Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 3 The Renaissance, Reformation Movement and Industrial Revolution in Europe
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 3 Text Book Questions and Answers
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 3 Very Short Answer Type Questions
What do you understand by ‘Renaissance’?
The atmosphere of sadness and non-enthusiasm in society to be finished and replaced by rise of new awakening and consciousness is called ‘Renaissance’.
Give two important outcomes of about the decline of Constantinople?
- With the decline of Constantinople in Europe, the trade land route of Europe with Eastern countries was cut off.
- The trade activities stopped due to which Greek intellectuals, artists and philosophers migrated to other European nations for livelihood.
Who is called the founder of Humanitarianism?
The leader of Renaissance, Professor Patrick is called the founder of humanitarianism.
Name three sculptors of Renaissance Period?
Three sculptors of Renaissance period were:
- Lorenzo Gibarti
Who is called the ‘Morning Star of Reformation’?
The main architect or reformer of reformation movement, John Wycliffe is called ‘The Morning Star of Reformation’.
Name the three write-ups of Martin Luther?
Martin Luther wrote three write-ups which are as follows :
- Address to German Feudal lords.
- The Babylonian imprisonment of God’s church.
- The liberation of Christian person.
The Renaisance, Reformation … Europe
What is the sanction of Augsburg movement?
The sanction of Augsburg movement, is to allow the protestant sect freedom of ideological practice.
What is the historical importance of reformation movement in October 1517 AD.
In 1517 AD a German Monk, Martin Luther started a movement against Catholic Church. His belief and logic was, for a person to connect with God, the Pope was not required. This movement was named reformist protestant movement.
In which country did the industrial revolution start first?
Answer: Britain was the foremost to start industrial revolution.
Write about two inventions in the field of agriculture?
- The seed sowing drill machine by Jethro Tull.
- H. Me Connie’s crop cutting machine.
Who was Ferdinand De Lesseps?
Ferdinand De Lesseps was a French Engineer, who constructed the Suez Canal in 1869 AD.
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 3 Short Answer Type Questions
What is the meaning of Renaissance ?
The literal meaning of Renaissance is to rise again from the intellectual darkness of medieval period in thought and practice. The application of this word in the society meant mental consciousness and logical thinking. Renaissance ended the medieval conservativeness and developed worldly order, independent expression, progressive economic system and nationalism. The term ‘Renaissance’ is used for all intellectual changes that came into existence at the end of medieval and beginning of modem era.
Write five reasons behind Renaissance?
In Europe the rise of Renaissance is due to following main reasons.
- The wars between Muslim and Christian world led the European inhabitants into contact with the Eastern people that created new and progressive knowledge among Europeans and with this awakening of Renaissance started.
- The occupation of Ottoman Turks in 1453 AD over Rome’s capital Constantinople made sure that Greek intellectuals and artists went to Italy. This led to Greek literature, art and philosophy spread its roots and begin the Renaissance.
- The new nations, India and America discovered by Europe helped to identify the culture in these countries. This led to awareness about Renaissance.
- Some great scientists who defined the movement of stars and planets, the paintings of artists and new scientific discoveries gave rise to the awareness of Renaissance.
- Trade activities led Europeans to improvise cultural relations with other countries and this added to contact programme that made way for new direction of Renaissance.
What is humanitarianism? Clarify.
Humanitarianism is philosophy of life in which human and his earthly life is given special importance. In humanitarianism the point of concentration to be thought by human is about human needs and aspirations. This philosophy was based on this belief that human being is able to decide himself how to take ahead the strength of ability. Humanists had shown tough stand on main difficulties in contemporary society. They raised their voice against Medieval European structure. Michelangelo, Machiavelli, Dante were the main humanistic philosophers and Petrarch was known as the father of this approach.
Why did only Italy become the centre of Renaissance ?
There were many reasons behind it:
(a) Italy was the main centre for trade. The prosperous middle class of Italy criticized the religious control there.
(b) The trading community of Italy was inspired by the culture & civilization of Asians, that’s why Italy became the main centre for Renaissance.
(c) The high living standard of the prosperous cities like Naples, Florence, Milan & Venice influenced the Europeans, because of that an intense influence was also created and it developed the feeling of Renaissance powerfully.
(d) The Turks captured Constantinople that forced the Greek artists and intellectuals to settle in Italy for their survival. They carried the ancient knowledge and literature with them. This knowledge and literature inspired, motivated & created awareness among the Europeans.
What were the immediate reasons behind reformation movement ?
The very immediate reason (cause) behind the rise of reformation movement was the sale of apology letters. The church became greedy and the officers started the business of Salvation. Pope Leo-X released the sin absolving letters, they were known as Apology letters. These letters were openly sold in the market by the Pope and it was popularized that by the purchase of these apology letters, anyone can get rid from his sins done in his life. In 1517 AD father Tetgel reached Bittenberg Germany, where Martin Luther saw him selling these apology letters. Martin Luther strongly opposed the action. Pope declared Luther as an Anti-Christian and critisised him. This incidence started the reformation movement.
What was counter reformation movement? Discuss in detail.
Europe was rapidly converted into protestant state, and one by one many areas were joining the protestant state’s concept. Then a movement was started to stop this conversion to protestant faith, and to save the Catholic church structure. A counter-reformation movement was started in favour of Catholic church structure. This movement was started as a reaction against the reformation movement that’s why the movement was popularized as counter reformation movement. The motive behind this counter reformation movement was to solve the problems arisen in the structure of church and religious principles and to stop the corruption inside the church and Christianity.
Give a brief introduction of Calvin.
Calvin was a supporter of protestant sect and he was bom in 1509 AD in France. He was the very first reformer who wanted to establish a sect of Purity, which was recognized from the whole world of Christianity. He was highly impressed by Martin Luther and adopted the protestant sect. He established Christianity in Switzerland. ‘Institute of the Christian Religion’ named book was created that proved to be the most effective holy book ever developed in the history of protestant sect. Calvin’s ideology is based on God’s wish as supreme. The people complying to Calvin sect were from trade sector. Calvinism’s propagation was initiated in Switzerland, Dutch, Netherland and Germany. In 1564 AD Calvin died.
Write about religious justice.
The establishment of religious justice took over during the reformation movement. This medium as court of justice was to restrict the growth of protestant group, trace the wavering Catholics so as to punish them and anti-religious, rebellious religious preachers were marked for tough punishment.
Write five reasons for the industrial revolution in Europe.
The reasons for industrial revolution in Europe were :
- There was enormous growth in the population of England due to which more demand for clothes grew. This is the reason the attention of British people went towards industrial productivity.
- In the 18th century, there was innovation in the fields of agriculture, manufacturing and transportation. These innovations helped in successful process of industrial revolution.
- The availability of skilled workers was the reason for industrial revolution.
- The growth in Banks gave success to the objective of industrial revolution.
- London, Africa, West Indies had growth in the exchange of trade and this led to industrial revolution.
During the phase of industrial revolution, write about the innovations in textile sector.
In the 18th century during industrial revolution, the following innovations took place.
- In 1733 AD, a weaver named John discovered the flying shuttle, this led to fast weaving of clothes.
- In 1764 AD, the native of Blackburn, James Hargreaves innovated the ‘Spinning Jenny1.
- In 1764 AD Richard Arkwright innovated a thread spinning machine named as ‘Water Frame’.
- In 1779 AD, Samuel Crompton innovated a machine named Male. This produced thread that was strong and of superior quality.
- In 1787 AD, Edmund Cartright developed power or power driven loom. This machine that was innovated could weave any type of thread automatically.
What kind of changes took place by the iron industry innovations during industrial revolution ?
In the 18th century, in the iron industry of Britain there was growth. This growth we can understand through following points:
- In 1709 AD, Abraham Derby innovated ‘Blast Furnace’, in this furnace coke was utilized. This eased the the process of melting iron elements and the work of cleaning.
- By this process iron was melted from pig iron to wrought iron that was less brittle.
- Henry Court invented Alloden Fumance and Cylindrical Mill, steam power was utilised in this for making refined metal.
- Henry Bessemer discovered a method to make steel in which purer steel was made more cheaply and quickly.
- Between 1800 to 1830 AD Britain raised the steel production four times.
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 3 Essay Type Questions
What were the reasons and results of Renaissance ?
After the culmination of ancient civilization in Greek and Rome, the medieval period began to arise. Between 13th and 16th century, some unusual circumstances occurred in Europe, about the consciousness in humans. This awakening in consciousness is called Renaissance.
In Europe the Renaissance is due to the following reasons :
- Crusade : The religious wars between Muslims and Christians led Europeans to come in contact with people from Eastern countries. They had come to know about new thoughts and new progressive knowledge that had lesser effect of church on people.
- Trade Growth : After the crusades, Europe established trade relations with Eastern countries. New cities began to rise. These cities became centre for international trade. In these places different traders and visitors regularly began to travel, this allowed exchange of thoughts. People began to argue about good and bad, this in turn gave way to independent thinking and improved the knowledge. This situation gave direction to the growth of Renaissance.
- Innovations of Paper and Printing Material: Printing material innovation opened the path for mental growth. In 1455 AD the innovation of Printing Press by Johannes Gutenberg helped the history and culture of Rome to reach each household easily. This led to the emotions of Renaissance among people.
- Turkey’s control over Constantinople : In 1453 AD after the victory of Ottoman Turks over Constantinople, Greek intellectuals, artists and philosophers for their livelihood left for other nations in Europe. They took along with diem Greek knowledge, science and new awakening pattern and this established co-ordination among Greek and Rome civilization and birth of Renaissance.
- The growth of Humanitarianism : The rise in humanitarianism made people angry about the religious control on human life. Humanitarians criticized the principles of non believers and religious zealots and to make public recivilized, gave emphasis on primitive Roman and Greek literature by which people had the inspiration for Renaissance.
- The rise of Mongol Kingdom : With the rise of Mongol Kingdom a contact emerged between Asia and Europe. Marco Polo in his travelogue has written about the prosperity of Mongol kingdom. This spread the awareness among Europeans.
The results of Renaissance : Renaissance not only influenced literature, art and science but every aspect of human life. In these circumstances the following results of Renaissance took place.
- Renaissance accorded humans an opportunity in the form of independent expressions. A person was able to express in any form in his individual capacity.
- Renaissance made humans materialistic. Victory over nature, scientific innovations and geographical findings became the objective for them.
- Scientific perspectives and logical analysis condemned the traditions and principles of medieval religious tenets and continued religious reformation
- Through Renaissance the people developed love for ancient knowledge.
- By Renaissance the power of religion became weak and as a result nationalism grew. Nationalism’s emotions drew interests about growth in nation and its progress.
Write about the role of Martin Luther in reformation movement.
Martin Luther’s birth took place in 1483 AD in Germany. His interest was in analysis of holy tenets. In 1517 AD he created ‘Ninety Five Thesis’. In 1522 AD he translated Bible in German language. Martin Luther was disappointed with the Pope’s grand, unrestricted or dictatorial type of lifestyle. In his heart he developed the feelings of revolt. Another reason was the greed of Christian Popes to collect money on account of or through the medium of apology letter from people. Martin Luther opposed this and started a movement against Catholic Church. He assured people that in order to connect with God there was no significance of Pope as a medium. He published three pamphlets containing thoughts of Martin Luther for distribution.
- Address of German Feudalistic sect: Through this pamphlet Luther sought to end the special powers of Christian Clergy.
- The Bablonian imprisonment of God’s church : By this pamphlet Luther attacked Pope and his methods.
- Liberation of Christian Faith People : In this pamphlet he explained his principles of liberation. Martin Luther gave the name to his movement as protestant improvisation.
He advised rulers of Germany, Switzerland to get free from foreign influence. Pope and Church authorities told Martin Luther to stop anti-church propaganda, but Martin Luther clarified that he could do this only when any of his thoughts is proved against religion. This way he placed belief system in place of assigned work of church. With the result the support base of Martin Luther increased. Each ruler had the choice of freedom for choosing religious faith of people. Before 1552 AD the wealth snatched by Protestants of church was recognized. This way the contribution of Martin Luther in Reformation movement was appreciable.
How did Reformation movement influence Europe?
In the 16th century the Europeans influenced by Renaissance, ran a movement against autocracy and supremacy of Pope and evil designs, blasphemy and treachery of church and this came to be known as Reformation movement. Due to improvised movement the result was religious instability and new sects came into existence. Reformation movement, affected the European people’s religious, educational, economic and moralistic activities.
The main impacts are as follows :
1. Effects on religion : With the reformation movement, in whole of Europe, the high handedness in religion or divine power of churches came to an end forever. The people affected by Protestantism or protestant path, established the Christian churches. In short, it can be said that Christian faith divided into two folds—Catholic and Protestant.
2. The Spread of Nationalist Feelings : Reformation movement’s success led to increase in power and authority of monarchs. Protestants allowed states to choose their religion independently and ended the rights of Catholic Pope. The appointment of religious officers was authorised to states. With the increase in power of states, the feeling of nationalism and patriotism began to rise.
3. Effect on Education : The religious movement for improvement led to a rapid spread of education. Societal organizations and states opened many institutions. Progressive, logic based and scientific education was given.
4. Development of language : With the reformation movement the regional languages also were recognized. Many religious holy texts, political books were written. Religious reformers created many literature based books in popular languages.
5. Effect on economy : After reformation movement the church land was distributed among agriculturist, this led to wealth of states. The ties of church were used by businessmen, to invest in trade, commerce and industries for growth and this led to importance of labour establishment and national capital increased.
6. Effect or influence on morality : Reformation movement, made people straight forward, simple, sacrificing and moralistic and educated people to live life based on humane qualities. The Protestants called the path of God as moralistic. Calvin’s followers presented straight forward and simplistic life and personal moralistic discipline as human ideal.
Explain the changes in different spheres due to industrial revolution ?
In the eighteenth century in commerce and industrial spheres there took place extraordinary changes that began from Britain and spread to whole Europe. Intellectuals gave impetus to industrial revolution. Industrial revolution influenced the economy, public transport and political system. By the industrial revolution the changes that came in different spheres are as follows :
1. Changes in the field of agriculture : Till 17th century in agriculture old traditions were brought to use, but as the population of cities rose, new industries showed growth,
farmers had to produce more food and cotton. New inventions gave birth to agricultural revolution.
At first Yorkshire landlord, Jethro Tull made drill machine for sowing seeds and this eased sowing of seeds. ‘Analysis of Agriculture’ was a magazine, through which Author Yoga gave farmers essential information regarding agriculture. In 1793 AD, American resident Withing invented a machine to separate straw from grains and in 1834 H. MacCormic of Cyrus invented crop cutting machine that led to increased production.
2. Changes in cloth industry : England started import of raw cotton from India. The cutting and weaving of cotton was done in England. In 1733 AD a weaver named John invented the flying shutde by which cloth weaving became faster. In 1764 James Hargreak invented ‘Spinning jenny5. In 1764 Richard Arkwright developed ‘Water frame’ that was cotton cutting machine.
3. New technical changes in Iron industry : Iron elements were purified as different techniques were discovered. In 1709 AD Abrahim Durby invented Blast Furnace in which foremost coke was utilized. Henry Court invented Blast Furnace by which clean and good iron became a reality to be made. Henry Bessemer quickly found techniques to produce cheaper and purer iron. Due to this result, from 1800 AD to 1830 AD England increased iron production fourfold.
4. The changes due to innovation in steam power : The steam power was first utilized in mines. To get rid of serious problem of water seepage in mines, in 1712 AD Thomson Niccoman invented a steam engine. In the steam engine more energy was consumed. In 1769, James Watt developed less costly and more effective steam engine. Due to this engine the industries received power driven energy.
5. The changes in mode of transportation : For the transportation of heavy goods to become economical, Britain constructed many canals. First canal named as Warsley canal was built in 1761 AD by James Brindley, the purpose of which was to take the coal from Warsley to the city. From 1788 AD to 1796 AD, 96 projects of canal construction were started that was called waterways. In 1869 AD, French Engineer Ferdinand T. Lesseps constructed the Suez Canal.
In 1814 AD first rail engine Stephenson’s Rocket was constructed. In 1801 AD, Richard Travithick invented ‘Puffing Devil’. In 1814 AD George Stephenson developed Rail Engine that was known by the name ‘Bulture’. With respect to inventions of transportation in 1825 AD a trails was run between Stockton and Darlington cities covering 9 miles. In 1830 AD Liverpool and Manchester were connected by a rail line.
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 3 Other Important Questions
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 3 Objective Type Questions
Where did between 1300 and 1550 AD, the new thinking of Renaissance begin ?
In which year did Turks attain supremacy ?
(a) 1554 AD
(b) 1453 AD
(c) 1428 AD
(d) 1470 AD
Who is the first innovator of printing press ?
(a) Johannes Gutenberg
Who is called the father of humanitarianism?
(a) Thomas Moore
(d) Martin Luther
Who is the author of ‘The Monarachy5 and ‘Divine Comedy 5 ?
(c) Geoffrey Chaucer
Who is given the status of Modem Chauakya among following?
(b) Thomas Moore
What was the contemporary reason behind Martin Luther’s revolt against Pope and revolt movement against Catholic Church ?
(a) Religious Orthodoxy
(b) Distribution of apology letters
(c) The interfemce of father sect in politiecs
(d) Father’s indulgent life
(b) Distribution of apology letters
The British’s industrial development period was from
(a) 1300 to 1550 AD
(b) 1760 to 1820 AD
(c) 1700 to 1740 AD
(d) 1550 to 1580 AD
(b) 1760 to 1820 AD
The main reason of England’s industrial revolution was ?
(a) Increase in population
(b) Favourable demographic conditions
(c) Broad investment capability
(d) All of these
(d) All of these
Who built the Suez Canal?
(a) George Stephens
(b) Ferdinad T. Lesseps
(c) James Bridley
(d) Thomson Nukeman
(b) Ferdinad T. Lesseps
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 3 Matching Questions
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 3 Very Short Answer Type Questions
When, by whom and why was the word ‘Renaissance’ used ?
Renaissance is the English translation of French word ‘Renaissa’, the foremost use of this word was brought to application by Italy’s Vesari in 16th century and this was meant for the changes in the art of sculputing.
Which prosperous cities were established in Italy ?
As Italy became a centre for business activities, the cities of Naples, Florence, Milan & Venice were established near sea-coasts.
Who is the founder of ‘Renaissance ?
Italy’s famous poet Dante (1265-1321 AD) is known as founder of ‘Renaissance’.
Dante’s world famous literary creation is known by which name ?
Dante’s world famous literary creation is known as ‘Divine Comedy’.
What world is called crusades ?
Between 11 to 13 century, the wars among Muslim world and Christian world were called Crusades.
By whom and when was Britain’s first printing press established ?
In Britain the foundation of printing press was laid by Cakeston in 1477 AD.
Who was Bokesiyo ?
Bokeysiyo was the disciple of humanitarianism’s fathers Petrarch. He created a book ‘Decomaron’ that was a collection of 100 stories. His second treatise was ‘Geneology of Gods’.
Who is called the father of English poetry ?
Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400 AD) is called the father of English poetry.
Which book describes religious secularism of states ?
The religious secularism of states is written in book of Machiavelli, named as ‘The Prince’.
Who produced the picture of moral society through a book named ‘Utopia’ ?
The British philosopher, Sir Thomos Moore through his book ‘The Utopia’ gave the picture of a moral society.
Who was the playwright to present a drama on Feudalism and middle-class society ?
William Shakespeare (1564-1616 AD) of Britain presented the conflict among feudal and middle-class society through his plays.
Who are the three Italian artists with full expression of feelings of Renaissance in their work of creativity ?
The feelings of full expression are found in the creativity of Leonardao Da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael.
Give two examples of blending of two arts from ancient Greek and Rome style of architecture ?
The two examples of blending of arts from ancient Greek and Rome style of architecture are Florence’s Cathedral and Saint Peter’s Church.
Who is the creator of ‘Monalisa’ and ‘The Last Super’ ?
The Last Super’ and ‘Monalisa’ were famous paintings created by Leonardo Da Vinci.
Who is the propounder of ‘Principle of Gravitational Puli’ ?
England’s scientist and Mathematician Sir Issac Newton was the propounder of ‘Principle of Gravitational Puli’.
Who is the innovator of wind measuring instrument and telescope ?
Galelio is the innovator of wind measuring instrument and Telescope.
When did the religious reformation movement begin ?
Religiods Reformation Movement began in the 16th century.
What is the meaning of Religious Reformation movement ?
In the 16th century the Europeans due to influence of Renaissance ran a movement against autocracy and supremacy of Pope and evil designs, blesphemy and treachery of church. This came to be known as ‘Reformation Movement’.
What do you understand by the term ‘ex-communication’?
During the reformation movement, in order to protect the Catholic Church from opposition, its authorities utilized a special right named as ‘Ex communication’ in which revolting Christians were banned from Christian faith and society.
What was interdect ?
Interdect was a special right through which Churches in any states could be shut down.
Who is called the ‘Morning star of Reformation’ ?
John Wycliffe is called ‘Morning star of Reformation’.
Where and when was Martin Luther born ?
Martin Luther’s birth took place in an ordinary farmer’s family in 1483 AD in Germany.
Who was Ignasius Loyola ?
Ignasious Loyola was Spain’s brave soldier. He dedicated his whole life for the Catholic church. In 1534 AD he established ‘Society of Jesus’ to counter the reformation movement.
Where did the ‘Industrial Revolution’ first begin ?
Industrial Revolution first vegan in England.
With which industry did industrial revolution begin ?
Industrial revolution began with cotton textile industry.
Who invented steam engine to take coal from mines to dockyards on rails ?
George Stephenson invented the steam engine to take coal from mines to dockyards on rails.
When and in which cities of England were the railway lines built at first ?
England’s first railway line was laid in 1825 AD between Stockton and Darlington cities.
Name the first canal of England ? When and by whom was it constructed ?
England’s first canal was named ‘Worsley’. The construction was done in 1761 by James Brindley.
Name the intellectuals who first used the word ‘Industrial Revolution’ ?
At first France’s Georges Michel and Germany’s Fredrick Engles utilised the word ‘Industrial Revolution.
Who invented ‘Blast Furnace’ in 1709 AD?
Abraham Durby invented the Blast Furnace in 1709.
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 3 Short Answer Type Questions
Write the definition of Renaissance ?
According to Henry Looks “After 13th century Renaissance and its consequences is the development of the cultural changes that had spread to Europe till 1600 AD”. According to Sabine “Renaissance is a collective expression that was used in end of Medievalage and beginning of modem age which were visible for all intellectual changes”.
As per the above given definitions it seems from medieval age to modern age, by curiosity and education the development by phases of change in ideas and knowledge of science, agriculture, industry, art, literature and culture is called Renissiance.
What was the role of Italy in the effect of Renaissance on middle class ?
Italy was the main centre of trade between Europe and Asia. By this foreign trade a prosperous middle class rose. As the middle class became powerful, the people of this class opposed feudals and Pope, and medieval religious orthodoxy was rejected. Middle class was influenced by civilization, culture and lifestyle. In this class a new awakening of renaissance was spread.
Explain the importance of Renaissance ?
Answer: Renaissance gave birth to a new thought and influenced each aspect of human life. The following is the importance of Renaissance.
- Renaissance gave humans independent expression as an opportunity by which he was able to develop the thoughts of logic and reasoning or thinking.
- The thinkers of humanitarianism accepted importance of human life and the centre of concentration of study for human became more materialistic.
- In order to spread renaissance literature was created in various regional languages. The regional languages were promoted.
- Renaissance gave birth to new demographic findings. The new sea routes discovered new countries.
- For human betterment, the scientific innovations occurred and for the classification of thoughts new methods were pondered upon.
- Renaissance celebrated beauty and aesthetics.
What impact did Renaissance have due to the occupation of Turkey on Constantinople ?
In 1453 AD after the occupation of Turkey on Constantinople, the land route with Europe and Eastern countries for trade was closed. Constantinople was a great centre for Roman civilization, culture, philosophy and art.
In Renaissance what was the role of innovations of Printing Press ?
Europeans got inspired by Arabians to learn the art of producing paper. In 1455 AD the innovation by Gutenberg of Printing Press and in 1477 AD the establishment by Cakeston of Printing Press in Britain made it easy to access the ancient Greek-Rome literature and new thoughts were made available among European public.
What was the perception of humanitarian thinkers about Renaissance?
In the philosophy of humanitarian life, special importance is given to human and his stages of life. Humanitarian thoughts are based on the belief that human being is capable to take decisions about self and improve his efficiency. Petrarch,Michelangelo, Machiavelli and Dante were Renaissance period’s main humanitarians. These humanitarians objected to spread of orthodoxy and backwardness and raised voice against Medieval European system.
Who was Leonardo Da Vinci ? Why did he become famous ?
Leonardo Da Vinci was a great painter. He was along with a painter, a sculptor, scientist, mathematician, engineer, musician and philosopher. In short, it can be said he was virtuously multi-talented. In his paintings, Last Supper and ‘Monalisa’ are famous. In ‘Last Supper’ not only Jesus Christ and his followers but various aspects of human values are seen. ’Monalisa’ is a simple looking woman’s painting in which the strange smile even today remains a mystery. In ‘Virgin of Rocks’, Leonordo drew virgin Mary and child Jesus very beautifully.
During Renaissance, what progress took place in the field of science ?
Answer: During Renaissance, people received opportunity for freedom of expression by which in human mind a new perspective took birth to have the curiosity to know the mysteries of nature. In the 16th century, new scientific principles were established. These are as follows :
- Poland’s scientist Copernicus made the heliocentric principle of solar system by which it was proved that all heavenly bodies revolve around the sun.
- German astronomer Johan Kepler verified Copernicus’ principles on the basis of mathematical proofs.
- British scientist and mathematician, Issac Newton, established the principles of gravity.
- French mathematician and philosopher, Descartes, applied trignometry in Geometry.
- Italian scientist Galeleo invented the principle of Pendulum, air measuring instrument and telescope.
Above mentioned inventions proved that science is not based on belief but overview and utilise practicality. By the inventions of scientists there were innovations in different fields and this brought the idea that world runs on self facilitated principles and not divine power.
What was the need in 16th century of religious improvement in Europe ?
Answer: Prior to 16th century, Europe had many evil practices in religious field i. e., deceit, treachery, blind faith, etc. were present. The authority of Pope was highest. Religious heads had unlimited rights and they had begun to misuse their powers.
Why was middle class disappointed by the Pope, and churches, religious rights ?
Middle class wished to invest money and produce goods on their own terms. This class wished to live a life of prosperity by the self-earned money whereas human life was controlled by church and feudals. In order to get relieved from clutches of church this class attracted humble agriculturists and labourers towards new approaches. This class revolted against the church’s amassed wealth and revolted against the thinking of church to start sea travel and loan distribution and collection. Middle class received state reservation for giving loan to states, by which they united to raise voice against religious fundamentalism.
What type of special rights were with the Pope in church ? How were these rights used ?
The office bearers of church, Pope and priests lived life of unconditional freedom, corruption and luxury. The posts of church were on sale in which the relatives of clergy received benefit. Their representatives controlled many states. By the special right named ‘Ex-communication’ any king could be removed from religion and status. By Interdect, a church from any state could be closed. These two special powers were with Pope by which both king and public were afraid of the church.
What was the reaction of intellectual class towards church ?
The faithful, humanitarians and reformist thinkers believed that Pope and clergy were themselves involved in evils and sins. Devotionist thinkers had conveyed that complete faith and devotion towards God is a path of redemption and so how could one be free from all sins merely with Pope’s blessings.
How are economic conditions responsible in religious reformation movement?
Church had amassed wealth that church office bearers utilised for their own wealthy lifestyle. States required funds for army and administration but the taxes collected by the church went to Rome. Church and their office bearers or heirarchical posts were freed from taxes. The state kings wished to have taxes imposed on church but the church priests revolted. Church imposed and collected taxes of various types from public and at the same time, church had no support or assistance for states. This reason led to revolt of people, rulers and reformists against the norms and directives of church and appealed for religious reformation.
How did Erasmus’s thoughts influence the religious reformation movement ?
Humanitarian writer Erasmus was a native of Holland. He was an intellectual and thinker of highest order. Erasmus in his writings with humourous style criticised the ignorance of priests and their hypocrisy. In 1511 AD he created a book ‘In Praise of Folly5 in which humour was shown on the preists life-style. In 1516 AD he published a new edition titled ‘New Testament’ about the pure speech of principles of Christianity.
Who was Martin Luther ? Which movement did he run against Catholic church?
Martin Luther was a German Monk. He is called the transformer of religious reforms. He was bom in 1483 AD. In 1517 AD he wrote a book titled ‘Ninty Five Thesis’. In 1522 AD, he translated Bible into German language.
In 1517 AD, into the grip of greed of money started selling an affidavit aimed to register forgiveness letters in Bittenburg. Martin Luther criticised the medium of affidavit to grab money from people and started a movement against Catholic churches. He assured the public that to get connected with God there is no need of the clergy or the Pope. This movement was called Protestant Reformation Movement.
Between whom did the treaty of ‘Augsberg’ take place ? What were the main features.
Between 1546 AD to 1555 AD in Germany, a civil war had erupted. The culmination of this civil war happened with the treaty of ‘Augsberg’ between king Ferdinand of Spain and Protestants. The main features of this treaty are as follows :
- Each state became independent to choose their religion.
- Prior to 1552 AD, the wealth snatched by protestants was given sanction or legality.
- Lutherism was given legality.
- In Catholic majority areas, Lutharists were not to be forced for conversion of religion.
- The Catholic priests had to relinquish their post if they accepted protestent ideology.
What is the principle of ‘look towards east’? Who proposed this principle ?
Answer: The ‘look towards east’ principle is the boon of Calvinism. The founder of this principle was a
supporter of Protestant sect named Calvin. Calvin wished to establish internationally recognized and acclaimed pure humanist community. He believed that God’s wish is supreme. With God’s wish everything happens. The liberation of human being is possible by God’s kindness. As the human in bom, it is certain whether that person will be liberated or not.
Who represented religious reformation movement in Britain or what was British Anglicanism.
When religious reformation movement ran in Europe, Britain also did not remain untouched by its effect. This movement of Britain was led by Kings of England. The ruler of England Henry VIII founded the Church of England. There were internal differences between Henry VIII and Pope. Henry VIII got Act of Supermacy passed and bagged the highest post of church. Britain snapped ties with Rome and Britain’s church was named Anglican. This stopped the yearly taxes sent to Pope. During the era of Henry’s descendents rule, Anglican Church became Protestant. The followers of Protestantsect participated in religious reformation. This way the religious reformation of Britain was famous as Anglicanism.
What type of decisions were taken in the Tent assembly at Italy?
In the Italy’s Tent named place, a religious Catholic assembly was organised. In this assembly reformist thinkers gave pure speech about principles of Catholic religion. In this assembly two types of decisions were taken.
(1) Principled and
(2) Reforamtion related.
In the principled decisions for speech on Bible, the rights remained with the church. All values were considered as unchangeble. Pope was accepted as Church’s supreme authority and common speech also was considered. In the reformative alternatives the buying of church posts was given up and the priests were advised to live moralistic lives. They were arranged to attain necessary and significant education. Regional languages got recognition and forgiveness or apology letter sales was stopped and spiritual salvation was based on moral values and activities. A ban was placed on economic benefits for the church.
What influence did economic growth had on religious reformation movement ?
Answer: Religious reformation movement led economic growth on the path by which the following reforms took place.
- Growth in the field of trade and finance.
- The land of church was distributed among agriculturists, the states’ authority increased.
- The investment of traders money developed the growth of industry.
- The growth in national reserves resulted.
- The importance of labour got established, their utility was meant for nation’s industrial growth.
Give the meaning and major definitions of Industrial Revolution ?
When in industries new techniques, new scientific methods, new machines, more investment and labour was employed for expected increased productivity with large profits is achieved, it is called Industrial Revolution.
Definition of Industrial Revolution : According to Davis, “The literal meaning of Industrial Revolution is about those changes that made it possible than human would give up or sacrifice the ancient methods of production so that in broad form in plants, the goods would be produced more cheaply and quickly.”
Encyclopedia of social sciences section eight says, “Economic and technical growth that had in 18th century became more powerful and fast, the result of which is birth of modernized industrialisation, this is called Industrial Revolution.
What were the difficulties before Industrial Revolution in iron industry ?
In England coal, lead, copper, tin and minerals were available in surplus, but but till 18th century the purposeful identity of iron was not known. For the purpose of industrial growth the demand of iron could not be fulfilled. The ancient system of iron extraction was labourious and costly. By iron melting the minerals of iron gave pure liquified element form. By iron ore extraction, the seperation of complete iron was difficult. The machines made of iron were heavy and they used to get rusted.
In order to overcome such difficulties, Industrial Revolution allowed discovery of many techniques by which the iron and steel industry underwent a revolution.
What were the negative results of the Industrial Revolution’s ?
Answer: The following are the negative results of Industrial Revolution
- With the opening of industrial units or plants, people began to migrate towards cities by which farmers’ land was occupied by landlords.
- In search of employment, rural people came to cities and the population increased by which the problems of home, health, cleanliness and drinking water developed more.
- Industry owners gave work to ladies and children so as to begin their exploitation.
- Due to Industrial Revolution, small scale industry was destroyed. The raw materials began to get absorbed quickly in industries.
- With the innovations in machines many labourers became unemployed.
- The labourers of industrial regions lived in bad atmosphere, polluted environment, bad colonies due to which many epidemics i. e., plague, cholera, tuberculosis began to spread.
- With the things of luxury produced in large quantity, people became pleasure seeking and used intoxicating things like liquor by which their moral decline occurred.
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 3 Essay Type Questions
Explain the meaning and definition of Renaissance and describe its characterisitics.
Meaning of Renaissance : The reawakening or the rebirth or be alive. This word has come from the French langauge word ‘Renissa’. In the 16th century beginning, Europeans in Medieval age, brought alive the inactive and almost dead ancient Roman and Greek civilization, the same is known as Renaissance.
Definition of Renaissance
1. The French historian, Julian Michilet indicates about two attributable techniques—
‘World discovery and Human Discovery’. World discovery refers to fifteen and sixteen century geographical achievements wherein Atlantic, Pacific and Indian ocean opened up for trade and people of old world were introduced to new world of America and South Africa and Australia. With respect to Human Discovery the part of that human power was taken, by which he rejected Medieval ideology and settled for developmental and creative insight.
2. In the words of Sabine, “Renaissance is a collective expression, the utility of which began at the time of end of medieval period and beginning of contemporary phase, introspective of all mental changes.
3. Fisher has written ‘Humanitarian movement beginning in the field of religion for new vision establishment and new forms of art, paintings, development of humanistic. principles, scientific visions and innovation of printing, press, etc. specialities or characteristics in collective form is called cultural Renaissance. This is clear from the following outcome that Renaissance was such an intellectual and exemplary cultural movement in which human was freed from medieval bindings or bondages towards freedom of thinking.
The characteristics of Renaissance : Following are the characteristics of Renaissance.
- Humanitarianism : The main characteristic of Renaissance was ‘Humanitarianism’. The meaning of Humanitarianism is—“Take interest in human life, introspect the human difficulties, respect humans, accept the importance of human life and strive to improve life, make it prosperous and elevated. Life is to be ascertained. Petrarch was founder of humanitarianism.
- Independent thinking or Freedom in thinking: In this era many thinkers opposed the tendencies of ignorance and presented the thought that to accept any word or expression, before that human should use his mind. This way independent thinking of mental powers as a prospect in the age of Renaissance is an important characteristic.
- Scientific reasoning : In the age of Renaissance, the enactment of thoughts by a technique or scientific reasoning was adhered to. The transformation by scientific consciouness is mentioned by ‘Francis Bacon’ (1561-1626 AD) in a prominent manner.
- Worship of still beauty : In the Renaissance period, the literature and arts dwelt on worship of still beauty. The humanitarian effect on the art and literature of this period is exactly depicted. Till then in art and literature the expectations of beauty and love was not reached. The presentation of beauty was given place in arts.
- Progress of arts : Construction of artistic buildings, sculptoures, music, painting and designing, etc. developed in this period. The two cities of Italy, ‘Florence’ and ‘Venice’ took the leading painting, sculpture and established art.
- The development of national languages : Renaissance gave repute and respect to the speaking of interactive language of people and through the medium of these languages, very quickly knowledge could be attained and thoughts could be expressed with ease.
The period between 13th and 16th century was the period of Renaissance in Europe. Prove this.
Or Which circumstances in the human mind gave birth to the perceptions of Renaissance ?
The beginning of medieval era in Europe started with the extinction of Roman and Greek civilizations. In the medieval period, church had full control over religious and social life. The atmosphere of traditions, exploitation by clergy, royal misrule and disappointment were there. In such environment in 13th century some circumstances took birth that brought changes in the human thoughts. In such circumstances, human began to give importance to ideals and values that were earlier considered negligible. The circumstances were as follows :
- Faith towards Materialistic World : During this era, in place of divine or heavenly form the faith towards materiatistic world increased. In human life, the interference and control of religion was opposed. In place of religious congregation, the invididual independence and confidence of people developed.
- Growth of Humanitarianism : In this era, the importance of human life was accepted. According to humanitarianism the objective of life was not to serve God or military achievement but to work for people’s good. Humanitarianism made humans a centre for concentrated right thinking.
- Importance of discussion : The mental consciousness of human received concordance that developed the thoughts of discussion and thinking. With the growth of humanitarianism, the human being got chance to express independently on the wrong doings of religion and society that started the arguments.
- Experience of nature’s beauty : The renunciation of holy books and leaving behind spirituality, human accepted the zest and truth of nature’s beauty, wonderful human love and worldly happiness and worshipped lasting beauty.
- Worldly perspective : Trade connected European residents with people of other countries. There Europeans become worldly while coming in contact through dress sense living habits and culture of other countries. Intellectuals, litterateurs and artists emphasised on the objectives of making human existence purposeful and beautiful.
- Scientific Perspective : By scientific perspective and thoughtful discussion the traditions of Medieval religious books were criticized. In place of ignorance the birth of scientific perspective took place.
- Mental Perspective : The intellectual class tested the belief and popular customs of austerities as important topics of discussion. In connection with religious beliefs and traditions people began to discuss and argue. The above given circumstances in Europe motivated and inspired Renaissance.
What type of literature was created during Renaissance era ?
Or What progress was made by Renaissance era in the field of literature ?
Or What kind of Renaissance in Europe was presented by Medieval litterateurs’ creativity ?
Before Renaissance in Europe, the creation of literature in East Europe was in Latin and Greek languages. Regional and native languages had less importance. By the innovation in 1455 AD of Johnannes Gutenberg in Germany of Priming Press, the native langauges were used in creating literature. The French, Spanish, Portuguese, German, English, Dutch, Swedish and other, regional languaghes developed. The literature of Renaissance era had the following specialities.
- The main theme of literature was church.
- In place of religious themes the importance was given to human life and activities.
- Literature first criticized then developed humanitaranism and individualism.
The Litterateurs in the Renaissance period by their creativity criticised the existing wrong doing, feudel exploitation and economic decline.
During Renaissance period the following books were created.
- Divine Comedy : This book is the creativity of Dante, a native of Florence, in which Christian stories and religious holy books are discussed.
- The Monarchy : This book is another treatise by Dante. It is about Italy’s unification under the leadership of Holy Roman Empire.
- Bitano : This is another creativity of Dante. It is a collection in the form of long songs.
- Decomeron : This is the best creation of humanitarianism’s founding father Petrarch’s disciple Bokesiyo. This is a collection of hundred stories. His second creation is Genealogy of God.
- ataguvale and Gargentua : From the thinking perspective, these texts created by Rabies are quite important.
- Canterbury Tales : This is the work of father of English Poetry, Geoffrey Chaucer in which Saxon language’s artistic use is there. In Chaucer’s creation, there is description of worldly things, the drawbacks or infirmities of human and his behaviour.
- Utopia : In the work of Thomas Moore, the imagination of moralistic societies is done in which societial wrongs and weak economic structure is shown.
- In the Praise of Folly : In this book by Erasmas of Holland, the humour is shown about Feudal life in Medieval age.
- Defender of Peace : In the sphere of political thinking, the work of France’s Marcigilyo criticizes the political interference in an individual’s life.
- The Prince : Machiavelli wrote this book apart from thinking and religion. In this book the religious principles are covered or called upon to be executed.
Other than these books, great poet and narrator of story and dramatist, William Shakespeare has presented the conflict in stories or dramas i. e., Merchant of Venice, Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, Macbeth between Feudal and Medieval society. Edmond Spencer’s Fairy Questionueen; Christopher Marlow’s Creativity, ‘Taimur Lung’, ‘Great’, ‘Award’, ‘The Zoo of Malta’ and in Dr. Foster nationalism and materialism get reflected.
In this way, Renaissance period was the period of literary creativity by which Europe’s literature became the source of inspiration for human development.
Explain from 14th to 17th century the progress in the field of arts in Europe.
From 14th to 17th century in Europe remained the period of Renaissance. In this period in each sphere of art, after sacrificing the ancient traditions a new and independent style developed. Freed by the ties of art, religion became idealist. In place of religious form of art, it became individualistic. In this age of art, the life of steady beauty reflected life and natural art.
1. Painting : During the phase of Renaissance in the field of painting a miraculous development occurred. In place of sadness and joylessness the painting became lively and attractive. In this, nature and common people got place. The main painters of this era are described as follows :
- Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) : He was a great painter. He was native of Florence.
His calibre or potential was multifaceted. He was a scientist, mathematician, musician, philosopher and painter. In order to give realistic touch to his paintings he deeply analysed or understood the human body. His topmost and best creation is ‘Monalisa’ & ‘The Last Supper’. .
- Michelangelo (1475-1520 AD) : His name is immortalised among the illustrious painters of the period. He was along with an artist a sculptor, architect, engineer and poet. In the field of painting, his wonderful or remarkable contribution was the Pope’s palace in Vatican, Sistine chapel a 6000 sq. ft. beautification of the ceiling frescores by painting.
- Rafael (1483-1520 AD) : Rafael was a great painter of this period. The paintings of Rafael are world famous for being lively and beautiful. His paintings show motherly heartfelt beauty and children’s mind touching loving form. His best creativity is Jesus Christ’s mother Maddona’s painting.
2. Sculpture Art: The idealist natural art beginning in Italy can be seen in sculpting art. The names of Lorenzo, Giberti, Donatello, & Michelangelo in the field of sculputure is specially admirable.
- Giberti (1378-1455) : He was a great sculptor. He constructed Florence church’s beautiful gate, this was said while praising the creativity by Angelo “This gate is fit to be placed at the gate of heaven.”
- Donatello (1386-1466 AD) : He was a famous sculptor. The fifteen feet idol of Peita built by him is known as the best work of sculpting.
- Michelangelo : He was a famous sculptor and painter. It can be judged or understood through his most great painting ‘Last judgement’ that human is engulfed in fear and danger and there is no hope of God’s love and kindness.
Which reasons gave birth to religious reformation movement in Europe ?
Medieval Europe was entrapped or gripped by many evils i.e., orthodoxy, ignorance and blasphemy, etc. In the 16th century, the people were influenced by Renaissance in order to end religious orthodoxy of Pope and began a movement against autocracy and supermacy of Pope, blasphemy and treachery of church. This came to be known as religious reformation movement.
- The influence of Renaissance : The Renaissance led to rise of mental thinking. This gave the power of independent thinking or by this thinking power the people in Europe opposed the interference of church and broke the chains of ignorance to have improvement in religion.
- The influence of humanitarianism : Humanitarianism attracted many followers towards Catholic church. This thinking pattern did pure explanation of Christian religion and criticized the existing evils for the religious reformation path to be shown.
- The existing wrongdoing under church : The church officials on the sale of posts in church gave their relatives the benefits of post. The law of the state was not applicable on the churches. The priests of church were exempted from paying taxes. Pope believed himself to be king of Christian world. The pope had special right named ‘Ex-communication’ and ‘Interdect’ by which he controlled the state and religion. King and public both remained fearful of church. These evils or wrongdoings developed agitated minds among rulers of states. The result was that the religions reformation movement began.
- The public exploitation by church : Church used to extract many kinds of taxes from people. The wealth was extracted in the name of religion and church had become a wealthy organisation. This way European farmers and common people revolted against the taxes levied by the church.
- The unlimited wealth of church : The church had wealth beyond limits. Church did not pay any taxes to state. Kings had to bear the expenses of war and administrtion for which money was required but church did not support or assist the state in any form. Due to this, the state kings went against church. The result was that they supported religious reformation movement.
- The ambitions of middle class : During Renaissance period with the growth in trade and rise of nationalistic states, Europe had a new middle class resurgence. The middle class to fulfill their ambitions, revolted against popular orthodox traditions only to begin the religious reformation movement.
- The interference of Pope in politics : Pope by his special rights believed himself to be above ruling system and law. Pope misued his powers in the states political work. By these reasons the king became opposed to the supremacy of church and came out with followers of religious reformation movement.
- Worldly Process : Devotees, humanitarians and reformers, intellectuals and thinkers through logic began to revolt against the Pope and clergy for immoral, corrupt and luxurious life. Pope declared them anti-religious by which religious reformation movement was strengthened.
- Sale of apology letters : Pope and priests in order to collect money from public in their greed sold the apology letters to the common man (The letter to get rid of sins).
- The development of scientific approach or perspective : Practical use and training of new scientific system opposed the feudal and orthodox concept of universe and human growth.
Who were main reformers of religious reformation movement ? What was their role in this movement ?
In the sixteenth century when people of Europe revolted against the wrongdoing, orthodoxy and backwardness; their movement was supported by many social reformers. They sharp criticized Church and priests and declared the Bible to be the true direction giver or path guidance to religion and salvation.
- John Wycliffe : He criticized the orthodoxy of Christian church and inspired the common people to lead life according to Bible. Wycliffe was a progressive thinker. He left an impresion by his ideology on the common man. This is why he is known as ‘The morning star of Reformation’. He advocated the state rights on Church’s property.
- John Hans : John Hans was influenced by WyclifFs ideology. He believed that faith in
the Bible would liberate the person and there is no need to obey the pointless dictates of the church. He also inspired people to deny the commandment or orders of Pope. With the result he was declared athiest and was burnt alive.
- Sevonaola : They believed that religious head must be moralistic in life, simple and chaste and not given to luxuries. Pope stopped them from criticizing the clergy and church. On ignoring the orders of Pope they were given death sentence.
- Erasmus : Holland based humanitarian writer Erasmus was popular for his humour in his creative work ‘In Praise of Folly’. Erasmus in his writing with humourous style criticised the priests’ ignorance and hypocracy. In 1516 AD he published a new title as an edition of ‘New Testament’ about the pure speech of principles of Christainty.
- Martin Luther : Martin Luther was a German monk. In 1517 AD he started a revolt movement against the sale of apology letters, this is called movement against Catholic churches or protestantism. He made people believe that to get connected with God there is no need of the clergy. Getting inspired by this thoughts, churches in Germany and Switzerland snapped ties with Pope and Catholic church. In 1546 AD this famous religious reformer died.
- Svengali : Idealistic and humanitarian thinker, Svengli was born in 1484 AD. He opposed Pope and declared the Bible as the only guideline for humans. In 1525 AD he established reformist church. He compromised with the church opposition thoughts later and set the tradition on easy worship mode for Christians.
- Calvin : Calvin was bom in 1509 AD in France and he was a supporter of Protestantism. According to Calvin the wish of God is highest. Everything happens according to God. God’s graciousness leads to liberation. He created a book titled ‘Institutes of the Christian religion”. This book proved to be the most influential in the history of protestantism. All these reformers influenced people by their thoughts and creativity by which efforts for religious reformation as a demand gained height and as a result religious reformation took place.
What was counter-reformation movement, explain the factors that made this movement successful.
The meaning of counter-reformation movement: The atmosphere prepared people for Renaissance and in that to draw reforms or improvement in Catholic church, people like Wycliff and Hans raised voice for which they were punished. Pope and religious officers were absorbed in luxuries and entravagance. When Luther and Calvin revolted for the Catholic church the question of survival arose. When in Europe one after another states of Protestants were constituted so to save the Catholic church and stop Protestant movement, some positive remedies were done or performed. This reformist remedy began to be seen as a ‘Reformation movement reaction’. This was called counter-reformation movement.
The main steps to make the counter reformation movement successful were :
1. The gathering of Tent (Council) : In the Northern Italy’s place named Tent, Catholic religious gathering was organised. In this gathering many reformist thinkers were called to give pure lecture about the principles of Catholic religion. In this gathering two types of decisions were taken—Related to principles and related to reforms.
In the reformative solutions the sale of redemption letters in church was stopped. The priests were directed to remain in their work zone and live an idealistic moral life. The arrangements were made to give progressive education to the clergy.
2. Religious Court (Acquisation court) : The religious court was established to stop the spread of protestants and trace the wavering catholics, punish them and the rebellious arthist propagators be given toughest punishment.
Society of Jesus was established in 1534 AD. The establisher of this society was ‘Ignasius Loyala’. After the successful stint in training, they were given responsibilities and positions of priests, doctors, diplomats, Educationist, etc. The members of this organisation had to be disciplined and perform selfless service, live an austere and pure life, and to obey the religion, they had to take the pledge to support the Pope. The members of this organisation were sent to India, China, America and other countries to propagate the Catholic faith.
What were the reasons of Industrial Revolution to occur foremost in England ?
Or Why did Industrial Revolution take place in England only ?
In England the industrialisation occurred first. The start of Industrial revolution began due to following circumstances:
- Abundance of mineral rich areas : In England the coal and iron mines were in abundance. Their utilisation was nearly in all types of industries. The raw material localities were established wherein raw material was available on cheaper rates.
- Vast Colonial Empire : Britain had a vast colonial Empire. For example, India was also England’s colony. The raw materials cotton and indigo were sent from India to Britain and the finished goods were prepared by British factories and sold in International market at huge profits.
- Increase in Population : Due to increase in population, the labourers and skilled manpower were avaialble in abundance. Factories and mills were opened by which the population of cities increased and people began to get employment as workers in factories.
- The local authority market not to interfere in system : From 17th century the three parts of England, i. e., England, Wales and Scotland were ruled by one King. In the entire state one law system, one monetary system and one market system existed. In this market there was no interfemce of local authority and no tax could be levied on the material that passed through the area.
- The utility of money in exchange form : Till the 17th century the utility of money was in exchange or barter form. People stated to take earnings instead of things into money form or currency. People were required to spend money and sell goods through the necessary market. In this way market growth occurred that was an important means or concern for industrial revolution.
- The growth of Bank system : In Britain the growth of banks took place. In 1694 AD the Bank of England was established. This bank was the centre of Financial system. In England till 1784 AD there were more than 100 regional banks through which people could get loans to run set up industries.
- Political stability : In Britain from 17th century the period of political stability began. In whole of Britain the rule of one king, one law system, one market system kept control on production and sales.
- Favourable Geographical situation : A major portion of Britain lay on the shores of sea and this was quite beneficial for the cotton industry. This is the reason that textile industry began in England for the first time.
- Agricultural Revolution : In the 18th century England passed through the phase of Economic change that is called agricultural revolution. In accordance to this, big landlords captured or grabbed the land of small farmers and public land, by which production increased but landless farmer, shepherds and cattle owners went to cities in search of employment.
- Scientific inventions : In 18th century there were many scientists, who made useful inventions in the field of agriculture, processing, textiles, transport and other fields. These inventions helped in success of Industrial Revolution. Other than these the invention of steam power further accelerated the Industrial Revolution.
What were the main reasons behind industrial revolution ?
The Industrial Revolution in England occurred due to the following reasons.
- The Political conditions of England : The ruling system or pattern of England’s parliament was so stable that the peace in the country could not be made unstable by any ups and downs.
- Renaissance and geographical discoveries : Due to renaissance the people were filled with new energy and enthusiasm that flowed through them. The result of renaissance was that Europeans came in contact with other countries. In different continents, new colonies were settled and with these colonies the trade and commerce began. The invention of machines and instruments was significant for large scale production. In this way renaissance became the indirect reason for industrial revolution.
- Increase in Population : As and when the population of Europe increased, the problem of livelihood also increased. In this way people began to do other work other than agriculture and trade. With the growth of population the purchasing power or demand for daily needs increased. The rise in demands led to the grounds for Industrial Revolution.
- Colonial Competence : Each country in comparison to other countries wishes to be supreme. This was a type of competition. Extension of colonial empire was the direct result of competence. The colonial empires used the availability of raw material and consumption of finished goods to assist in Industrial Revolution.
- The increase in living standards : As the people received facilities, their living standard developed. The growing demands pushed the industrial growth.
- The establishment of colonies : New geographical discoveries inspired the establishment of colonies in European countries. In order to reach these colonies the European countries had to develop the transport facilities. The raw material was made available by colonies and the market was provided for finished goods. In this way, the colonial establishment helped in Industrial Revolution.
- Cheap Labour : The agrarian system was changed. Due to this change, the work of agriculture was done on large machines. Many unemployed agriculturists in villages were bound to do labour in cities. They were ready to work on low remuneration. As a result, cheap labour was easily available. People in order to establish industry and factories got special concessions.
- The natural resources of Iron and Coal: The way iron is required to construct or build new machines and new instruments in the same way power is required to run industrial mechines. This power can be obtained from coal. In England there were big natural, reserves of iron and coal that were a lifeline for industry. These resources played an important role in the growth of Industrial Revolution.
Explain the meaning and definition of Industrial Revolution and co-relate it with the change brought by revolution in Britain.
On account of renaissance and religious reformation movement in Europe, the materialistic thinking increased and due to this there was remarkable growth in commericalisation and industrial establishments. This growth affected the economic, social and political spheres of system.
Meaning of Industrial Revolution : The term Industrial Revolution was used by European intellectual of France ‘Georges Michel’ and Germany’s ‘Cedric Engels’. The use of this word in English was utilized by philosopher and economist ‘Arnold Toynbee’ to explain the changes that led to industrial growth between 1760 AD and 1820 AD in England. Definitions of Industrial Revolution : Different historians have given different definitions for Industrial Revolution.
- According to G.W. Southgate “Industrial Revolution was change in industrial system in which in place of handicrafts the work was taken from power-backed or controlled instruments and the change in industrial organisation was there. In comparison to running of industry in home the work shifted to industries”.
- According to C.D. Hagen “The mechanisation of cottage industry is Industrial Revolution.”
- According to Davin, “The meaning of Industrial Revolution is about changes that made possible that human sacrifice ancient or primitive methods of production for wide ranging mass production of articles or things from industries.
By the industrial revolution the following changes took place in Britain.
- Handcraft and cottage industries were replaced by machines.
- For the operation or control of machines in place of water power, steam power, fossil fuel and hydroelectric power was utilised.
- For the fulfillment of steel demand, the steel plants were opened.
- Agriculture became commercialised. In the agriculture work machines were utilised.
- The utility of capital increased and banking system developed.
- Loans, human labour and minimum production principle was introduced or adopted.
- Organised trade systems were developed to increase international trade.
- For the growth of transport facilities, rail engine and instrument driven vehicles or ships were utilised.
What were the results of Industrial Revolution ? Explain.
Industrial Revolution had both positive and negative results. On the one hand the production and trade experienced extreme growth, and on the other cottage industry sector was marginalised and people had to migrate towards cities. The results of Industrial Revolution can be divided into four main categories :
(A) Economic results
- By the use of Machines the production became faster and thus the workers had enough spare time on their hands. The saved time was utilised in other activities.
- The goods produced by machines were cheap and lasting due to which cottage industries received a setback and handmade goods declined.
- Banking system developed and there was growth in export import trade. As a result, the inter-dependence of countries grew.
- With the surplus production against requirement, economic balance was established.
- Big industrialists started investing in technology and production methods. As a result, the industrial capitalism grew.
- With the growth of industries and migration of rural population, the large cities were developed.
B. Social results
- With the production of luxury goods the moral values of people declined.
- In order to get employed the rural population migrated towards cities and lost the joint family status.
- The society was divided into parts, (1) Owner of the factory, (2) Labour class. The differences between rich and poor deepened.
- Social unevenness increased, the human relations slid down. Industrailists became richer day by day and labourer more poor.
- In the industrial areas the polluted environment of labourers, and unhygienic conditions of living resulted in spurt of many epidemics.
- By the innovation of machines much of the labour force turned idle and this led to increase in unemployment.
C. Political Results :
- With the improvement in infrastructure, the demand for democracy in people increased. People were economically self-sufficient and this reason led to their interference in politics.
- Industrial Revolution promoted imperaliasm and colonolism. In the world, tension and stress increased and humanity had to face the first and second world wars.
D. Thought Patterns Results
- Industrial Revolution gave birth to economic imperialism.
- Industrial Revolution gave birth to socialism. Every category in society received opportunities of employment.