Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 2 Major Religions of the World
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 2 Text Book Questions and Answers
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 2 Very Short Answer Type Questions
Which texts are included in Vedic literature?
In Vedic literature, the four Vedas associated with them are included along with the Brahmana texts, Aranyakas, Upanishads, Sutra texts and the six Vedanga.
Which is the oldest Vedas?
‘Rig-Veda’ is the oldest Veda.
Which are the Panch Mahayajna?
The Panch Mahayajna are :
- Brahma Yajna,
- Dev Yajna,
- Bhoot Yajna,
- Pitra Yajna,
- Nri Yajna.
Where did Mahaveer Swami get the supreme knowledge?
Answer: Mahaveer Swami got the supreme knowledge on the banks of Rijupalika river near Rijupolika village under a Saal tree.
Which are the ‘Panch Mahavratas’ of Jainism?
The ‘Panch Mahavratas’ of Jainism are :
- Do not steal (Asteya)
- Do not collect more items than required (Aprigraha)
Where was Mahatma Buddha born?
Answer: Mahatma Buddha was born in 563 BC in Shakya dynasty in a Kshatriya family in Lumbini.
What is ‘Mahabhinishkraman, in Buddhism?
When Mahatma Buddha left his son, wife, father and his kingdom and went out in search of knowledge, this incident of his life has been called ‘Mahabihiniskraman’ in Buddhist literature.
Why did Hazrat Mohammad leave Mecca?
Mecca’s residents got angry by teachings given by Hazrat Mohammad and they opposed Hazrat Mohammad, so he had to leave Mecca and go to Medina.
Which is the holy book of Islam?
‘Quran’ is the holy book of Isam.
What is ‘Resurection’?
After 40 days of death of Jesus, the occurrence of reappearance or being preached is called ‘Resurection’ in Christianity.
What is ‘New Testament’?
The book written by Mark, Mathew, Luke and John, The first disciples of Jesus christ, Contains interesting stories of Jesus life, his preachings and his miracles is, called ‘New Testament’.
RBSE Class 11 History Short Chapter 2 Answer Type Questions
Define Vedic Religion.
Vedic Religion is also known as primeval religion, Aarsh religion or Sanatan religion. Its follower are known as Aryas or Hindus. Arya means superior or the one having best conduct. Vedic religion is the oldest religion of the world. We say that the religious system described in Vedic literature is called Vedic religion. In the Vedic literature Ved Samhita, Brahmin Granth, Aranyakas, Upnishadas, Sutra Granth and 6 Vedangas are included.
Vedic religion has emphasized on Panch Mahayajana 16 Sacraments, Paradigm of paradise, eight type of marriages, salvation, element contemplation, etc.
What is the method worship in Vedic religion?
Vedic religion is the most ancient religion of the world. In Vedic religion, Aryans used two kinds of worship methods to please their gods and goddeses. (i) Praying and praising (ii) Performing yajna. These people sacrificed food, ghee and aromatic items in the offerings of yajna and praying for their longevity, sons and grandsons, money and destruction of their enemies. A class of Aryans used to give more importance to prayer than yajnas. The Aryans used to worship their ancestors besides god worship. This tradition is still present in all sections of Indian society.
In Vedic religion each person used to perform five types of yajna daily. These are (i) Bramha yajna (ii) Dev Yajna, (iii) Bhoot Yajna (iv) Pitra Yajna (v) Nri Yajna.
Write the names of Vedic Gods of Vedic religion.
The Aryans believed that this world is governed by the grace of God. Each diety was depicted as a creator or ruler. The number of these were 33. They are divided into three parts according to their natural powers:
- Gods of earth : In this category Gods of fire, Jupiter, Som, Earth, Saraswati, etc. were kept.
- Gods of sky : The Gods of this category were Dyos, Varun, Pashan Mitra, Sun, Vishnu, Ashwin, Usha, Aditi, etc.
- God of space : The Gods of this category were Indra, Vaat, Rudra, Marut, Vayu, etc.
What is Samyak Darshan in Jainism?
In Jainism there is a perfect philosophy (Samyak Darshan) of the three ways to achieve liberation. Samyak Darshan means the belief in Jain Tirthankars and their teachings. In order to bring true knowledge to life, every person should have complete faith and belief in the tirthankaras. There are eight limbs of Samyak Darshan
- Stay away from Suspicion
- Abandoning the desire of pleasures
- Do not walk the wrong path
- Do not be distracted by superstitions
- Avoidance of attachment and Disaffection,
- Have love for everyone equally
- Standing on the right beliefs
- Staying away from temporal superstition and hypocrisy.
What is the contribution of Jain religion to the world?
Jainism showed the path of establishing peace, brotherhood, love, tolerance and unity in the world. Jainism also influenced world civilization and culture. People who believed in Jainism contributed significantly to the development of literature, art and architecture. Artistic memorials, sculptures, temples, monasteries and caves are most important contributions of Jainism which are still preserved in the form of heritage. The paintings drawn on manuscripts of Jain texts are excellent specimens of pre-medieval painting. Jain lifestyle provided by Mahaveer Swami is useful for environmental protection and population control. By adopting the principles of Jainism, we can save the earth and the environment for a long time.
What is the principle of action and rebirth in Jainism?
Jainism is an ancient religion of the world. It believes in Karma (action) and rebirth. Jainism considers humans to be creator of their own destiny (luck). The soul is immortal and remains always similar. Due to the bonds of worldly desires which arise due to actions of man, the soul keeps on moving frequently and cycle of birth and death continues. The liberation of any creature is not possible without attaining the fruits of actions. In this way Karma (Action) is the cause of rebirth. According to Jainism, this is called the doctrine of action and rebirth.
How can Nirvana (Salvation) be achieved in Buddhism?
The ultimate goal of Buddhism is to attain Nirvana (Salvation). The literal meaning of the word ‘Nirvana’ is to be extinguished or cooled down. Nirvana can be attained only if one extinguishes the fire of desire or ambition which arises in the mind. Salvation lies in achieving Nirvana or freedom from the cycle of birth and death. Humans can achieve Nirvana in this life.
Write a comment on the life of prophet Mohammad.
The founder of Islam Religion was Hazrat Mohammad. He is also known as ‘prophet’. He was born in 570 AD in Mecca. His father’s name was Abdulla and mother’s Amina He was brought up by his uncle Abatulib, after his parents death. His early life was full of difficulties. Mohammad married a widow of 40 years named Khadija at the age of 25 years. His mind did not get into wordly pleasures and resulted in spiritual contemplation. He opposed idol worship by the Arabs and preached the teaching of only Allah concept. Due to this Mecca’s residents got angry and opposed him. As a result of this he had to leave Mecca for Medina. This important incident is known as ‘Hijrat’ in Islam Religion. He died in 632 AD. His teachings are available in the Quran.
What is the contribution of Buddhism to world culture?
Buddhism first provided the world with a simple and practicable religion. Teaching of non-voilence, peace, brotherhood, co-existence and tolerance, etc. are the basic elements of Buddhism. This religion raised the moral level by presenting the basis for equality before the people of the world, developed logic and contributed to the creation of a great India. Due to Buddhism India made cultural relations with other countries. Another important contribution of Buddhism the development of art and architecture. With the inspiration of this religion many Stupas, Viharas, caves, sculptures and Chaityagra, has were built in different parts of the world including India. Buddhism castigated the policy of war, conquest and presented the ideals of public welfare before the entire world.
Which are the sacraments of Christainity?
The sacraments of Christianity are the following :
- Naming (Namkaran) : This sacrament is known as Baptism. By this sacrament the child becomes a follower of Chiristian religion.
- Authentication: It is also known as ‘Confirmation’ Sacrament. When the child becomes 12 years old, his name publically declared.
- The God’s meal: Jesus had his meal with his twelve followers before his death. On this day the Christian people celebrate a sacred festival.
- Marriage : In this sacrament men and women enter into domestic life by entering into marital bondage.
- Initiation : It is also known as ordination. If a person is above the age of 18 years and wants to become a priest, he is initiated.
- Atonement: Under this a sinner is apologizes for his sins with the priest before Jesus.
- Last bath : Under this, a person who is dying is given a final sacred bath so that the earthly stains of his soul are removed.
Write about Jesus’s life.
Jesus was the founder of Christian Religion and philosophy. He was born in the mountaineous part of Palestine in Bethlehem (Israel) His father Joseph and mother Mary used to work as a carpenter. Jesus Christ visited different villages to liberate the then society surrounded by superstitions, preaching people that God sees everyone in the same way. He protested against the idol worship and violence of the Jews. He was sentenced to death at the age of 30 years. He taught people to adopt truth, non-voidence, to serve the poor and sacrifice. His teachings are complied in the Holy Bible of Christian religion.
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 2 Long Answer Type Questions
Describe fhe characteristics of Purushartha and Ashram system in Vedic religion.
Meaning of Purushartha : There are two parts of human life in Vedic religion—one physical and second metaphysical. The word rise is the word for the physical advancement, for the acquisition, protection and enjoyment of material. The metaphysical part is said to be spiritual, its peak achievement is salvation, which is called as ‘unselfish’. For the accomplishment of this advanced and non-discriminatory goal, the causation acts have been called as ‘Purushartha’.
Types of Purushartha :
There are four types of Purushartha. These are : (i) Dharma, (ii) Artha, (iii) Kama, (iv) Moksha.
- Dharma (Religion) : Religion refers to the compliance of those duties, which also contribute to the progress of the society along with the person.
- Artha (money) : All humans need and their physical desires are fulfilled through ‘Artha’ (money). According to Vedic tenets, money is auspicious for the world, by which welfare of people is done. The meaning should be acquired by means of material pleasure.
- Kama : These accumulated materials should be restrained, sacrificed, and should not be left over.
- Moksha (Salvation) : Salvation is supreme ‘Purushartha’. It is co-operative and money (Artha) and Kama are its means : The ultimate purpose of human life is to get salvation. The attainment of salvation can happen to him in the same condition when it develops in harmony.
Arshram system : After assuming the ideal age of hundred years in Veda, the human life was divided into four parts, which are called as four ashrams : Brahamacharya, Grahastha, Vanprastha and Sanyasa. These are described in detail as follows:
- Brahmacharya Ashram : It is period of education and sacrament. In this stage a person prepares to become a deserving civic in future life by practising harsh tenacity.
- Grahastha Ashram : It is considerd as the best ashram, because this ashram is the basis of all three ashrams. This ashram expects the most activism, manhood (Purushartha) and dutifulness.
- Vanprastha ashram : The arrangement for retirement from duty of the grahastha ashram and the motivation for work of society is called Vanprastha Ashram. It is a period of working for the good of society. In this stage, the society gets the benefit of the person’s expertise and experience.
- Sanyas Ashram : The time to build a positive, sattvik environment with the help of unselfishness while devoting oneself to God, while remaining free from worldly attachment, is called ‘Sanyas Ashram’.
According to Jainism, how a man can get ‘Kevallya’ (Salvation)?
According to Jainism, achievement of ‘Kevallya’ (Salvation) is the only main object of Jainism to attain salvation by conquering the worldly temptations and the senses. In Jainism salvation is called ‘Keyvallya’. To get salvation, Mahaveer Swami had told 3 remedies which were later called‘Triratna’. (i) Samyak-Gyan (Knowledge), (ii) SamyakDarshan, (iii) Samyak Charitra.
(i) Samyak Gyan (Knowledge) : It means complete and true knowledge.Five types of knowledge are given in Jainism.
- Mati (bias) that means knowledge gained by the senses.
- Shruti (revelation, organ of hearing) : that means knowledge gained by listening or describing.
- Term knowledge : that is the divine knowledge of anything kept somewhere.
- Minded options, that is knowledge of other persons through thoughts and ideology.
Salvation knowledge : that is complete knowledge after this achievement nothing is left over. Mahaveer Swami told that to achieve true and complete knowledge, man should study and follow the teachings of the Tirthankaras.
(ii) Samyak Darshan : It means to have full faith in Jain tirthankaras and their teachings. In order to bring true knowledge to life, every person should have complete faith and belief in the Tirthankaras. Eight limbs of Samyak Darshan are described : (a) Keep away from doubt (b) Abandoning the desire of worldly pleasure (c) Do not walk on the wrong path (d) Do not be distracted by superstitions (e) Stand firm on the right beliefs (f) Have a common love for everyone (g) Have full faith and belief in Jain principles.
In addition, in Jainism it has been taught to stay away from superstitions and hypocrisy,
(iii) Samyak Charitra : It means that one can attain knowledge only by keeping one’s senses under control. Therefore, he should have restraint on the senses. Under this five Mahavratas for the monks and five Anuratas (Atom) for the grahastha (households) have been laid down and emphasis on virtue and truthfulness is laid.
Following the triratna, the flow of karma towards the creature stops which is called ‘Samvar’ karma accumlated from Sadhana (accomplish by meditation) starts destroying this state, this is called ‘Nirjara’. The person, whose karma is compleely exhausted, he gets salvation or keyvallya.
After getting kevallaya (salvation), the creature is exempted from the cycle of birth and death from this world. Then the creature attains infinite wisdom, infinite vision and eternal happiness, which is known as ‘Anant Chatustya’ in Jainism.
Describe Gautam Buddha’s life and highlight his ‘Astangik path’.
Life of Gautam Buddha : Mahatma Buddha was born in 563 BC in the Kshatriya Kula of Shakya dynasty in Kapilvastu in northern Bihar in Lumbinavana. The name of Gautam Buddha’s childhood was Siddhartha. Being born in Gautam dynasty, he was also named as Gautama. His father’s name was Sudhodhan and mother was Mahamaya.
Since childhood, Buddha was thoughtful and secluded. He was very compassionate. Seeing the sufferings in the world, his heart was filled with compassion. At the age of 16 years he was married to princess Yashodhara. Siddhartha’s mind did not get into worldly pleasures even after spending a life of a householder for about 12-13 years. As a result of this quiet spirit, one day he left his son, wife, father and the whold state of luxury and went out in search of knowledge at the age of 29 years. This incident of renunciation is called ‘Mahabhinishkraman’ in Buddhist literature.
In search of knowledge Gautam Buddha roamed from one place to another. Due to harsh austerity his body dried up like a thorn. Even after his purpose was not proven, he decided to leave his austerities and take a diet. Seeing this change in Gautam Buddha, his companions left him but he did not get disturbed by this.
After 6 years of Sadhna Gautam received knowledge under the peepal tree at the age of 35 years on the night of Vaishakha Purnima. From then he became famous as the Buddha. From then the name of peepal tree became ‘Bodhivraksh’ and that place became ‘Bodhgaya’. After acquiring knowledge, Mahatma Buddha first taught his knowledge in Bodhgaya to two traders (Banjara) named Tapassu and Mallik. After this, the Buddha came out on a journey to preach his knowledge and ideas to the people and reached Samath. At this place, he contacted his 5 colleagues who left him. Buddha initiated them to the religion of his knowledge.
This incident is known as ‘Dharmacharka Pravartan’. Finally at the age of 80, 483 BC Gauam Buddha left his body in Kushinagar, the capital of Republic of Malla. This incident is called ‘Mahaparinirvan’ in Buddhist history. Astangik path of Mahatma Buddha: Mahatma Buddha said that the desire to enjoy wordly things holds the soul in bondage of birth and death. Therefore it is necessary to eradicate longing for attaining salvation. For this humans should follow the Astangik path. The eight ways of Astangik path are as follow :
- Samyak Drishd (vision) : By virtue of distinguishing true life, the belief in sin and virtue cause truth to emerge.
- Samyak Vani : Always speak truth and sweet words.
- Samyak Karmanth : Always do true and good works.
- Samyak Ajiva : Always adopt sacred methods for livelihood.
- Samyak Prayatna : Work hard to put the body in good deeds.
- Samyak Sankalp : Stay away from cause of Sadness (sorrow) which is craving.
- Samyak Smriti : The body is made of unholy substances. Recall it, think about the thought of the senses, the bonds and their destruction measures.
- Samyak Samadhi : To meditate on the liberation of self
Describe the teachings of Hazarat Mohammad.
Teaching of Hazrat Mohammad : Hazrat Mohammad was the founder of Islam religion. He was born in 570 AD in Mecca. He propagated his ideas in the whole Arab Peninsula. The philosophical contemplation of Islam is preserved in the Holy book (text) Quran of the Muslims. The main teachings of Hazarat Mohammad are the following :
- Allah means God is one who is omniponent and spread everywhere. Apart of him no, one is to be worshipped. Mohammad Saheb is his prophet or messenger.
- Every Muslim must read (offer, prayers) namaz five times in a day at certain times. In the afternoon on Friday all the Muslims should offer namaz together.
- Every Muslim should keep ‘Roza’ in the month of Ramzan of every year. In this month eating and drinking should not be done from Sunrise to Sunset.
- Every Muslim should give 40th part of his income as ‘Zakat’ (Charity).
- Every Muslim must perform the ‘Haj’ (Mecca-Medina’s pilgrimage) at least once in their lifetime.
- Islam religion accepts the primacy of Karma (work). According to this religion, after doing good work (deeds, Karma). Allah gives ‘Jannat’ (Heaven) and doing bad deeds, he gives ‘Jahanum’ (Hell).
- According to Islam this life is final, that is, Islam does not believe in the principle of reincarnation.
- Islam does not believe in idol worship. Mohammad Saheb himself opposed the practice of idol worship in Arabia.
- According to Islam, there is no need for any intermediary (arbitrator) for the worship of Allah.
Describe the teachings of Jesus Christ.
Teachings of Jesus Christ : Jesus Christ was the founder of Christian religion and philosophy. He was born in Beth at a time when society indulged in all forms of superstitious beliefs and misdeeds. He visited different villages and preached to people that God sees everyone equally. The Jews did not like this message of Jesus Christ. Once Jesus Christ protested against the violence and misdeeds of Jews in a celebration in Jerusalam. With this all Jews got angry with him. Judas, one of Jesus Christ’s pupil, betrayed him. He was sentenced to death at the age of 30 years.
Jesus Christ preached to the people through parables for love, mercy, forgiveness, peace, brotherhood and non-violence. His teachings are compiled in holy text ‘Bible’ of Christians. The teachings of Jesus Christ are the following :
- God is one, He is omnipotent and omnipresent.
- God has power over the earth and heavens.
- Man should live life according to the divine laws.
- Those who come in the protection of Jesus will go to heaven and the sinners will go to hell.
- Jesus Christ emphasized attaining the qualities of mercy, compassion, truth, non-violence, charity, goodwill, tolerance, etc. that a virtuous person can enter God’s Kingdom. Jesus frees his believers from the sins.
- Jesus Christ stressed on forgiveness that all of us should accept the virtue of forgiveness and should not do any work with the spirit of anger and revenge.
- There are three entities in the same God—father (God), Son (Jesus), holy spirit (Holy ghost). This is called “The principle of trinity.
- Christianity does not believe in re-birth.
- No idol can express the nature of God.
- To become holy, one should worship God and live life according to the divine rules.
- Seeing the evil of man due to sin, God revealed the way of Salvation and to prepare that path, he has accepted the Jews as his own people.
- The human soul once lived in the human body and lives in the world. On the day of Doom, all human beings will be resurrected and God will come from heaven to judge them.
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 1 Other Important Questions and Answers
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 1 Objective Type Questions
Question 1. The ancient texts of Indian philosophy are considered to be :
(d) None of these
The most ancient text is:
Which of the following Vedas is considered to be the source of music and art?
Who was the most important diety of Rigvedic period?
The worldly place of meeting deities is called
(c) Pray (worship)
The following is a type of Yajna
(a) Pittra Yajna
(b) Brahma Yajna
(c) Bhoot Yajna
(d) all of these
(d) all of these
How many Ashramas have been laid down in the life of a person in Vedic theology?
Which number of Tirthankar was Mahaveer Swami in Jainism?
Mahaveer Swami received knowledge on the banks of which of the following rivers?
(a) Ganga river
(b) Yamuna river
(c) Rijupalika river
(d) None of these
(c) Rijupalika river
People who walk on the path projected by Parshvanath are called :
The meaning of ‘Asteyo’ is
(a) Do not deposit
(b) No thefts
(c) truth speaking
(b) No thefts
Mahatma Buddha’s childhood name was
The event of renunciation of Mahatma Buddha’s
(c) Dharmachakra pravartan
Which of the following religions is related to the
Who was the founder of Islam?
(a) Mahatma Buddha
(b) Mahaveer Swami
(c) Hazrat Mohammad
(d) Jesus christ
(c) Hazrat Mohammad
The originator of Christian religion was
(a) Jesus Christ
(b) Gautam Buddha
(c) Mahaveer Swami
(d) None of these
(a) Jesus Christ
The main text of Christian religion is
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 2 Matching Questions
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 2 Very Short Answer Type Questions
Which is the most ancient religion of India?
What is the meaning of Veda?
The word Veda is made of the word ‘Vid’ which means-knowledge.
Why are ‘Vedas’ known as ‘Shrutis’ ?
Because the Vedas have been compiled from Shruti (oral) tradition (Parampara).
How many Vedas are there? Write the names.
There are four Vedas :
Who is considered to be the diety of storm and rain?
Which dieties were worshipped first by Aryans?
Dhayos (sky) and earth.
In the Vedic religion, which Aryan diety is considered to be the God of the sky? Answer: Varun
Who is considered special in Yajna?
In which Veda are many mantras in the worship of Somras?
In what ways are Paramtatva related ideas received in Rigveda ?
In two forms :
Mention the kinds of Yajnas in Vedic period.
- Nitya Yajna
- Nimttik Yajna
Why was Dev Yajna performed?
Dev yajna was used to express gratitude towards the Gods.
Which yajna was used for getting worldly things?
How many types of debts have been conceived in later Vedic period?
Answer: Three types of debts are conceived :
- Dev Rin,
- Rishi Rin,
- Pitra Rin
How many sacraments have been metioned in the later Vedic period?
Write the names of any two sacraments of later Vedic period.
- Naming Sacrament
- Marriage sacrament
According to the Upanishads what is the true goal of man?
What is the meaning of salvation?
Salvation means getting rid from the cycle of birth and death.
Who was the first Tirthankar of Jain Religion?
Who was the 24th Tirthankar of Jain religion?
What is Nirgranth?
Those who followed the path proposed by Parsvanath, 23rd Tirthankar of Jain religion, were called Nirgranth.
Which religion did Parsvanath represent?
Parsvanath represented ‘Chaturyam’ religion : Non-voilence, truth, no thefts, do not deposit.
When and where was Mahaveer Swami born?
Mahaveer Swami was born in 599 BC, in Kundgram near Vaishali.
When and where did Mahaveer Swami’s Nirvana occur?
In 527 BC, Pawapuri (Bihar)
From which texts Jainism teachings are available?
Who rendered the Panch Mahavrata ‘Religion’?
What is only purpose of Jain religion?
Getting rid of the worldly pleasure and attaining victory on senses and achieving salvation.
In Jainism, what is called polytheism or Syadvad?
Mahaveer Swami has taken the middle path except for the intermediate opinions of the selfish and atheist, which is known as ‘Anekantwad’ (Polytheism) or ‘Syadwad’.
Which are called ‘Triratna’ in Jainism?
Samyak Gyan (knowledge), Samyak Darshan (ideas) and Samyak Charitra (Character) are known as Triratna.
Later, in how many sections was Jain religion divided?
In two sections :
Who was the founder of Buddhism ?
When and where was Mahatma Buddha born?
In 563 BC, in Lumbinivan of Republic Kapilvastu Republic.
What was the childhood name of Mahatma Buddha?
Which ascetic did Mahatma Buddha meet first in the search of knowledge?
Where did Mahatma Buddha get knowledge?
Mahatma Buddha received knowledge under the Peepal tree in Bodhgaya.
What is ‘Mahaparinivran’ in Buddhism?
The event of relinquishment of Mahatma Buddha’s body is called ‘Mahaparinirvan’ in Buddhism.
Write the name of four noble truths of Buddhism.
- Causes of sorrow,
- Sorrow prevention,
- Sorrow prevention path.
What is the cause of sorrow told by Mahatma Buddha?
Where was the first Buddhist council (Sangiti) held?
In the Saptaparni cave at Rajgrah.
Who was the president of first Buddhist council?
When and where was the second Buddhist council held?
In 383 BC, in Vaishali.
Where did the third Buddhist council take place and during whose reign?
In Patliputra, during the regin of Mauryan Emperor Ashoka.
Where did the fourth Buddhist music take place and during whose reign?
In Kundalvan (Kashmir), during the reign of Kushan emperor Kanishka.
Name the two sects of Buddhism.
Who was the founder of Islam religion?
Hazrat Mohammad. ‘
When and where was Hazrat Mohammad born?
Hazrat Mohammad was bom in 570 AD, at Mecca in the Arabian Peninsula.
Who brought up Mohammad Saheb?
His uncle Abutalib.
What is the incident of Mohammad Saheb going to Medina from Mecca called?
When did the Hijri Era start?
In 622 AD.
When did Mohammad Saheb die?
In 632 AD.
Which are the holy religious texts of the Muslims?
- Quran Shareef
Who was the founder of Christianity?
Where was Jesus Christ born?
In Bethleham (Israel).
Which pupil of Jesus Christ got him arrested?
Which is the holy text of Christianity?
What is Baptism?
When the child becomes 3 years old, the priest sprinkles holy water on it and names it. This is called ‘Baptism’.
Which of the original treatise (holy text) of Jews is accepted by Christians as their religious text?
RBSE Class 11 History Short Chapter 2 Answer Type Questions
What is the literal meaning of Vedas? Describe its types.
The word Veda is made of the Sanskrit word (dhatu) ‘Vid’ which means knowledge. The kinds of Vedas are :
- Rigveda : It is considered the oldest and first text of the world. In the Rigveda, there are primarily religious Suktas. It contains 10,500 mantras and 1028 suktas. It is divided into 10 divisions (Mandal) This book gives us information about the social, political, religious and economic life of the Aryans.
- Yajurveda : Under it there are rules and regulations of the Yajnas and Havans. It is both in prose and poetry. There are 40 chapters in it.
- Samveda : This Veda is known as the source of music and art. Under this, the way to pronounce mantras while doing Yajna (sacrificing), so that the diety can be pleased, is explained.
- Atharaveda : It has 20 chapters (Kaand) and 732 Suktas. It also gives the principles of politics and sociology.
Explain the importance of fire (Agni) in Vedic religion.
Fire has a lot of importance in Vedic religion. Fire had great importance in the Rigvedic era. In Rigveda there are about 200 mantras for worship of fire. Fire has been given a special importance in the Yajnas, so it was called priest, Hota, and Yagyaik. Fire has been considered to destory the demons from the entire world. It has also been called the mouth of Gods (dieties) because through this all sacrifices (Aahuti) reached to the dieties.
All these things reflect the importance of fire in Vedic religion.
What is the elemental (Param Tatva) idea in Rig Veda? Clarify.
In Rigveda, thoughts of Paramtatva are obtained in two forms :
- Pantheism : This idea of the ultimate element (paramtatva) is mentioned in the ‘Naasdiya Sukta’ of the Rigveda. It is clearly mentioned in this Sukta that only one supreme element (Param tatva) was present in the creation of universe, that in the creation of universe (world) the same element is fully expanded in all creation.
- Monism : It is mentioned in ‘Purush Sukta’. It is said in this Sukta that the basic element of creation is Virgin. It is spread all over the world.
Why were three debts (Rin) conceived in the later Vedic period?
In later Vedic period three debts (Rin) were imagined. These debts were : (i) Dev Rin (ii) Pitra Rin (iii) Rishi Rin. In the orgin of the imagination of these debt (Rin), the liabilities and duties of humans for society are hidden. In this world, every person has been receiving some knowledge, resources and power from his parents, guests, deities, sages and other creatures and has made his life happy and prosperous.
This increased the burden of many debts on a person. Therefore, it is the duty of every human being to try to repay those debts.
Explain the “hypothesis of paradise” performed in the Rig Veda.
For humans who do good deeds, it is envisaged in the Rig Veda that they would live happily in heaven. In heaven, happiness, glee, fulfilment of wishes have also been mentioned and penalties are mentioned for those who do wrong. This hypothesis of Paradise described in
Rigveda provides a real way for human beings to communicate optimism in life, by moving towards the path of goodness.
Which sacraments have been mentioned in the religious texts? Describe.
16 sacraments have been mentioned in the religious texts. Under these sacraments every man has to carry out these rituals from birth to death. The development of a person physically, mentally in character and in personality is possible by these sacraments.
These sacraments are :
- In semination sacrament (Garbhadhan Sanskar),
- Punsvan sacrament,
- Simantanayan sacrament,
- Jatakarma sacrament,
- Naming sacrament,
- Nishkraman sacrament,
- Annaprashan sacrament,
- Churakarma sacrament,
- Karnabhed sacrament,
- Vidhygurambh sacrament,
- Upnayan sacrament,
- Vedarambh sacrament,
- Keshant or Gaudaan sacrament,
- Samavartan sacrament,
- Marriage sacrament,
- Funeral sacrament.
What is the law of Panch Mahavrata in Jainism?
It is compulsary to follow Panch Mahavrata in Jainism. These Panch Mahavratas are :
- Non-violence : Do not harass (harm) any organism with mind, word or action
- Truth : Speak truth with mind, word and action.
- Do not steal (Asteya) : Do not steal any thing.
- Do not acquire property (Aprigrah) : Do not collect more than required.
- Observe Continence (Brahmacharya) : Leaving all desires and living a restrained life.
What is Samyak Gyan (Proper knowledge) in Jainism?
To get salvation, Mahaveer Swami told three remedies which were later called Triratna. Samyak knowledge is the primary one in all of these. The meaning of Samyak knowledge is complete and true knowledge. Mahaveer Swami told that to achieve true and complete knowledge, man should study and follow the teachings of the Tirthankars.
Five types of knowledge are given in Jainism. These are :
- Mati (bias) that means knowledge gained by the sense.
- Shruti (revelation, organ of hearing) that means knowledge gained by listening or describing.
- Term knowledge (Ardhi Gyan) that is the divine knowledge of anything kept somewhere.
- Minded options (Mann paryaya) that is knowledge of other persons through thoughts and ideoieogy.
- Kevallya Gyan or knowledge of salvation.
Mention four noble truths of Buddhism.
Answer: Four Noble truths are the cornerstone of Buddhism. These are :
- Sorrow : There is universal sadness in the world or the world is full of sorrow.
- Cause of Sorrow: No object takes birth without reason. Cause of sorrow is ignorance.
- Prevention of sorrow : The prevention of sorrow is possible. This sorrow can be stopped by removing ignorance.
- Sorrow prevention path : According to the sorrow prevention path promoted by Buddha, any person can overcome misery by walking on this path. It has an arrangement of 8 organs, which is called the Ashtangik Marg : (i) Right vision, (ii) Right oath (solemn vow), (iii) Right speech, (iv) Right action, (v) Right living, (vi) Right efforts, (vii) Right remembrance, (viii) Right meditation.
What is the Madhyam Pratipada in Buddhism?
Or Explain the Middle Path of Buddhism.
Gautam Buddha adopted the path of both the harsh austerities and extreme happiness for attaining knowledge. Mahatma Buddha rendered the Ashatangik Marg to get rid of the sorrows. This is the Madhyam Pratipada or middle path. This Ashtangik Marg is divided into eight parts :
- Right vision,
- Right speech,
- Right oath (solemn vow),
- Right action,
- Right living,
- Right efforts,
- Right remembrance,
- Right meditation.
Gautam Buddha himself said about this middle path that “If you tighten the string of harp excessively, then they will be broken and if you leave them loose, then sound will not come out”. Therefore in human life, Gautam Buddha emphasized the adoption of the middle ir moderate path.
Which are the Panchsheel or moral conduct of Mahatma Buddha?
Or Mention the five rules of virtue (morality) preached by Gautam Buddha.
Mahatma Buddha gave a lot of emphasis on the importance of morality in his teachings. He asked his followers to be pure with their mind, word and action. For this, he asked the householders and the monks to follow the following Panchsheel or moral conduct rules :
- Practising of non-violence (Ahimsa)
- Abandoning lies (truth)
- Prohibition of theft (Asteya)
- Not collecting wealth items (Aprigraha)
- Not indulging in corrupt practices (Brhmacharya).
There are also five other rules for the monks. Thus they had to follow ‘Ten sheels’.
Explain the causal theory of Buddhism.
Or What is Pratitya Samulpaad? Explain.
The causal theory of Buddhism is also known as the Pratitya Samudpaad. According to Gautam Buddha there is some reason behind the existence of any happening in the world. Due to birth, condition of old age and death occurs. Essentially one cause of every occurrence and thing is necessarily present. Under Buddhism, three sources of this principle have been described :
- It happens when this happens.
- It does not happen if it does not.
- When it is opposed, it is condemned.
The sequence of this causal theory is given as twelve sequence’s which also called Dwadash nidan or ‘Bhava Chakra’. These are : (i) Jaramaran (ii) Caste (iii) Bhava (world) (iv) Upadan (substance), (v) Trishan (crave), (vi) Vedna (pain, pang), (vii) Sparsh (touch), (viii) Shadayatan (conspiracy), (x) NaamRoop (x) Science, (xi) Sacrament, (xii) Ignorance (Aridya).
How did Buddhism contribute to the creation of greater India?
Countries out of India, where Indian culture has been promoted, these countries are generally called greater India. Buddhists contributed a lot to the promotion of Indian culture. Maurya Emperor Ashoka started the campaign for the promotion of Buddhism in foreign countries. Buddhist preachers spread Indian culture in Asian countries such as Sri Lanka, China, Burma Japan, Tibet, Vietnam, Cambodia, Manchuria, Korea, Nepal, Malaysia, Indonesia, Mongolia, etc.
Mohammad Saheb ordered every Muslim to follow five duties. What were they?
Answer: Mohammad Saheb ordered every Muslim to follow the following five duties :
- Only Allah is to be worshipped. Apart this none is worshippable.
- Every Muslim should perform ‘Namaz five times a day.
- Every Muslim should keep ‘Roza’ in the month of Ramzan,
- Every Muslim should give 40th part of his income in charity.
- Every Muslim must do ‘Haj’ (Pilgrimage from Mecca to Medina) at least once in his life.
What is Kaaba? Write briefly.
‘Kaaba’ is a small marble building built in the large mosque of Mecca. This building was constructed by Abraham for Allah’s worship. This building has a sacred ‘Black stone’. It is believed that this stone was thrown on the earth from Jannat (heaven) with Adam at the time of Kaba’s creation and Gabriel gave it to Abraham. Every person who journeys from Mecca to Medina pays ‘Ziyarat’ (Prayers) here. There is also a rule in Islam that every Muslim wherever he is, should always keep his face towards to Kaaba and pay Namaz.
Mention any five teachings of Jesus Christ.
Or Describe any five principles of Christianity.
Teachings of Jesus Christ/five principles of Christianity are the following :
- God is one. It is almighty (all-powerful) and omnipresent.
- No idol can express the nature of God.
- Christianity does not believe in re-birth
- There are three people in the same Godfather (God), Son (Jesus), Holy spirit (Holy ghost). This is called “The principle of trinity”.
- Soul is immortal. It holds the human body only once and lives in the world.
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 2 Long Answer Type Questions
Describe the source literature of Vedic religion.
Source literature of Vedic religion : Vedas refer to four Samhitas (code) under the Vedic literature, Brahmin texts, Aranyaka, Upnishads Sutra texts and six Vedangas are counted along the Ved Samhitas (code)
(i) Ved Samhita (code) : Four Vedas have four topics (subjects). Knowledge of the Rig veda, the work (karma) of Yajurveda, the worship of Samveda and the science of Atharweda. Four sub-Vedas of four Vedas are Ayurveda, Dhanurveda, Gandharva Veda and Artha Veda.
(ii) Brahmin text: These are the texts interpreting (explaning) all Vedic Mantras.
|Rigveda||Aitray Brahmin, Sankhyayan (Koshitiki)|
|Samveda||Sam and Tandya Mahabramhmin|
|Atharv veda||Gopath Bramhmin|
|Yajur veda||Tatriya, Shathpath Brahmin|
(iii) Aranyaka : This is like an appendix of Brahmin texts in which spritual and philosophical topics have been discussed. Vrahdaranya, Jaminiya, Shankayayan, Aiteray, etc. are the various Aryanakas.
(iv) Upanishada : The texts that describe the spiritual knowledge, element contemplation and the extreme state of preceptions are the upanishadas. The number of Upanishads is considered 108 but the following are the most famous Upnishadas : Ish, Kenn, Katha, Prashn, Mundak, Mandukya, Aiteray. Tetiriya, Vrahdamyak, Shwetashvatar.
(v) Sutra text : In these texts the law of vedic yajna is described. These texts are of three types : (i) Shrota Sutra (ii) Grahya Sutra (iii) Dharma Sutra.
(vi) Vedang : To understand the Vedic texts, the six adjacent organs developed are called Vedang. These six Vedangas are : (i) Education (ii) Kalp (iii) Grammar (iv) Nirukta.
Describe the characteristics of Vedic religions while describing polytheism in Vedic religion.
Vedic religion is an ancient religion. Description of Vedic religion is found in Vedic literature. Polytheism in Vedic religion : In the vedic religion, people used to worship the natural powers of dieties. In this period people used to practise the chanting of mantras and Yajana, etc. to please the dieties, so that the dieties may fulfil their desires. The people of Vedic period used to worship many Gods and Goddesses and worshipped according to time and reverence. The main dieties in Vedic religion were Sun, Moon, Indra, Sky, Vayu (air) Usha, aditi, Indus, Aakhayayni-Saraswati, etc. The god which was praised in Vedic religion, was considered paramount. Thus there were many dieties of Vedic people. This is called polytheism in Vedic religion.
Features of Vedic religion : Features of Vedic religion are following :
- Belief in polytheism and power : Vedic people used to worship many Gods and Goddesses. They used to worship the natural powers as different deities. They worshipped according to time and reverence.
- Worship of Natural powers : The Vedic people used to worship natural powers as deities and worshipped them. The chief deities of Vedic period were sun, moon, Indra, sky, Vayu. Indra was considered to be a God of tornado, hurricane (storm) and rain. Usha was considered to be the Goddess of dawn. All these Gods and Goddesses were worshipped with chanting of mantras.
- Trust in one God : Initially the vedic people believed in polytheism and used to worship natural powers as different, but gradually they tried to find a supreme deity. Thus their faith in monotheism increased. They began to believe that this whole world was being operated by a great power.
- Complications in Sacrifice (Yajna) Rite : Initially the Vedic Yajnas was very simple. The head of the house only used to do all worship precisely, but gradually complex ritualism entered the Yajna. As a result the Yajna became very expensive. Thus the expensive Yajnas that went on through out the year were out of the ordinary people’s capacity.
- Optimistic attitude : Vedic people were optimistic. They had a positive attitude towards their life. They believed that the devoed people live happily in this world under the protection of liberal gods and they also get happiness and peace in the after life in paradise.
Describe the types of Yajna in Vedic religion.
Or Describe the Panch Mahayajnas.
Yajna : Yajna has been called the best Karma (work) in vedic religion. Dedicating sacrificial content and Ghee in fire is not just Yajna (sacrifice). Their use is as important for the environment, but in reality, the name of all the best deeds is the Yajna (sacrifice). There are three parts of Yajnas (sacrifice)
(a) The actions, to be praised, prayed, worshipped to God.
(b) The scholars and ascetics should be respected (c) Five elements (Panch tatva) (fire, water air, earth, sky) should be used properly without causing pollution.
There are two types of Yajna : Nitya (daily) and Naimittik.
(a) Nitya Yajna : Duties in the Grihastha Ashram of the Nitya Yajna are known as ‘Panch Mahayajna’. They are considered mandatory for every household to run the society smoothly.
Panch Mahayajna : In the Vedic period, each person used to do the following five ‘Mahayajna’.
- Bramhayajna : It is also know as ‘Rishi Yajna’. Through this Yajna, man used to express respect for the ancient sages and saints.
- Dev Yajna : This Yajna was used to express gratitude towards the deities. Under this Yajna, offerings were made to the gods such as, milk, curd, Ghee, food grains etc through fire.
- Bhoot Yajna : Through this Yajna, there is information about the duty of human beings towards other creatures. Under this Yajna the food was offered to the gods, earth, air, water, sky and Prajapati. Animals, birds and vegetation, etc. were sacrificed.
- Pitra Yajna : Through this Yajna Tarpan, and Shraddha etc. were arranged for the ancestors.
- Nri Yajna : The aim of this Yajna was to achieve temporal gains. Performing this kind of Yajna is the person’s responsibility and hospitality and human spirit were used to fulfil specific goals. This Yajna was done by priests.
(b) Naimittik Yajna : Such Yajna which were done to fulfil any purpose of the person or the whole world. The purpose is to get some blessings such as Putreshti Yajna, Vrishti Yajna, Ashvamegha Yajna, Rajsuya Yajna, Samrasta Yajna, Vishvamangal Yajna.
What is the sacrament system of Vedic religion? Mention 16 sacraments.
Sacrament system of Vedic religion : The first use of the word ‘Sanskara’ has occurred in Rigveda. In vedas it means the purity of religion, purity of being. According to the Mimansa philosophy, the process is the one, through which a person or an object becomes eligible for any work. According to Kumaril Bhatt, Sacramens are the actions or rituals which give merit to man and distinguish him from demonic or animal kingdom. To make up with divine, receive divine attributes up till the time of death, and to prepare for the next birth, the system of sixteen sacraments has been given. Their detailed description is as follows :
- Garbhadhan sacrament: Parents should consider what kind of child they want and start eating food, observe ethics and behave accordinngly and considering the event of pregnancy, use favorable conditions, health and favourable time, and observe rituals.
- Punswan sacrament: This ritual takes place in the second or third month for healthy growth of embryo after fertilization.
- Seemantonayan sacrament : This is the second ritual for the physical and mental health of the foetus, which is in the sixth or eight month.
- Jatakurma sacrament: After the birth, the rituals of cutting the umblical cord and the prayers of the father for the child to be healthy and brilliant.
- Naming sacrament : According to the condition of the corresponding constellation after the birth of eight or ten days, the ritual of keeping the child’s qualitative name.
- Nishkraman sacrament: In the fourth month of birth, the father brings the child out of the home so that he can see the sun and adapt to the external environment.
- Annaprashan sacrament; In the sixth month of birth, the child begins to take food in addition to the mother’s milk. In this ritual, the child is fed Kheer and three mantras are read, which means we get peace, get the taste of food and enjoy its aroma.
- Churakarma sacrament: When the age of approximatly one year is attained, the first haircut of the hair of birth is done.
- Karnabheda sacrament : Acupuncture for the prevention of diseases such as inflammation, etc. is a medical sacrament, in which the ears are pierced by silver or gold jewellery.
- Upanayan sacrament : It is also called Yagyopavit sacrament. The ability to start school was the form of entrance into the spiritual life. Three threads in Yajnopavit are the reminiscences pf ancestral debts, divine debts and debts to sages.
- Vidyarambha sacrament: The sacrament of education started in Gurukul.
- Samavartan Sacrament: After the completion of studies and after the completion of the period of Brahmacharya, a convocation ceremony before becoming a householder.
- Marriage sacrament: In Hindu religion, marriage is not a contract or agreement, it is a sacrament. The oath of adherence to the household, duties is to be taken.
- Vanprasth sacrament: After completing the duties of a householder, one takes up the work of social service.
- Sanyas sacrament: Sacrament performed while taking up solitude for contemplation, meditation and public welfare during the last period of life.
(xvi) Funeral sacrament : The end of physical life and the last ritual is done in the funeral rite of consecrating the body to the fire by law.
Which Vedic scriptures (Sakdyan) are still relevent for personal and social life.
Answer: Vedic Sukdyan : There are inspiring verses in the Vedas for an ideal life and personal and
national character, which can still be the path of the world in the form of contribution of Vedic
- The mantra of Rigveda, ‘Krishnante Vishwaramaryam’, says, ‘Hey gentlemen, be engrossed in the Satkarmas! Keep the world exalted while suppressing the evil sinners, suppressing the evil desires.
- ‘Yajrajya Purajita’ : We become aware as people, ideal citizen of the nation. The mantra of Atharvaveda (7-36-1) say that enriching this nation as the cause of its good fortune.
- The Vedic Nation (Yajurved 22-23) has prayed that the youth who will lead the nation were born. They should be chaste intellectuals, diplomats (i. e., governor, brave, obedient and great warriors) that the milk giving cows (economic prosperity), women who bear family, rain from time to time and all crops will flourish.
- We are the trustees of the creation, so earned, we have no right to store or destroy. Therefore, the Vedas say-everyone should have a tendency to donate. ‘Sahastra Hath Samahara, Sahastra Sankir’ (in Atharva Veda by dividing it with hundreds of hands and dividing it by thousand hands), who does not share his earned money and does not divide it, the Vedas calls such food ‘the food of sin’.
- The message of the Vedas for getting food from organic farming and its proper management. ‘O people who are following (food) conservation’ Breathe up the humane and addictive food … Give power to humans and intelligence too.
- O man! You should go upwards, upllift, make progress, do not go downward, that is, do not undergo downfall. For this, the Vedas says. ‘Swasti Panthmanucharem’ means that we should go on the path of welfare.
- There is a Vedic prayer for the students : ‘Madhavin Merhavinu Kurun’ ‘0’ merit wise Parmatman! The heart, which has prayed, worshipped and prayed for our deity, Rishigan and Pitragan, give us the gift of the same power of meditation today.
- ‘Friendship is a universal review’ means that I see all friends with the same eyes.
- ‘Manuvabha jya dyaavya janam’ means man, Give birth to the Divine within yourself.
- The Mantra of Atharvaveda is ‘My going to be sweet, my friend is sweet. Let me talk sweetly and I should be a beautiful figure.
- ‘Aa nah bhadra krupa yantanu vishdev’. The Vedas say that the thoughts from all sides in the world go towards me. Rig Veda says : Look! We listen to deception (good). In the Gayatri Mantra of Yajurveda, it is said: ‘Yad Bhadrtan aay suva’ meaning that which is the good, get it to us.
Explain the teachings of Jain religion while highlighting the life of Mahaveer Swami.
Or Describe the principles of Jainism.
Life of Mahaveer Swami : Mahaveer Swami was the 24th Tirthankar of Jain religion. He was bom in 599 BC in Kundalgram near Vaishali. His father’s name was Siddharth and mother was Trishala. Mahaver Swami became an ascetic for the search of truth at the age of 30 years. Mahaveer Swami got the knowledge on the banks of Rijupalika river near Rijupalika village under a Saal tree, after 12 years of rigorous austerity. Promoting Jainism and Philosophy, he left his body in Pavapuri near Rajgirah at the age of 72 years.
Teachings of Jain religion/theory of Jain philosophy : Information about the teachings and principles of Jainism is found in the oldest scriptures ‘Aagam Sahitya’. Major teachings of Jainism/main principles of Jain philosophy are following :
- In order to keep the soul free from worldly bondage and to move towards truth, Mahaveer Swami taught Jain monks to strictly follow the Panch Mahavratas. These Mahavratas are : truth, non-violence, Asteya, Aprigrah and Brahmacharya.
- Five Anuvrats were arranged for householder, Jain devotees. It was also like Mahavratos, but rigors of these Grahasthvratas were greatly reduced. These were (a) Non-violence Anuvrat, (b) Satyagradh Anuvrat, (c) Asteya Anuvrat, (d) Aprigrah Anuvrat, (e) Brahmacharya Anuvrat.
- Jainism believes in’Karma (work) and re-birth. The cause of human happiness and sorrows is his Karma (work, actions). Therefore, one does not get rid from the cycle of birth and death without having to accept the result of actions (Karma).
- According to Mahaveer Swami the worldly wishes of man in the household life are persistent. Therefore, he has given up this materialistic world and have been taught to
perform rigorous austerities and gain knowledge.
- Jainism has not considered God as the maker of creation. Creation is external and constant. Binded in karma bondage, one can get salvation from the physical bonds of the world only after following the path stated by the Tirthankar.
- Getting rid of the worldly pleasures and overcoming the senses and achieving salvation. Mahaveer Swami laid down these three remedies to get salvation, which later became known as ‘Triratna’. These are Samyak knowledge, Samyak Darshan and Samyak Charitra.
- Mahaveer Swami believed in the immortality of the soul. According to him there may be changes in nature but the soul is immortal and always remain the same.
- Jainism opposed religious social norms and hyprocrisy. Similarly, the Varna and caste are also not recognized (Similarly did not accept the distinction on basis of Varna and caste).
- Mahaveer Swami has described 18 kinds of bad deeds or sins, so that man should avoid them. These are : Violence, falsehood (untruth), theft, Copulation, Renunciation of ange attachment, Profit, Money scord, Backbiting, vestrai hatred, reputation false vision, treachery, censure, etc.
What is the contribution of Jain religion to the world? Explain in detail.
Contribution of Jain religion to world : Study of Jainism with different perspectives to the world is as follows :
1. Socially : Jainism has the following contribution in social terms :
- Emphasis on social equality.
- Concept of Women’s freedom.
- Concept of social service.
- Cultural co-ordination and unity of perseverance.
2. Religiously :
- Reforms on Vedic religion
- Emphasis on high moral life.
3. Philosophically : By contributing the ideas of Jainism’s knowledge theory, karmvad, Jeev-Ajeev, Syadvad and non-violence, the religion succeeded in making Indian philosophical contemplation glorious. According to knowledge theory the soul of every Jeeva is full of knowledge and the curtain of worldly life does not allow his knowledge to manifest light. So every person should understand this knowledge by removing this curtain.
4. Literally : Most of the Jain texts are written in Prakrit language, which is extremely expressive. In South India, literature was also composed in Kannada and Telugu, in which the Tamil text ‘Kural’ was written by some Jain scholars. Compositions were written by Jain saints in Sanskrit language too. The biggest importance of Jain literature is that Jain scholars enrich Indian literature through their compositions and on the other hand, they brought the spiritual thinking of India to the masses.
5. Artistically : The most important contribution of Jainism is still visible in the form of artistic monuments, statues, monasteries, caves etc.
6. In terms of environmental protection and pollution control: Mahaveera’s Jain lifestyle is the only complete solution in environmental protection and pollution control. The principle of Aparigraha is the principle of dissatisfaction of substances and wishes, short term requirements. By adopting the principles of Jainism, the earth and environment can be saved for a long period. Water and air pollution can be avoided.
Describe the major teachings of Buddhism.
Or Explain the main teachings of Gautam Buddha.
Answer: Main teachings of Buddhism : The place of Buddhism in various religions of India is extremely important. The establishment of Buddhism was also done by the noble Kshatriya Mahatma Buddha like Jainism. The major teachings of Buddhism are the following :
1. The four Noble truths are the basis of the philosophical thought of Buddhism. Gautam Buddha admitted that misery (sorrow) is in the entire world. Therefore, the person should pay attention to solve his problem. For this, he preached the following four Noble truths as
the basis of his principle : (i) Sorrow, (ii) Cause of sorrow, (iii) Sorrow prevention,
(iv) Sorrow prevention path.
2. Gautam Buddha has given 8 remedies, which are known as ‘Astangik Marg’ (eight path) to remove grief, (i) Samyak Dristi, (ii) Samyak Sankalp, (iii) Samyak vani, (iv) Samyak Karma, (v) Samyak Aajeev, (vi) Samyak Prayatna, (vii) Samyak Smriti, (viii) Samyak Samadhi.
3. Gautam Buddha has described man as the creator of his own destiny, which is not ordained by any Goddess or deity or God. This is determined by the acts performed by man.
4. Gautam Buddha told that everything in the world is changeable, temporary and dynamic.
5. Gautam Buddha gave special emphasis on speaking truth, giving charity, purity of body and mind, love, compassion, patience and ethical rules like non-violence towards all beings.
6. According to Buddhism re-birth is impossible without the existence of soul. If a person does good deeds in his life, he gets higher life in the next life. It is also bad for doing evil deeds.
7. According to Gautam Buddha, man should avoid excessive pleasures of luxuries and excessive tribulation by the hard penance of the body.
8. According to Gautam Buddha there is some reason behind the existence of everything in the world. Due to birth there is old age and death.
9. According to Buddhism, the ultimate goal of life is Nirvana or Salvation. For obtaining salvation, it is necessary to eradicate Trishna or desire. Nirvana (salvation) is a stage of perfection in which man becomes free from the bonds of birth and death,
10. In order to keep his conduct pure, Gautam Buddha emphasized the need to follow the ten rules, which are known as the ‘Ten sheel’ of Buddhism. These are : Non-violence, truth, do not commit theft, do not collect items, Brahmacharya, Renunciation of rivalry, Sacrificial substance, untimely meal, avoid soft bed, sacrifice of Kanchan-Kamini (gold).
Describe the promotion and development of Buddhism in detail.
Promotion and development of Buddhism : Gautam Buddha propagated Buddhist religion in a planned manner. He established Buddhist Sangh (union) and Buddhist monasteries to spread his views. This is the reason that during the time of Gautam Buddha and later due to Royal patronage the propagation of Buddhism was done not only in India but also in countries like China, Japan, Sri Lanka, Tibet, Burma, Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, Cambodia, Sumatra, etc.
Mauryan ruler Ashoka and Kushan ruler Kanishka also declared Buddhism as a state religion. Nalanda Vihar was the main center of Buddhism. For the development and prevalence of Buddhism, four Buddhist Councils (Sangiti) or General assembly were organized in different periods, which are as follows :
- First Buddhist Council: After Nirvana (death) of Gautam Buddha, during the reign of Ajatshatru, the first Buddhist council was organized in the Saptaparni cave at Rajgrah. The presidentship of this Buddhist council was done by Mahakashyap. In this Buddhist Cawia, the teachings of Mahatma Buddha were complied, which were divided into Suttapitak and Vinaypitak.
- Second Buddhist Council : This Buddhist council was organized during Kalashoka’s period in Vaishali in 383 BC after one hundred of years of Mahatma Buddha’s Nirvana. The aim of this meeting was to eliminate the differences among the Buddhist monks. After this assembly, the Buddhist monks association was divided into two sects Therawadi and Sarvastivadi.
- Third Buddhist Council : The third general assembly of Buddhism was organized in Patliputra in the reign of Maurya ruler Ashoka in 251 BC. The presidentship of this assembly was assumed by Mogliputta Tisya. He compiled a book titled Kathavathu,which is part of Abhidhampitak.
- Fourth Buddhist Council : This Buddhist Mahasabha (General assembly) was organized in Kundalvan of Srinagar under the rule of Kanishka. It was headed by Vasumitra. In this General Assembly the difficult parts of Buddhist texts were discussed. In this general assembly, the Buddhist religion was divided into two clear and independent sects. Hinyaan and Mahayaan.
Explain the cultural importance and contribution of Buddhism.
Cultural importance and contribution of Buddhism : Buddhism provided a new
awareness and illumination not only to India but also to the culture of the entire world. The
cultural significance and contributions of Buddhism are as follows :
(i) Contribution in the field of Religion and Philosophy : Gautam Buddha gave the entire world a simple, profound and popular religion. The rich and poor peoples could follow Buddhist religion. The lesson of non-violence and tolerance was taught in the field of religion. Gautam Buddha told the simplest way to get rid of the basic problem of sorrow.
(ii) Social harmony: Gautam Buddha gave the message of social unity by opening the door to the Buddhist union for all sections and castes. Priority was given to conduct in place of birth based Varna-system. Gautam Buddha also encouraged female equality and freedom.
(iii) Development of literature and education : A large number of Buddhist literary works were created in Pali, Sanskrit and Prakrit languages. Many Buddhist texts were translated in Chinese and Tibetan languages. Buddhist Vihar (residence of monks) and monastery (chaitya) emerged as the major centres of education. Nalanda, Taxila, Vikramshila, etc were developed as major universities.
(iv) Development of logic : Logical methods of Nililism and scientism were born in Buddhist philosophy. They have a prominent place in the world’s philosophy.
(v) Contribution in political field : Buddhist principles had a clear effect on contemporary rulers. Many kings (rulers) abandoned war by accepting the principle of non-violence and adopted the values of humanity and morality (ethics) and democratic governance system. Due to the influence of Buddhism, the kings followed mass welfare policies.
(vi) The advancement of art: Inspired by the precepts of Buddhism, many stupas, caves, Chaityas and Viharas etc.
were created not only in India but all over the world. Those who enrich the world art as well as that of India are the Sanchi, Birhut and Amravati’s Stupas, and caves of Kanheri and Ajanta, Chaityas and Viharas. These are the best examples of Buddhist art. Ajanta’s mural painting is famous in the field of painting.
(vii) Contribution to the creation of greater India : Countries out of India which were promoted by Indian culture, were called as the greater India. In this work Buddhist preachers also contributed immensely with courage and dedication. Ashoka sent Buddhist campaigners abroad. Indian culture was promoted in Asian countries like Sri Lanka, China, Japan, Burma, Tibet, Cambodia, Sumatra, Manchuria, Korea, Nepal, Malaysia, Indonesia, Mongolia etc.
(viii) Cultural relations with different countries of the world : Buddhism developed cultural relations of India with the different countries of the world. Buddhist monks of India went to different parts of the World and promoted the teachings and principles of Buddhism. Inspired by the teachings of Mahatma Buddha, many foreign travellers embraced Buddhism. Many foreign scholars came to India to study Buddhism. Fa-Hien, Hieun tsang, I-tsing etc. lived for years in India and gained profound knowledge of Buddhism.
Describe the fundamental principles of Islam.
Fundamental theory of Islam : The word Islam in Arabic language means ‘surrender’ (to Allah) and ‘peace’. The person who believes in Islam is called ‘Momin’. The fundamental revered percepts of Islam are called ‘Usool-a-Deen’, which are as follows :
1. Tauheed : Complete and unquestioning devotion to one God (Allah). Making a pact with Allah is called ‘Shirk’.
- Imagine the existence of Allah in any other or opposite way.
- Anyone else regards Allah as the equivalent.
- Anyone to be considered to be Allah’s father or son.
- Believe in someone to have the special qualities of Allah.
- The person who does ‘Shirk’ is called ‘Mushrif.
2. Risallah or Nubarat : After Allah, the most important word in Islam is ‘Rasool’ or ‘Nabi’. The meaning of ‘Rasool’ is either ‘sent’ or to be ‘sent’ with the purpose of conveying Allah’s message to people. That is the footprints of the Nabi should be followed.
3. Malaykah : Angel and messenger of god is called ‘Mahakah’ on seventh heaven, the four angels near the throne of Allah are called ‘Hamlat-Al-Arsh’. The Karibian, who worship Allah following the order of angels is Jibrail, MIrkail etc. The Quran was conveyed by Jibrail from Allah to prophet.
4. Kutubullah : The means of this word is ‘Have faith in the texts of Allah’. Those who have the books of Allah are called ‘book-makeri’ like Muslims, Christians, Jews. According to Islamic belief the Quran is pure in all of them.
5. Yoga-AZ-Kiyamah : By the time appointed by God (Allah) man lives in the ‘Al-duniya’ (world). After expiry he passes in ‘grave’ which is called the condition of ‘Barjhakh’. After this ‘Yoga-Al-Keyamah’ (Resurrection day) arrives. That is on the day of doom (The doom) all will be blessed with life and will be brought before Allah and will be sent to heaven or hell according to their deeds.
6. Al-Karda :According to Allah’s planning everything will happen and even further. This reverence is called ‘Al-Kadra’.
7. Mishak : It means ‘contract’ (Agreement) Allah makes a contract with his beloved persons. At present ‘Umnaty-Mohammadi’ means that Muslims are the contractual selected people of Allah, such is the validity of Islam.
Mention the Sacraments of Christianity.
Sacraments of Christianity : Jesus framed some rules of life which are called ‘Sacraments’. There are seven sacraments in number. Saint Augustine expresses the consecration of sacraments in the 5th century in this way. Sacrament is the prayer of internal God and glory or supernatural exhibition. In sacraments, the churches were described as symbols of Jesus and emphasized their adherence to daily life. These are following :
- Naming : This sacrament is known as Baptism. When the child becomes 3 years old, the priest sprinkles holy water and keeps his name. It is known as naming sacrament and by this sacrament the child becomes a follower of Christian religion. This is the sacrament to declare any person a Christian.
- Authentication : It is also known as ‘confirmation’ sacrament. When the child becomes 12 years old his name is publically declared. It is known as Authentication sacrament, it confirms his identity as Christian.
- The God’s meal: Jesus had his last meal with his twelve followers before his death. On this day the Christian people observe a sacred festival. All dine together.
- Atonement : According to Christianity, if a sinner confesses and asks forgiveness with the priest in front of Jesus for his sins and then turns away from the bad deeds, God forgives him. Confession or acceptance of sins and ‘penance’ completes the rite of atonement.
- Last Path : Under this a person who is dying is given a final sacred bath so that the earthly stains of his soul are removed.
- Initiation : It is also known as ordination. If a person is above the age of 18 years old and wants to become a priest, he is initiated. It is known as ‘ordination’ or initiation sacrament.
- Marriage : It this sacrament men and women enter into domestic life by accepting marital bondage.
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