Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Biology Chapter 26 Zoology: An Introduction
RBSE Class 11 Biology Chapter 26 Multiple Choice Objective Questions
Paleontology deals with the study of
(3) Extincted animals
Term “Biology” was propound by
(1) Darwin & Treviranus
(2) Lamarek & Treviranus
(3) Darwin & Wallace
(4) Lamarck &Darwin
Who is known as Father of Zoology
Study of interaction between animals & environment
Branch of zoology that deals with heredity
Who propounded “concept of species”
(1) John Ray
Who is called as Father of medical science
(4) Willium Harvey
Dr Lalji Singh contributed in the field of
(3) DNA fingerprinting
Who is called as Father of Modern Embryology?
(4) Von Baer
Who make a Clone of sheep for the first time
(1) Ian Wilmut
(2) De Vries
RBSE Class 11 Biology Chapter 26 Very Short Answer Questions
Name the book written by Aristotle.
Who discovered blood circulatory system?
Name the Father of modem embryology.
Paleontology deals with the study of?
Which branch deals with the study of improvement of human race?
RBSE Class 11 Biology Chapter 26 Short Answer Questions
Systematic study of the animals is called as classification. The study of classification and nomenclature of the animals is called as taxonomy.
Who rediscovered the discovery of Mendel?
Mendel’s laws of inheritance were rediscovered by Hugo De vries. Karl correns and Frich von Tschermak (1900).
Differentiate pure & applied zoology.
Pure & Applied Zoology
- Pure Zoology – When zoology is studied simply for the growth of knowledge. It includes all the above branches.
- Applied Zoology – When zoology is studied for economic importance i.e.for the welfare of human beings. Such as Animal husbandry. Apiculture, Pisciculture. Poultry, Sericulture, Piggery etc.
Name any four Zoologists worked after 16th century.
Lamarck. Von Baer. Charis Darwin. G.J. Mendel
Explain the importance of Zoology in human welfare
Knowledge of zoology is of much importance in Human health. Agriculture, Livestock breeding. Industrial growth. Superstitions prevention etc.
RBSE Class 11 Biology Chapter 26 Essay Type Questions
Write the names & definition of various branches of zoology
The researches using modern techniques and electron microscope widely enriched the zoology. The some of the main branches are as follows-
- Taxonomy – Systematic study of the animals is called as classification. The study of classification and nomenclature of the animals is called as taxonomy.
- Morphology – It deals with the study of size and external features of the animals
- Anatomy – The study of internal structure of the animals. The study of internal tissues is called as histology.
- Genetics – Study of the process of transmission of Characters (genes) from generation to generation is called as genetics.
- Physiology- The study of functioning of body organs and organ system is called as physiology. Such as physiology of digestion, respiration etc.
- Embryology – It deals with the study of embryonic development i.e. formation of young one from the
- Evolution – This branch deals with the process of origin of life, origin of species and differentiation.
- Ecology – Study of interaction between animals and their environment
- Biotechnology – The exploitation of biological processes, especially the genetic manipulation (DNA trimming) of organisms to obtain desired products.
- Paleontology – The study of fossils is called as paleontology. The preserved remains or traces of animals, plants & other organisms from the remote past are called as fossils.
- Zoo-geography – Study of geographical distribution of the animals on the earth.
- Eugenics – The study of improvement of human race with the help of genetics is called as eugenics. This term was coined by Sir Francis Galton.
Describe in brief the history of Zoology.
History of Zoology
Since ancient time, man used the animal in various ways. It is evident by the animal figures engraved on the walls of the caves (mural painting) and on the earthen pots.
Legendary hindu scriptures such as Ved (2500 BC), Ramayana (1900 BC), Mahabharata (1400 BC). Upanishads etc. also reveal detailed account of the animals. For example, an account of animals like Golden deer. Jatayu (Vulture). Wanner (Monkeys), Bhalu (Bear) is found in Ramayana. Similarly, illustration of animals was made as vehicles of hindu God and Godesss such as Rat for Lord Ganesha; Lion for Maa Kali (power); Peacock for Lord kartikay; Bull and Snake round the neck of Lord Shiva, Garud (Bird) for Lord Vishnu. Moreover, the illustration of cows along with Lord Krishna shows the importance & knowledge of the animals.
In the ancient Chikitsagranth & Ayurveda , the organisms were classified into four groups on the basis of their origin viz. – origin from uterus, origin from eggs, origin from heat & moisture and origin from seeds.
Ancient Indian healer & surgeon Sushruta (sixth century before BC) wrote an Ayurveda text “Sushrut Samhita “ mentioning 700 medicinal plants, 57 procedures based on animal sources & 64 mineral based sources.
In Ramayana Susen Vaidva treated Laxman using the medicinal plant called “Sanjivani”
Many philosophers of ancient Greek informed about animals but the first article on the animals was found in a “Greek Chikitsa Granth” of 51,1 century’ in which animal were classified on the basis of their use.
Hippocrates (460-370 BC) wrote the first article on human diseases. He is called as Father of Medical Science. Aristotle (384 – 322BC) wrote a book “Historia Animalia” in which structure, habit., classification reproduction etc of 500 animals were described. Aristotle was first to studied embry onic development in the eggs of hen. Aristotle is called as Father of Zoology and Father of Embrylogy.
Galen (130 to 200 BC) was first to made experimental study on the physiology of the visceral organs of animals. He is called as father of experimental physiology. After this no growth of science took place for about 1000 years. This period is called as dark period of science. Alberts Magnus (1200 to 1280) wrote a book entitled “on the structure of human body” in 1543. He is called as Father of modern anatomy
Willian Harvey (1578 to 1655) studied blood v ascular system. Z. Janssen (1540) was first to made light compound microscope. M. Malpighi (1628 to 1994) made microscopic studies on blood & tissues. He studied chick embryology and discovered malpighian capsule in the kidney s of vertebrates. He is called as Father of microscopical anatomy
John Ray (1627 – 1705) classified insects, reptiles & quadrupedals (cattles). He propounded “Biological concept of species”
Antony Van Leeuwenhoek (1632 – 1723) Studies sperms, blood corpuscles, muscles, protozoans etc. He is called as Father of Microbiology
Leonardo da Vinci (1690) studied the fossils and he is called as Father of paleontology.
Cuvier (1769 – 1832) established comparative anatomy and paleontology.
Lamarck (1744 – 1829) studied “inheritance of acquired characters” concern to evolution. He wrote a book entitled Philosophic Zoologique in 1809.
Von Baer (1792 to 1876) studied comparative embryology. He is called as Father of modern embryology.
Charls Darwin (1809 – 1882) formulated “Theory of Natural Selection” concern to evolution. He wrote a book entitled “Origin of Species” which became more popular than holly text “Bible”
Gregor John Mendel (1822-1884) was first to study hereditary characters, and his work is popular as Mendelism. He is called as Father of Genetics
Hugo De Vries (1902) propounded mutation theory to explain evolution.
T.H.Morgen (1933) established Chromosome theory of Heredity. He showed that genes are linked in a series on the chromosomes and are hereditary traits. For this work he was awarded Nobel Prize.
A.I.Oparin (1957-1968) propounded experimental theory pertaining to origin of life on the earth.
Dr. Hargovind Khorana was a scientist of Indian origin. In 1968, he synthesized the gene artificially & he was awarded Noble prize.
Stanley Cohen & Herbert Boyer (1973) discovered recombination DNA technology. He is called as Father of Biotechnology. Ian Wilmut (1996) was first scientist to make a clone of sheep.
What is importance of study of Zoology?
Zoology is of much importance for human welfare and it is useful in the following fields –
1. Human Health –
Zoology helps to study anatomy physiology of various body oi’gans. It helps to protect from the parasites infecting human beings by studying the habit, structure & physiology of these pathogens. For example, malaria fever is caused by Plasmodium which is spreaded by female Anopheles. The study of Plasmodium & Anopheles help to control malaria. Zoology help to protect from Plague, Amoebiasis, Kala azar, Sleeping sickness, Bacterial diseases, Viral diseases.
2. Agricultural Importance –
Zoology help to study the useful & harmful animals (pests) concern to agriculture. Such as earthworm makes the soil fertile & it is called as friend of farmers. Many insects help in pollination. The study of the pests help to protect the crops from various diseases.
3. Importance in Industrial development –
Many animal products are used as decorative items and are prepared in small to large industries such as Leather, Pearl, Lac, Silk, Sponge, Homs, Feathers, Molluscan shells etc
Pisciculture, Poultry, Sericulture, Apiculture etc. are developed as big industries. Zoology helps in the development of such industries by providing detail knowledge of the concern animal.
4. Conservation of animals –
Study of zoology help to conserve the species of animals which are endangered and are at the verge of extinction by creating wild life sanctuaries and national parks.
5. Environmental balance –
Zoology helps to study the interaction between the living systems (biotic systems) and the environmental factors (Abiotic systems). The animals establish coordination with the environment for better survivability .
6. Importance in livestock breeding –
Since ancient time, the useful animals are domesticated and are used for human welfare. Such as Cow, Goat. Ox, Horse, Donkey, Mule etc. are used widely by the human being.
7. Superstition prevention –
There are many superstitions in the society concern to the animals. The zoological studies of such animals help to eradicate such evils among the societies.
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