## Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 4 Meaning and Definition of Statistics

### RBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 4 Text book Questions

#### RBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 4 Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.

In plural form, Statistics refers to :

(a) Statistical Science

(b) Data

(c) Statistical measures

(d) All of the above

Answer:

(b) Data

Question 2.

Statistics is :

(a) A science of counting

(b) A science of presumption and projections

(c) A science of interpretation and analysis of data

(d) All of the above

Answer:

(c) A science of interpretation and analysis of data

Question 3.

“Statistics is a science of counting or possibility”. This definition has been given by:

(a) Bowley

(b) Crowden

(c) John Griffin

(d) Pearson

Answer:

(a) Bowley

#### RBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 4 Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.

Write down the meaning of statistics.

Answer:

Statistics are those rules that relate to meaningful numbers.

Question 2.

Write the meaning of statistics in plural form.

Answer:

In plural form statistics means group of numerical facts or data which can be used to draw some conclusions.

Question 3.

Write down the meaning of data.

Answer:

Data is a numerical or non-numerical transcript of facts, observation and things.

Question 4.

Mention any two limitations of statistics.

Answer:

Following are the two limitations of statistics

- Study of numerical facts only.
- Study of groups, and not of individual units.

Question 5.

In which areas is applied statistics used?

Answer:

Applied statistics is used in economics, commerce, social science, biology, psychology, etc.

Question 6.

Who is regarded as the Father of Statistics?

Answer:

Gottfried Achenwall.

Question 7.

Define statistics in singular form.

Answer:

Statistics in the science which deals with the method of collecting, classifying, presenting, comparing and interpreting numerical data to throw some light on any sphere of enquiry.

#### RBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 4 Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.

What do you mean by statistics?

Answer:

The word statistics is used in two forms:

- Singular
- Plural

In singular form, statistics means statistical science, whereas in plural form it means data.

Statistics is the science which investigates the methods to collect, classify, present, compare and interpret the data collected to highlight a topic.

Question 2.

Describe the scope of statistics in brief.

Answer:

The area of statistics was limited in ancient times. But the area of statistics in the modem era has become very extensive. The subject matter of statistics is divided into 2 areas-

- Statistical Methods :

Data is collected with the help of statistical methods and they are made comparble and understandable by suitable presentation. This helps in arriving at right conclusions. - Applied Statistics :

The techniques of using theoretical methods in practice are studied in applied statistics. Applied statistics is used in the objective study of economics, commerce, sociology, administration, etc.

Question 3.

Explain the various statistical methods?

Answer:

Data is compiled with the help of statistical methods, and by presenting them in an appropriate manner they are made comparable and understandable. It helps in arriving at right conclusions. Statistical methods include compilation of data, classification of data, tabulation, presentation, analysis, interpretation, prediction, which work in a fixed pattern.

Question 4.

Describe any two limitations of statistics.

Answer:

Following are the two limitations of statistics

- Study of numeric facts only :

Statistics performs the study of numeric facts only. It does not study qualitative facts, therefore, under statistics, study of only such facts is done, which can be expressed in the form of numbers, such as, age, height, production, price, wages, etc. Analytical study of facts which express qualitative aspect, such as health, intelligence level, poverty, etc. is not done in statistics. - Statistical principles prove to be true only in an average form and for a long-term period :

Statistical principles are not completely true like the principles of physics, chemistry or astronomy and they are not applicable always and under all circumstances. They are applicable only in an average form in groups and in the long term.

Question 5.

Explain the relation of statistics with economics in brief.

Answer:

Statistics and economics are closely related. Statistical data is in the root of various theories and principles of economics. Statistics has proved to be very significant in both theoretical and applied form of economics. Accession-deduction system which is used to examine economic principles is based on statistics itself. In economics, presentation of theory of population, theory of currency measurement, theory of distribution, etc. has been possible due to statistics itself and their examination is possible only through statistical methods.

#### RBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 4 Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.

Give the meaning of statistics and describe its scope.

Answer:

Statistics is a word of English language. The word ‘statistics’ has originated from the English word ‘state’. In Latin language, the word ‘state’ is called status, in Roman language it is called stato, in German language it is called statistic and in Italian language it is called statista. The meaning of all these words is ‘state’. State has been deeply related with statistics. This word has been used many times for a person who excels in the work of dominion. In India, use of statistics is found in various ancient treatises such as Kautilya’s Arthashastra.

The English word ‘statistics is used in Hindi in context of Information, Data, sampling and presentation. In simple terms, it means data. Second use of the word ‘statistics’ is related to those methods, that are used in the statistics. It includes every theory and device that are used in compiling the quantitative details, their analysis and interpretation. Second use of the word statistics is done in the form of plurality or in the form of data. Example – Population in form of data.

Scope of Statistics :

In ancient time, the scope of statistics was extremely limited. Statistic originated in the form of science of kings. But in modem time, scope of this science became extremely broad. In fact, statistical procedures are largely used in the form of a resource in every branch of science. While earlier, statistics was used to study and analyse affairs of the state, to ensure better planning and administration, its scope has now spread to agriculture, biology, business, chemistry, communications, economics, education, medicine, psychology, sociology and many other fields of study. It is right to say that science is incomplete without statistics and statistics is incomplete without science. The subject matter of statistics is divided into two parts-

I. Statistical Methods :

Data is collected with the help of statistical methods and it is made comparable and understandable by presenting it in an appropriate form. This also helps in arriving at reasonable conclusions. The following tasks are included in statistical methods:

- Collection of data :

This refers to ensuring that from where, to what extent and in which way should data be collected for. research purpose. - Classification of data :

Dividing data into different categories such as age, weight, place, colour, caste, etc, in order to make data comparable and understandable. - Tabulation :

Data is presented in arranged form. Arranged data or figures are written in rows or columns. - Presentation :

Arranged data is presented through graphs and diagrams to make them easy, well-arranged and comparable, so that they leave an impression on the mind. - Analysis :

Data is analyzed using various statistical procedures, such as measures of central tendency, hypothesis, correlation, etc. - Interpretation :

In context to the issue of examination of interpretation, it is interpreted whether the two given facts are correlated or not. - Forecasting :

On the basis of analysis of the past and the present, forecasting is done about the future and predictions are made.

II. Applied Statistics :

Statistical methods provide theoretical knowledge. Study regarding how to use statistical methods in practical form is done in applied statistics. For example, data associated with population, national income, industrial production, price, wages, etc. are included in applied statistics. Applied statistics is used in the with economics, commerce, social science, biology, psychology, etc.

Applied statistics is divided into two parts:

- Descriptive Statistics :

Study of data collected in the past and present in context to a region is done. - Scientific Applied Statistics :

In this, applied data is collected with the objective of presentation of certain scientific rules of different subjects.

Question 2.

Explain statistics in brief. Describe its relation with economies.

Answer:

Statistics is a word of English language. The word ‘statistics’ is originated from the English word ‘state’. In Latin language, the word state is called status, in Roman language it is called stato, in German language it is called statistic and in Italian language it is called statista. The meaning of all these words is ‘state’. State has been deeply related with statistics. This word has been used many times for a person who excels in the work of dominion.The English word ‘statistics’ is used in the following forms – information (data), statistics and sampling. In common usage, this is in context to information. Another meaning of statistics is in the context of those procedures or methods which are used in statistics. Under this, all those principles and devices are included which are used to collect quantitative information, and perform analysis and interpretation.

Relationship between Statistics and economics :

Statistics and economics are closely related. Statistical data is in the root of various theories and principles of economics. Professor Marshall has written, “Data refers to those particles, using which just like every economist, I (economic principles) also have to make bricks.” Statistics has proved to be very significant in both, theoretical and applied form of economics.

Accession-regulation system which is used to examine economic principles is based on statistics itself. In economics, presentation of theory of population, theory of currency measurement, theory of distribution, etc. has been possible due to statistics itself and their examination is possible only through statistical methods. In applied economics, statistical data is essentially present in formation of schemes of national development and in evaluation of their progress. Pictures and graphs are used to exhibit the success of programmes.

Question 3.

Define statistics. Describe the limitations of statistics.

Answer:

There are several definitions of statistics. In 1869, Quetelet made a list of 180 definitions of statistics. In the preface of his book, John Griffin has written, “ It is not easy to define statistics”. Even till today, there is lack of a universally popular definition of statistics”.

According to Bouley :

“Statistics is the science of counting”. At another place, Bouley has written that, “ In appropriate form, statistics can be called as the science of proposition”.

In words of Boddinglon :

“Statistics is the science of researches and probabilities”.

According to Seligman :

“Statistics is the science which deals with the methods of collecting, classifying, presenting, comparing and interpreting numerical data collected to throw some light on any sphere of enquiry”. In the field of statistics, this definition is regarded as a broad definition.

It is clear from all the above definitions that just like economics, dispute regarding the definition of the subject also exists in statistics. This dispute also arises because it is not easy to provide an ideal definition of statistics.

Though statistics is of immense importance, at the same time it suffers from various limitations. These limitations are explained below

- Study of numerical facts only :

Statistics performs the study of numerical facts only. It does not study qualitative facts. Therefore, under statistics, study of only such facts is done, which can be expressed in the form of numbers, such as age, height, production, price, wages, etc. Analytical study of facts which expresses qualitative aspect such as health, intelligence level, poverty, etc. is not done in statistics. - Study of groups and not of individual units :

Under statistics, study of collective characteristics of statistical facts, such as per capita income of a country is done. This average per capita income throws light only on collective characteristics. - Not the only method for study of problems :

Statistical method is not the only method for study of problems. It should not be assumed that statistical method is the only method to ideally solve any type of problem. Conclusions derived from statistical method should be regarded to be correct only when they are proved with the help of other methods, such as deductive reasoning or any other related facts. - Conclusions which are obtained can be misleading :

In order to understand statistical conclusions in an appropriate way, it is important to perform a study of their contexts also, otherwise they can prove to be quite misleading. - Statistical principles prove to be true only in an average form and in a long-term context :

Statistical principles are not completely true like the principles of physics, chemistry or astronomy and they are not applicable always and under all circumstances. They are applicable only in an average form in groups and in the long term. - Only experts should use it :

Only those experts, who have a thorough knowledge of statistical methods should perform the task of collection, analysis and interpretation of data. Unqualified and incapable people remain unable to derive conclusions from given data, or they derive incorrect conclusions.

Question 4.

Define statistics. Describe the role of statistics in economics.

Answer:

There are several definitions of statistics. In 1869, Quetelet made a list of 180 definitions of statistics. In the preface of his book, John Griffin has written, “It is not easy to define statistics”. Even till today, there is lack of a universally popular definition of statistics”.

According to Bouley :

“Statistics is the science of counting”. At another place, Bouley has written that, “In appropriate form, statistics can be called as the science of proposition”.

In words of Boddinglon :

“Statistics is the science of researches and probabilities”.

According to Seligman :

“Statistics is the science which deals with the methods of collecting classifying, presenting, comparing and interpreting numerical data collected to throw some light on any sphere of enquiry”.

Role of Statistics in Economics :

Statistics and economics are closely related. Statistical data is in the root of various theories and principles of economics. Statistics has proved to be very significant in both, theoretical and applied form of economics. Accession-regulation system which is used to examine economic principles is based on statistics itself. In economics, presentation of theory of population, theory of currency measurement, theory of distribution, etc. has been possible due to statistics itself and their examination is possible only through statistical methods. Pictures and graphs are used to monitor and exhibit the success of programmes.

Professor Bouly has written that, “No student of economics can claim to possess complete knowledge unless and until he is an expert in statistical procedures.”

### RBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 4 Other Important Questions

#### RBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 4 Objective Type Questions

Question 1.

In Italian language, ‘statistics’ is called

(a) STATISTICS

(b) STATISTIC

(c) STATISTA

(d) All of these

Answer:

(c) STATISTA

Question 2.

The word ‘Statistics’ was first used in

(a) 1749

(b) 1759

(c) 1748

(d) 1740

Answer:

(a) 1749

Question 3.

Into how many parts is the subject matter of statistics divided?

(a) Three

(b) Two

(c) Four

(d) Five

Answer:

(b) Two

Question 4.

“Statistics is a science of estimates and possibilities”. This definition is given by

(a) Bouley

(b) Seligman

(c) Boddinglon

(d) Spearman

Answer:

(c) Boddinglon

Question 5.

Classified numerical data are written’ in rows and columns in

(a) Presentation

(b) Tabulation

(c) Interpretation

(d) Classification of data

Answer:

(b) Tabulation

Question 6.

How many parts of applied statistics are there

(a) Two

(b) Three

(c) One

(d)Five

Answer:

(a) Two

#### RBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 4 Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.

The word ‘statistics’ is derived from which word of the English language?

Answer:

The word ‘Statistics’ is derived from the word ‘State’.

Question 2.

What is ‘state’ called in the Latin language?

Answer:

Status.

Question 3.

What is the ‘state’ called in the German language?

Answer:

Statistik.

Question 4.

Statistics has a close relationship with whom?

Answer:

With state.

Question 5.

In which ancient book of India, the use of Statistics is found?

Answer:

Kautilya’s ‘Arthashastra’.

Question 6.

Founder of statistics was the resident of which country?

Answer:

Germany.

Question 7.

Who is regarded as the Father of Statistics?

Answer:

Gottfried Achenwall.

Question 8.

When was the word “statistics” first used?

Answer:

In 1749.

Question 9.

In how many ways is the word “statistics” word used in Hindi?

Answer:

In Three Ways.

Question 10.

What is data?

Answer:

Data is the collection of facts in the form of numbers.

Question 11.

Into how many parts is the subject matter of statistics divided?

Answer:

Into two parts.

Question 12.

Applied statistics is divided into how many parts?

Answer:

Into two parts.

Question 13.

Knowledge based on which facts is considered to be real and actual?

Answer:

The knowledge based on numerical facts is considered to be real and actual.

Question 14.

In the state, on what basis is the information about social, economic and political problems available?

Answer:

In the state, information about social, economic and political problems is available only on the basis of numerical interpretation.

Question 15.

In Kautilya’s Arthashastra, many facts are related to statistics. Clarify it.

Answer:

In Kautilya’s Arthashastra, many facts related to the governance, social order, warfare, etc. are related to statistics.

Question 16.

What is the ‘State’ called in the Roman language and Italian language?

Answer:

State is called ‘Stato’ in Roman language and ‘Statista’ in Italian language.

Question 17.

What are the uses of ‘Statistics’ in Hindi?

Answer:

There are three use of Statistics in Hindi. These are numerical data, statistics and sampling.

Question 18.

In which two parts is the subject matter of Statistics divided?

Answer:

- Statistical Methods
- Applied Statistics. .

Question 19.

How is the study of theoretical methods implemented in practice? Where is it studied?

Answer:

The implementation of theoretical methods in practice is studied in applied statistics.

Question 20.

In which fields of study is applied statistics used?

Answer:

Applied statistics is used in the study of economics, commerce, social science, administration, biology, psychology, etc.

Question 21.

Name two parts of Applied Statistics?

Answer:

Following are the two parts of Applied Statistics

- Descriptive Statistics
- Scientific Applied Statistics.

Question 22.

Write any two limitations of Statistics.

Answer:

Following are the two limitations of Statistics :

- Study of numerical facts only.
- Study of groups and not of individual units.

#### RBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 4 Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.

Give the views of British scholar Lord Kelvin in relation to Statistics.

Answer:

British Scholar Lord Kelvin has written about Statistics, “If you can measure the subject which you are talking about and express it in numbers, then only you know something about it. But if you cannot measure it or express it in numbers, then your knowledge about that subject is less and unsatisfactory in nature”.

Question 2.

Why is ‘Statistical Science’ called the ‘Science of the State’?

Answer:

Since statistical science is based on the data of state policies, therefore it is called science of the state mechanism or the science of emperors. The king collects data on various subjects and on the basis of that data he takes decisions and makes future polices.

Question 3.

The word ‘Statistics’ was first used where, when and by whom?

Answer:

The word ‘Statistics’ was first used by German scholar and mathematician Gottfried Achenwall in 1749 in Germany.

Question 4.

What are the reasons for more extensive use of data in the modern age?

Answer:

The reasons for the more extensive use of data in the modem age are as follows

- At present, demand for data is increasing.
- Conclusions based on data, saves time and labour.
- The use of statistical methods has reduced the cost of research work.

Question 5.

Which methods of statistics are considered to be the second meaning of statistics?

Answer:

The second meaning of the word “statistics” implies those methods used in statistics, under which all principles and tips come which are used to compile the details of quantity analysis and interpretation.

Question 6.

Define statistics according to Seligman.

Answer:

According to Seligman, “Statistics is the science which deals with the method of collection, classifying, presenting, comparing and interpreting numerical data collected to throw some light on any sphere of enquiry”.

Question 7.

Describe the relationship between statistics and science by describing the scope of statistics.

Answer:

The scope of statistics was very limited in ancient times. Statistics originated in the form of science of kings. But in the modem era the field of this science has become very extensive. In fact, statistical methods are widely used in every science as an instrument. It is true that science is incomplete without statistics and statistics without science.

Question 8.

What are statistical methods?

Answer:

Data is compiled with the help of statistical methods and by presenting them in an appropriate form, they are made comparative and understandable. It also helps in getting the right conclusions. The task is completed easily and time and labour is also saved.

Question 9.

What are the functions carried out under statistical methods?

Answer:

The following functions are carried out under statistical methods

- Collection of data
- Classification of data
- Presentation
- Tabulation
- Analysis
- Interpretation
- Forecasting

Question 10.

What is studied in applied statistics?

Answer:

The techniques of using theoretical methods in practice are studied in applied statistics. Applied statistics is used in the study of economics, commerce, sociology, administration, biology, psychology, etc., i.e. it tells about the use of the principles of statistics, therefore it is an experimental part of statistics.

Question 11.

Explain both parts of applied statistics.

Answer:

Applied statistics is divided into two parts

- Descriptive Statistics :

Under this, study of data collected in the past and present in context to a region is done. - Scientific Applied Statistics :

Under this, applied data is collected with the objective of presentation of certain scientific rules of different subjects. Example : study of law of demand, trade cycles, etc.

Question 12.

Explain any two limitations of statistics.

Answer:

Following are the two limitation of statistics

- Study of only numerical facts only :

Statistics studies only the quantitative data. It does not study qualitative data. Therefore, only those problems are studied which can be expressed in numerical terms only. - Study of group and not of individual units :

Under statistics, the characteristics of a group are studied. Example : average income per person of a country. This type of information throws light on the collective characteristics.

Question 13.

“The methods of statistics in the hands of an unqualified and incapable person are very disastrous weapons.” Clarify.

Answer:

With statistical methods, unqualified and incapable people will not be able to arrive at conclusions or might arrive at the wrong conclusions. Therefore Yule and Kendall have stated,” Statistical procedures in the hand of unqualified persons prove to be disastrous weapons.

Question 14.

How are statistical methods not the only method to study problem?

Answer:

Statistical procedure is not the only procedure of study of problems. Conclusions derived from statistical procedure should be regarded to be correct only when this is proved with the help of other procedures such as deductive reasoning or any other related facts.

Question 15.

Clarify that Statistics is the study of groups, not of individual units.

Answer:

Under statistics, study of collective characteristics of statistical facts, such as per capita income of a country is done. This average per capita income throws light only on collective characteristics. It does not throw light on personal income of individuals, such as the poor, beggars, the rich, etc. .

#### RBSE Class 11 Economics Chapter 4 Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.

What is the importance of Statistics in the present era? State the importance of Statistics in Economics.

Answer:

Importance of Statistics in the Present Era In the era of modem civilization, the importance of statistics is constantly increasing. There is hardly any area of life where statistics is not used in some form. That is why statistics is used to solve economic, social and political problems. Not only this, in the scientific, administrative and other analysis also, statistics is playing a significant role.

I. Dr. Bowley has clearly stated the knowledge of statistics is like the knowledge of a foreign language or Algebra, that can useful at any time or at any given situation. The statement of Prof. Walker is seemingly true that, “Our culture has become a statistical culture to a shocking state.”

Clarifying the importance of statistics, Sakraist has stated, “There is hardly any problem related to trade, social policy or state, which do not require statistics to deal with”.

II. Importance of Statistics in Economics :

Statistics has an important place in economics. Statistical methods prove to be very useful in understanding, analyzing and finding the solution of various economic problems. Statistical policies also have a lot of use in the creation of various rules of economics. Explaining its significance in economics, Marshall has said that “Data refers to those particles, using which just like every economist, I also have to make bricks”. With the help of statistics different problems of each sector of economics consumption, exchange, distribution, and revenue are studied and their solutions are searched.

Question 2.

What is meant by Statistical Methods? Explain the functions of Statistical Methods.

Answer:

Statistical Methods :

Data is collected with the help of statistical methods and it is made comparable and understandable by presenting it in an appropriate form. This also helps in arriving at reasonable conclusions. Therefore, the following tasks are included in statistical methods:

- Collection of data :

This refers to ensuring that from where, to what extent and in which way should data be collected for research purpose. - Classification of data :

Dividing data into different categories such as age, weight, place, colour, caste, etc, in order to make data comparable and accessible. - Tabulation :

Data is presented in arranged form. Arranged data or figures are written in rows or columns. - Presentation :

Arranged data is presented through graphs and diagrams to make them easy-to-understand well-arranged and comparable, so that they leave an impression on the mind. - Analysis :

Data is analyzed using various statistical procedures, such as measures of central location, hypothesis, correlation, etc. - Interpretation :

In context to the issue of examination of interpretation, it is interpreted whether the two given facts are correlated or not. - Forecasting :

On the basis of analysis of the past and the present, forecasting is done about the future, and predictions are made.

## Leave a Reply