reaching Dandi. He broke the salt law by making it illegally. From this event the civil disobedience Movement began in the whole country.
Gandhi Irwin Pact : On 5 March 1931 Gandhi Irwin Pact was held between British government and congress Viceroy declared that the aim of Indian constitutional development is to provide dominion status to India. Gandhiji took part in first round table conference called for Indian Constitutional reforms and restarted civil disobedience movement in 1932 A.D. He accepted the failure of his movement and resigned from the membership of congress.
Individual/Personal Satyagraha : The Second World War was started. Strikes and demonstrations were going on in different parts of the nation against including Indian in the war. Gandhiji proposed Individual’s Satyagraha in place of Satyagraha which was accepted by the congress. Vinoba Bhave was the first who was punished for three months, Jawahar Lai Nehru second, and Brahamadutta was third. In this Individual Satyagraha 30,000 people were arrested.
(iii) Quit India Movement : The tense atmosphere created by these factors and decision taken by Congress in Wardha session on 14 July 1942 at Bombay in which Gandhijis quit India Resolution was accepted. In his speech Gandhiji gave mantra (Slogan) “Do or Die”. The slogan was aimed at inspiring the Indians to lay down their lives for the cause of the country and break the chins of slaveiy.
Achievement of the Movement – This movement led the path of India’s freedom. It feeling of bravery, courage, excitement and sacrifice for the nation among Indians. A new generation came forward in the country for the leadership which increased in the people the power and strength to struggle. Now India wanted nothing other than complete freedom.
Illustrate the contribution of the Revolutionaries in the struggle of India’s independence.
The revolutionaries wrote history of freedom with blood from later 19th century to 20th century. After revolt of 1857 English re-established their empire but Lord Curzons reactive’s policies compelled Indians for Revolutionary movement. Due to Bang Bhung (Division of Bengal) in 1905 every Indian exploded. The feeling of insult arouse among people due to failure of giving skillful leadership by the leaders to gave them birth to Revolutionary movement.
The revolutionaries believed that what a were the appropriate elements in national life like – religious, and political freedoms, moral values and Indian culture would be destroyed by the foreign rule. All revolutionaries had a sole objective “To make motherland free from Foreign Rule”.
Revolutionary Movement in Maharashtra – The beginning of Revolutionary activity in Maharashtra was started by Vasudev Balwant Phadke a government employee in 1876 A.D. He left British job to remove difficulties of people arouse by severe famine in Maharashtra in 1876 A.D. and gave speeches from place to place to encourage people to root out the British government. Speeches of Phadke spread excitement and in 1879 after arresting Phadke, he was sent in the jail of Adan (Arab Desh) where he died in 1889 A.D.
Murder of Rand by Chapekar Brothers – The Chapekar Brothers of Pune (Maharashtra) – Damodar Hari Chapekar, Balkrishna Hari Chapekar and Vasudev Hari Chapekar gave direction to Revolutionary movement. They formed ‘Hindu security Sabha’ in 1893. Under this banner festivals of Ganesh and Shivaji were started celebrating and arouse the feeling of nationalism among masses.
In 1897 plague spread in Pune like an epidemic. The plague commissioner of Pune Rnad and Leticent Erst instead of helping plague victims was spreading terror. Both these two officers were defame, harsh and of bad conduct. The whole Puna city was frightened of their atrocities. Chapekar brothers murdered both on 22 June 1897. Chapekar brothers were arrested and sentenced to death.
Shyamji Krishna Verma got his education from Cambridge University and became barrister on return back to India by seeing the behavior of English political residants. He determined to make India free and made his activities center in London. He took the initiative of establishing revolutionary organization to get freedom outside the country. In 1905 he organized Bharat self rule Samiti which was named as “India House’. He also started a monthly magazine “India socialism’. He also started fellowship of one thousand for Indians who came to foreign. Revolutionaries like V.D. Sawarkar, Lala Hardayal and Madan Lai Dhingra became the member of it. By seeing the activities of Shyamji Verma. English government started talking action against him. He left India and reached to Paris and continued his activities from there.
Revolutionary Movement in Bengal – In Bengal Revolutionary movement was started by Sri P.Mishra by establishing a revolutionary organization “Anushedan Samiti’. Political awareness in Bengal came after division of Bengal when objective of the movement was not to stop division but to get self nation (Rule).
In 1905 Varindra Kumar Ghosh wrote a book named “Bhawani Mandir’ through which he gave detail information of making revolutionary activities organized in Yugantar and Sandhya magazines thoughts against English were being published. In one more book “Mukti Kaun Pathe” request was made to soldiers to give arms and weapons to Indian Revoltionaries.
Describe farmers’ movements in Rajasthan.
The main causes of the movements were as follows –
- Under the influence of British Rulers did not give notice towards their subject. They thought that their dependence of rulers on Jagirdars and Jagirdars on farmers being ended.
- Increase in Revenue and Begar and Lags in few states was more than 300 Lags,
- Increase in the number of Agriculture labour which resulted in the harshness of Jagirdars.
- Decrease in the prices of agriculture products and increase both were not beneficial to farmers as Jagirdars recovered the revenue in the form of commodities.
- By adopting British administrative arrangements the liberal and ancestral view of Samantaas towards farmers changed.
Bijolia farmers Movement (Bhilwara) – It was the pioneer movement of other farmers movements in Rajasthan. Most of the farmers of here were of Dhakad Caste. Bijolia farmers had no complaints against Jagirdars till the death of Rao Govind Das in 1894.
Sikar Kisan Movement – It was begin due to increase in land revenue from 25-30% by the new Raoraja Kalyan Singh of Sikar Thikana. He made excuse for it expenditure done on ex-Rao Raja’s crimination and coronation of him and assured next year rebate would be given in the Revenue but. He forget his promise in 1923 A.D. In the leadership of Ram Narayan Chaudhary of Rajasthan, Seva Sangh farmers raised their voice.
Farmers movement (Chittorgarh) Bengu – Inspiring from Bijolia farmers movement, farmers of Bengu thikana also started movement in 1921, because people of here too were oppressed by the atrocities of Lag Bag and Lagan. Most of them were of Dhakad caste like Bijoliya. They were also grinding in the mill of Begar, lagan and atrocities of thikanadars.
Barad Farmers Movement (Bundi) – Lagans, Begar and high rates of revenue were the causes of Barad farmers movement also. The opperessive farmers of Barad region of Bundi state joined to boundry of Bijoliya started movement against Bundi administration in April 1922. The leadership of this movement was in the hands to devoted worker of Rajasthan Sewa Sangh Nayanuram Sharma.
Nimuchanna Farmers Movement (Alwar) – There was ban on killing of pigs in Alwar Pigs destroyed the crops of the farmers. So, in 1921 farmers started movement. Due to pressure of farmers movement Maharaja has to give permission to kill the pigs. In 1922 in Alwar after third Bandobast of land in 1923-24 new rates of revenue were imposed. According to it less revenue was taken by the ex Rajputs and Brahmans compared to other castes, but by the new system these special rights were abolished.
Resistance and Freedom Struggle Against the British Empire Class 10 Social Science Rajasthan Board Solutions Additional Questions Solved
Resistance and Freedom Struggle Against the British Empire RBSE Solutions Class 10 Social Science Very Short Answer Type Questions
When did the battle of Plassey occur?
23rd June 1757 A.D.
When did war of Buxar held and between whom?
On 22 October 1764 A.D. it was held between Mir Quasim and British.
Resistance and Freedom Struggle Against the British Empire RBSE Class 10 Social Science Solutions Short Answer Type Questions
What was the nature or form of India’s first war of Independence?
There are conflicts regarding the nature of the first war of Independence. While British and Europian historians called it as a Sipoy mutiny and reaction of Samantaas or results of Muslim conspiracy. On the other hand Indian historians and intellectuals considered it that it started as a military revolt which soon took the form a wide mass movement. Later it took the form of national revolt and freedom movement. Surendra Nath has written “This war was started in the name of religion and ended in freedom movement”. Dr. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in his book (War of India’s freedom) or war of Indian independence” has told this war as India’s war of independence.
Resistance and Freedom Struggle Against the British Empire Class 10 Social Science RBSE Solutions Long Answer Type Questions
Describe Sikh-Anglo War.
Cause – Imperialistic policy and divide and rule policy of English become the cause of first English Sikh war. On 13 December 1845 Lord Harding declared war against Sikhs after first encounter.
Sabrao War – A war of verdict in the English held on 10 february 1846 Lahore went under the control of British.
Teaty of Lahore – It was held on 1 March 1846 A.D. according to which Jalandhar Doab was included in British empire and Sikhs had to pay one crore and 50 lacs to English as war compensation. Sikh army was made limited Harding wanted control over Punjab administration till Dalip Singh become mature (Adult).
Supplementary treatay of Bhaironwal – It was done on 26 December 1846 A.D. by which English become the master of one part of Punjab.
Second English Sikh Battle and merger of Punjab in British empire –
Causes – In 1847-48 such reforms were made by the English in Punjab when all were against Sikhs. Unrest among soldiers who were freed form military, snatch of Rani Jinda’s rights and her wish of taking revenge. Excessive interference of the resident in internal matters, Dalhousie’s wish of English administration over Punjab made the English Sikh war compulsory. On 10 October, 1848 by the declaration of last war with the Sikhs by Dalhousie battle was started and with the surrender of Sher Singh, Chattar Singh and Mulraj war was ended on 13 March, 1849 A.D. Dalhousie merged Punjab in British India by a declaration made by him on 29 March 1849 A.D. By this declaration the free status of Punjab was ended.
Describe the Tribals movements.
Causes of Tribals Movements –
- Loss of freedom by the tribal people
- Influence of foreign in self rule
- Changes in administration
- Demand of excess taxes
- Dissolve of economic system, etc. are considered the main causes.
- Tribal Revolt in Bengal and East India.
(i) Sanyasi Revolt : There was a severe famine occurred in Bengal after the establishment of British rule in Bengal in 1769-1770 A.D. Beside English charged taxes harshly. Sanyasis did Pilgrimages regularly along agriculture, they become annoyed due to ban on visiting Pilgrimage places. Sanyasis also had tradition to fight against injustice. So, they joined hands with common people and plundered wealth of company by attacking on their kothis and treasures. They fought against company’s soldiers but Warren Hastings suppressed the revolt after a long campaign which is illustrated in ‘Anand Math’ novel of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee.
Kol Revolt : Causes – Administrative complexity
Rigid taxation system (Revenue)
Behaviour of ignorance of local rulers towards people and exploitation gave birth to Kol Revolt. It become aggressive when their land was snatched from their chief and given to outsider in 1831 A.D. A great violence occurred during this revolt. It spread in Ranchi, Singhbhum, Hajari Bagh, Palamau and western region of Manbhumi. After a wide military action peace was established here. The president of the council Metcouf located at Calcutta accepted that a feeling of oppose towards British was clearly seen in this revolt.
Santhal Revolt : It was an important revolt which begun between 1855-56. The leadership and organization could be seen at a level of an organized manner. It was spread in Veer Bhumi, Bakura, Singhbhum, Hajari Bagh, Bhagalpur and Mahajans.
Causes – Revenue, misbehavior of officers, repression policy of police forcefully recovery of tax by the landlords and Mahajans.
Leadership : It was led by two brothers Sindhu and Kanhu. They declared the end of company rule and themselves independent rulers. After a wide military action things were under control in 1856 A.D. and government had to form an independent and separate Santhal Pargana.
Bhil Revolt : Bhil tribe lived in District Khandesh at west coast. They revolted against their new master (English) from 1812-19. It was considered by the company officials that this revolt was encouraged by the Peshwa Baji Rao II and his representative Trik bakji Dangaliya.
Causes – The main cause was difficulties related to agriculture and fear from the new government.
Many English Batalians were indulged to crush them. They again revolted in 1825 under the leadership of Sevram also revolts were made in 1831 and 1846.
Ramosi Revolt : It was a tribe living in west coast. They were displeased with English administrative system and administration. In 1822 they revolted under the leadership of their chief Chittar Singh and plundered the regions nearby Satara. English become successful to suppress these revolts by large military action.
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