Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 4 Development of Nationalism in the World
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 4 Text Book Questions and Answers
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 4 Very Short Answer Type Questions
Which civilization flourished amongst the original inhabitants of the American continent?
- Aztec civilization
- Mayan civilization
- Incan civilization.
When is the American Independence Day celebrated?
American Independence Day is celebrated on July 4.
Name the treatise authored by Rousseau.
The Social Contract.
What is meant by Estates Generale?
The representative assembly during the reign of French monarchs was called Estates Generale. It included the elite class, clergy, intellectual and commoner class.
What was Palerma?
The institution that registered laws during the reign of French monarchs was called Palerma. It was equivalent to High Court.
What is meant by ‘Tennis Court Oath’?
On 20 June 1789, the members of the commoner class of France took an oath to stay on the Tennis Court till the country’s new constitution was made. This is called the ‘Tennis Court Oath’.
Between whom was the Treaty of Concorde signed? When was it signed?
The treaty of Concorde was signed between Napoleon Bonaparte and the Pope in 1801.
What is meant by ‘Order in Counsel’?
It was kind of order issued by England in which it was directed to put an embargo and blockade of countries supporting Napoleon, and to capture and destroy their ships.
Mention the essential elements of an ideal state as put forth by Indian scholars.
These elements are :
Which were the sequential treaties in the political unification of Germany?
- Treaty of Gestine (14 August 1865),
- Treaty of Prague (23 August 1866), Frankfurt Treaty (26 February 1871).
Who founded ‘Young Italy’ and when?
Young Italy was founded by Mazzini in 1831.
What is meant by the policy of ‘blood and iron’?
It means the policy adopted by Bismarck according to which he aimed at unifying Germany through military power under the leadership of Prussia.
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 4 Short Answer Type Questions
What is meant by Continental System?
The French ruler Napoleon Bonaparte made a new plan to subjugate England in the economic field. This was the Continental system. Napolean wanted to weaken England through this plan in the sphere of trade and commerce. He believed that if British trade was stopped, it would force them to make a treaty. In order to make the plan a success, he worked sternly in a planned way. He hoped that after the decline of British trade due to trade embargoes, the trade and commerce of France could become strong and dominant and France would become the centre of trade and commerce in Europe, in place of England. However, the continental system proved fatal for France.
How did the organisation named ‘ZoUverin’ prove useful in the political unifiction of Germany?
The organisation named Zollverin was very helpful in the political unification of Germany. In 1818, Prussia made a treaty named ‘octroi union’ with the small states of Schwarzburg and Sonderschossan, that was named Zollverin. By this treaty, goods began to be transported freely between these states. Also levy of octroi between them was abolished that helped trade develop considerably. Initially, other German states did not take interest in this economic cooperation, but gradually, they realised the importance of this economic policy, and forgetting mutual discords, almost all states joined this union by 1834. In this way, this economic strategy ended regional feelings and strengthened Imperialist leadership.
‘Clarify the concept of religion (pharma).
The word ‘Dharma’ has its roots in the Sanskrit root verb ‘Dhri’, which means ‘to adopt’ or ‘to accept’. In this, a person adopts such ideals as forgiveness, compassion, truth, knowledge, not stealing, not to store more than one needs, not be angry etc.
‘I am the revolution. I ended the revolution’. How relevant and true are these words spoken by Napoleon?
The rise of Napoleon in France was a result of those circumstances which emerged during the period of the French Revolution. Napoleon, in accordance with the sentiments that were born in the French Revolution, made several educational reforms. He divided education into primary, secondary and higher sections. He separated religion from education. The church and clergy were put under the authority of the state. He gave equal opportunity to all, respected talent and provided equality in employment.
The principle of equality before the law was enforced. Napoleon formulated the law code and included the best laws in it. However, Napoleon adopted an imperialist policy and ignored the principles of sovereignty of the people and democratic tenets. He took away the political rights of the people of France. He spent the money earned by the toil of people in luxuries, gave privileges to his suporters and his kin. On the basis of these facts, it can be said that Napoleon’s statement ‘I am the Revolution and I have ended the Revolution’ is not completely true and relevant.
Describe in brief the major republican political parties that were formed during the French Revolution.
The major republican political parties formed during French Revolution were the following :
Zirondist Party: Most of the leaders of this party were natives of Zirond provincs of France. The leaders of this party were idealist, republican and enthusiastic, but they locked experience and were impractical. In 1791, in spite of obtaining a majority in the administration, this party was defeated by the Jacobian Party. The main leaders of this party were Brisson and Madam Roland.
Jacobean Party : The members of this party were extreme republicans and more practical. This party established the rule of terror to protect the republic. The major centre of this party was Paris. This party aimed at establishing the republic of good qualities in France. The main leaders of this party were Dante, Robbespierre, Members of the Jacobian Party Haber and Mara etc.
Express your opinion about the American War of Independence.
The American War of Independence was the most influential event to have affected the world in the 18th Century. America was declared independent on July 4, 1776. While considering the form of American war of independence, it becomes clear that it was not a revolt against any feudal system, poverty or economic exploitation. Instead, it was a struggle for the natural right of man’s inherent freedom. The American people, taking England’s ruling policies to be an assault on their freedom, came together, revolted and got success. Economic and commercial reasons were also behind the declaration of independence. The trader class and the middle class also actively participated in this struggle.
According to Carl. L. Baker, this revolution was a conflict between the economic interests of the colonies and Britain.
Describe the major Aztec civilization of America’s original inhabitants.
The Aztecs were a major community of Mexico. The Aztec people came from the north and settled in the central valley of Mexico in the twelfth century AD. The Aztecs wee a class-based society. In the elite class were included the high-born people, priests etc. The elite class elected a supreme leader from amongst themselves, who remained a life-long ruler. The warrior, elite and priestly classes were accorded the greatest respect. The main deity of the Aztecs was ‘Maxilli’. Mexico was named after it. The palaces and pyramids built by the Aztecs were very beautiful and grand. Gold and silver were used in their construction. These people sent their children to school. The children of elite class were trained to become army officers and religious leaders. In this civilization, the king was the supreme authority. The sun was also worshipped as a god. This community considered its entire terriory under public ownership.
What was the effect of the arrival of Europeans on the original inhabitats of America?
The arrival of Europeans had a great effect on the original inhabitants of America. When the natives came into contact with the Europeans, it proved quite harmful to them. The Europeans not only displaced the natives from their territories but also destroyed their culture, lifestyle, cuisine, thoughts and behaviour, religious faith etc. The Europeans brought with them many diseases like chicken pox, small pox, influenza, bubonic plague etc. which infected the nativ 2 population and their numbers declined rapidly. Wars, violence, exploitation, killings;, displacement, disintegration and massacres left the natives in a minority. The natives were forced to live in a very small territory. The Europeans separated the natives from the whitte settlements. In this way, due to the mental and physical cruelties perpetrated by the Europeans, the natives of America reached the verge of extinction.
Why is Napoleon called ‘Second Justivian’?
Napoleon Bonaparte changed the map of Europe by establishing the absolute rule of France over the entire continent. He made many important reforms in France. He formulated a code of law. He absolished all irrelevant and outdated laws and made laws that suited the French system. While making these laws, importance was given to equality, religion, tolerance, morality, discipline, patriotism, joint family system and individual right to property. All were accorded equality before the law. The was no social, political or religious discrimination in his law code. This code, based on common sense and experience is considered to be a great contribution of Napoleon. Justivian had also made similar reforms. That is why Napoleon is called ‘Second Justivian’.
Describe the major organisations that helped in Italy’s unification.
The major organisations that contributed towards Italy’s unification were the following :
- Young Italy
(i) Carbonneirri organisation : Secret organisations were formed at many places is Italy. Carbonneirri was a major organisation among these. It was founded in Naples in 1810. This organistion had these goals :
(a) to derive the foreigners out of Italy
(b) to unify Italy as an integrated nation
(c) to establish a republic in Italy
(d) to ensure that the struggle for independence be carried out only by Italians.
What is meant by ‘Red Coats’ organisation?
The ‘Red Coats’ organisation was a patriotic organisation founded by the pioneering republican leader of Italy, Garibaldi. It was through the strength of this group’s soldiers that Garibaldi entered Sicily and defeated the army of Naples. When Garibaldi was sentenced to death on charges of sedition, he escaped from captivity and fled to South America. During this period, he also took part in American war of Independence. He founded the ‘Red Coats’ organisation there. Its members wore red shirts. This party played an important role in the unification of Italy.
Due to which reasons did the American colonial people come together to launch a movement against their parent country, England? Describe in brief.
American colonial people united for a struggle against England due to the following reasons :
- lack of affection and goodwill towards England.
- differences in principles
- faulty economic policies of emperor George III
- disagreement between the Governor and local legislature
- the laws of England that promoted commercial imperialism
- Boston massacre
- the seven-year war fought between England and France (viii) effect of intellectual consciousness
- the brutal-and oppressive laws of Lord Northcrud
- demeaning behaviour of the ruling class towards American people.
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 4 Essay Type Questions
Describe in detail Cavour’s contribution in the unification of Italy.
In order to understand Cavour’s contribution towards Italy’s unification, we must understand all connected events in addition to Cavour’s objectives and achievements.
Cavour’s objectives : The political objectives of Cavour were the following :
- to exclude Austria from Italy
- unification of Italy under the leadership of Sardinia-Peidmont.
In order to fulfil these objectives, Cavour carried out these activities :
- He promoted the industrial development of Sardinia
- He re-organised the army and equipped it with modern weaponry.
- He made the internal issue of Italy an international one, so as to gain support from other European countries.
Crimean War : Cavour helped the armies of France and England against Russia in the Crimean War by sending in 18,000 soldiers, and thus gained their sympathy and friendship.
Paris Peace Conference : After Russian support in the Crimean War in 1856, the Paris Peace conference was held. In this conference, Cavour very effectively put the issue of Italy’s unification and the Austrian policy towards Italy, before the European nations. The British foreign minister supported Cavour’s demand in a vociferous manner. In this way, Cavour was able to obtain the moral support of Britain and France.
Plombiers Pact with Napoleon III : Napoleon III of France was a supporter of Italy’s national movement from the outset. Thus Cavour made a secret pact with Napoleon III on 21 July 1858, at a place named Plombiers near Sardinia. In accordance with the main conditions of this pact, Napoleon promised that in the event of war between Sardinia and Austria, France would provide military assistance to Sardinia.
War with Austria : Cavour began preparing for war immediately after returning from Plombiers. He began looking for an opportunity where he could force Austria into war. Cavour increased the octroi duty on Austrian goods and engineered revolts in the Muss and Carrara provinces of Austria. He criticised Austria through the medium of newspapers and speeches.
Consequently, war became inevitable. On April 29, 1859, Austria attacked Sardinia. Sardinia emerged victorious in the war. Cavour was unhappy with the armistice treaty (11 July 1859) of Villa Franca. He aligned France with Italy by promising it the provinces of Nice and Savoy. Cavour died on June 6,1861. Unfortunately, he could not live to see a complete unified Italy, though he contributed significantly to Italy’s unification.
How is the Indian concept of the nation (state) different from the European concept? On which points does it differ? Clarify.
The meaning of the word ‘nation’ is that community of people which is bonded by class unity and which inhabits an indivisible physical territory. They have a common language and literature, common tradition and history, common customs and rituals, and a common understanding of propriety.
The Indian Concept of Nation : The Indian concept of an ideal state envisages four essential elements :
- People : It means a community of people. No nation can have an existence without a
population. For example, Greenland is a definite territory, but being largely uninhabited, it cannot be accorded the status of a nation. .
- Territory : As per the Indian concept, territory is an essential component of a nation. So, in order for a nation to exist, territory is mandatory. The territory should be such where people live and they could be ruled.
- Sovereign Power : Sovereign power implies a rule free from external influence and pressure. It is an essential part of nation, or both territory and sovereign power are necessary elements of a nation, but it is not an essential element of a country. Such as India was a country before independence. It had a definite territory and people lived in that territoiy, but, it was not a nation since it was ruled by the British Crown. Hence, it was not sovereign. That is why India was accorded the status of a country before independence, but not that of a nation.
- Culture : It is an essential element of a nation. No nation can exist without a distinct culture. India has been a nation since ancient times. It has a unique culture which has similarity from east to west and north to south.
Differences between the Indian and European Concepts of Nation
- Whereas the Indian concept of Nation holds four elements to be essential for the existence of an ideal state : people, culture, territory and sovereignty; the European concept ignores culture completely.
- In contrast with the Indian concept, the European thought has a political basis. European scholars do not consider similar religion, language, lineage, economic relations etc. to be essential. According to them, if religion had been a basis of nation, then the countries of Arabian Peninsula would not be divided into many different nations despite having the same religion. Similarly, language also could not be an element that can integrate a people into a nation.
- To ignore culture in context of a nation is to negate reality. India has many religions, but a single culture. This is why India is a nation. Culture is like a river, which despite being influenced by time, era and circumstances, retains its original spirit and identity.
Clarify the causes of the French Revolution and elucidate its effect on the World.
Answer: Causes of French Revolution : The French Revolution was an awakening against autocratic, whimsical rule, economic exploitation and inequality. The reasons for this revolution were :
(i) Political Reasons : The status of the French king was supreme, autocratic and adorned with divine powers. The king’s wishes were the law and their infringement was a punishable offence. The king’s orders were the basis of taxation and expenditure from the Royal Treasury. Those enjoying the favour and special privileges obtained from the king, misused their powers in the name of the king. The French king Louis XVI was autocratic, whimsical and assumed divine sanction. He was an extravagant and foolish ruler. He had not convened France’ respresentative Assembly ‘Estates Generale’ for many years. Due to Louis XVTs unwise policies, the colonies of India and America slipped out of French control, and France lost the seven-year war.
(ii) Economic Reasons : French economy was going through a very pitiable and sorry state in those times. The schism between the elite and poor classes was growing continually due to the unequal and discriminatory taxation system. The elite and the clergy class were exempted from direct taxes. Indirect taxes were levied on salt, liquor and tobacco. The maximum revenue received in the royal treasury was spent on the luxurious and decadent lifestyle of the king and the royal family, while millions of French people fought hunger to survive. Thus a popular revolt was inevitable.
(iii) Social Reasons : Many scholars consider the social inequality prevalent in France to be the reason behind the French Revolution. The elite, clergy and the common classes were the major classes of society. The first two classes were well off financially. The plight of the common class was most pitiable. The elite and clergy classes were accorded special privileges. The king, feudals and the clergy exploited the commoners. The farmers were suffering due to the oppression of the feudal lords. This increased the discontent among the people.
(iv) Religious Discontent : There were one lac twenty-five thousand priests in France at that time. Some priests led a luxurious life, while the common people did not have enough to afford two square meals. A religious tax called ‘tithe’ was levied, which was voluntary. This was now compulsorily realised. This further incensed the people.
(v) Intellectual Reasons : Many talented thinkers, philosophers, and writers were bom in France in the 18th century, whose writings awakened the ancient glory and traditions of France and rejuvenated the French Society. This intellectual re-awakening itself is considered to be the soul of the French revolution. These scholars included Rousseau, Voltaire, Didero, Montesque etc. as the most prominent ones.
(vi) The unwise policy adopted by France in American War of Independence : The success of American War of Independence had a double effect on France. Lending military assistance to America despite its own worsening economic conditions further deteriorated the economy of France. On the other hand, the soldiers who has gone to fight against the British, quite heavily influenced by liberal, free and dignified lifestyle of American people. Patriotism and the desire for freedom influenced these soldiers. In this way, the American war of Independence became on inspiration for the French Revolution.
Effect of French Revolution on the World : The French Revolution had the following global effects :
- Growth of Nationalism : The French revolution inspired the feeling of nationalism in entire Europe. After the French revolution, continuous national revolutions took place in Europe.
- Victory of Republic : The French revolution ended the centuries old monarchical system and established republican rule, heralding the era of democracy. A secular and popular representation regime was adopted by many states.
- End of Feudal System : The French Revolution ended the dynastic, elitist, corrupt Feudal system completely. This oppressive and derogatory system had become synonymous to economic exploitation for centuries.
- Declaration of Human Rights : The revolution against inequality and injustice declared all people of France equal by the constitution. The rights of freedom of expression, equality before law, security of property, employment in accordance with eligibility, equal opportunity of employment were accorded to citizens equally. These rights rose as a challenge to the autocratic rulers of the world.
- Abolition of Special Privileges of the Church : The French Revolution ended the rights of the Church and its properties were taken over by the State. The clergy was brought under the control of the king. In this way, the revolution ended the influence of religion on politics.
- Form of Socialism : After the revolution of France, the elite class, feudal class and clergy class were stripped of their special privileges. The property of the Church was given to the farmers. Slavery was abolished. Social inequality ended, which had an effect on all countries.
- Formation of Political Parties : The French revolution handed over the reign of the country to the people. The people began to struggle in the form of groups and organisations for their collective rights. The major political parties were the Zirondists and the Jacobians.
- Development of Education and Culture : The control of Church over education was ended. Education was made national and secular. Special emphasis was laid over according special place to discipline and nationalism. French litterateurs became free and outspoken in their writings.
- Liberty, Equality and Fraternity: This was the most amazing outcome of the French Revolution. The slogan of liberty, equality and fraternity influenced not only France, but also the entire world.
In this way, the French Revolution had a great effect on the entire world.
What was the effect of American Freedom Struggle on the World?
The effect of the American Freedom Struggle on the World was as follows :
- The rise of Nation and Written Constitution : United States of America emerged as a powerful democratic nation after the Treaty of Paris. The states were given internal autonomy on basis of the written constitution and the federal system of governance was implemented. Thie principle of the will of the citizens, adult franchise and equality was accepted in the country.
- Spread of the Feeling of Nationalism : The dare call of nationalism that was given by the nationalists of America in the 18th Centuiy, showed its effect on the entire world in the 19th century. It began with the French Revolution in 1789, and by 1848, this feeling spread out to Germany, Italy, Ireland, Austria and Greece.
- Inspiration to the French Revolution : The French soldiers who returned from America, spread the feeling of freedom and dedication to the nation, in the French society. The French principles of liberty, equality and fraternity were manifest in the American Revolution. The economically oppressed and exploited French people also wanted to be independent like America.
- Increased facilities to Ireland : Ireland was also inspired by the success of American struggle. It also rose in revolt against England. The British considered the demands of the Irish people sympathetically and freed the parliamentary system there to function independently.
- The Birth of British Commonwealth : The victory of the American people inspired other colonial countries to fight against British rule. As a result. England changed its policies for its colonies and formed the British Commonwealth. England created a platform to know and understand the problems of colonial countries so that the incidents that happened in the American struggle were not repeated.
- Enhancement in the Powers of the Parliament : George Ill’s incompetence was proved in England’s defeat in America. The Parliament held Prime Minister Lord North and King George III responsible for this. Now the authority of the king was reined in and Parliamentary powers were increased.
- End of Commercial Imperialism : England was forced to abandon its policy of commercial imperialism due to the American Freedom struggle. Under this policy, less imports and more exports were given importance.
- Religious Freedom : After the American freedom struggle, education was separated from the rituals of worship, and religion was segregated from the state and given an individual status. Every person was given the right to worship.
In this way, American freedom struggle became a message for the liberation of mankind from
colonial slavery. A modem era began with the American freedom straggle.
Why did the people of European continent go on discovery of sea routes to
other countries? Describe in detail. .
The European people went out to discover the sea routes to other countries because of the
1. To propagate Western civilization and culture : The merchants, elite class, intelledual class, landlords, the wealthy people and Christian missionaries encouraged the discovery of sea routes so that the Christian religion and culture could be propagated in all countries of the world. Spain and Portugal took the first steps to convert people of the outer world to Christianity. This sentiment inspired them to massacre the original inhabitants of America.
2. To obtain precious metals and spices : The occupation of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks created an obstruction for European trade. Now, they had to pay more taxes. In addition, they had to discover other lands in order to obtain precious metals like gold and silver, and since spices could not be grown in Europe, they had to discover tropical lands.
3. Policy of imperialism and colonialism : Expansion and occupation of more and more colonies became a symbol of nationalism and prosperity for Europoean countries. The rise of cities and feeling of nationalism speed up the process of colonisation. The European countries knew that the raw material needed for agriculture could be supplied only from tropical countries. That is why European people went out to discover other countries.
4. Hope of obtaining political rights : In European countries, political rights were enjoyed only by the elite and clergy classes, while the middle class was deprived of these rights. This middle class, disillusioned with the ruling system, went out in search of other lands to establish their own reign.
5. Oppression of Church : The European people were tormented by the religious persecution and oppression of the Church. This compelled them to settle in countries out of Europe. For example, the Britishers who established the colony of Plymouth, went to America in hope of religous freedom.
6. Population increase and Problem of re-settlement of criminals : The
population of European countries was increasing constantly. Moreover, the number of criminals was also growing there. In such a situation, it became very necessary to discover new lands for the increasing population and to resettle criminals. The punishment of banishment from country was also prevalent in those times. Under such circumstances, occupation of new countries proved to be very profitable.
7. New awareness of geography : In that period, the book ‘Geographia’, written by Ptolemy, inspired the people of European countries to discover new countries. Ptolemy maintained that the world was round. This mystery motivated the brave sailors of Europe to embark on voyages. As a result, the people of various European countries followed the sailors and went out to settle in the newly discovered lands.
8. Bloody wars : Bloody battles were being constantly fought between European nations, that caused much privations to people. They wanted to search for safer lands. This made them go out to discover new lands to settle in them.
Describe in detail the contribution of Bismarck in the unification of Germany.
Bismarck was an astute politician, an expert was international affairs and an able diplomat and it because of his such qualities that the Prussian emperor Wilhem I appointed him his Prime Minister.
The Blood and Iron policy of Bismarck : Bismarck wanted to unify Germany through military power. Tension arose between Bismarck and Parliament over the military budget. Bismarck took the unconstitutional decision of disregarding the lower house of parliament and to get the budget ratified by the upper house. From 1862 to 1866, he continued to get the budget ratified in the upper house. Although, he had to face many dificulties in doing this, yet Bismarck through his firm resolve, he reorganised the Prussian army and made it the most powerful in Europe. The international circumstances also favoured Bismarck at that time. Thus, he took the step to weaken Austria.
Foreign pollicy of Bismarck : After re-organising and strengthening the army, Bismarck began looking for powerful allies and worked to render Austria without allies. To achieve this objective, Bismarck made the following efforts :
- Alliance with Russia : The Rusian Czar Alexander II was a friend of Bismarck. Prussia had supported Russia during the Poland revolt of 1863, which further strengthened this friendship. Bismarck sent his special envoy to Russia and made a treaty with Russia.
- Alliance with France : France opposed Austria indirectly. Bismarck took advantage of this and gave his promise that if France remained neutral in a Austro-Prussian conflict, territories towards the Rhine coast or towards Belgium would be ceded to France. Bismarck also made a trade treaty with France.
- Alliance with Italy : Italy also saw Austria as the main obstacle in its unification. It wanted to end Austrian influence in Italy. In such a situation, a treaty was made between Italy and Prussia in 1866.
In this way, Bismarck strengthened his position through diplomacy and soon he went ahead for unification of Germany. Bismarck completed Germany’s unification in these stages :
1. War with Denmark : In 1864, the combined armies of Prussia and Austria attacked Demark. Denmark did not receive help from any other country and it was defeated. A treaty was signed between Austrian ruler Francis Joseph and Prussian king Wilhem I at a place named Gestine. This treaty was a diplomatic victory for Bismarck. This further strengthened Prussia’s miltary might.
2. War with Austria : After the Gestine treaty, a conflict between Prussia and Austria became inevitable. Even before the war began, Bismarck had completely isolated Austria through his diplomatic efforts and now he began to look for an opportunity to invade Austria, while preparing the army for war. Prussia defeated Austria in the battle of Sedova in 1866. The Treaty of Prague was signed consequently after the war on 23 August, 1866. Bismarck kept a soft stand against Austria in this treaty so that Prussia could gain Austria’s support in future.
3. War with France : France remained neutral in the battle of Sedova. The expectations of France from this war were not fulfilled. Prussian influence grew while French prestige declined, as a result of which tension grew between the two nations. War began between Prussia and France on 15 July, 1870. The decisive battle was fought at Sedan on 1 September 1870, in which France was defeated.. Bismarck’s army reached Paris.
4. Formation of Unified German Empire : On January 18,1871, Bismarck organised a grand court in the Versailles palace. The four states of Southern Germany had already ceded to Germany. Wilhem I was declared the emperor of unified Germany in that grand court and was coronated by Bismarck. Berlin became the capital of unified Germany and Bismarck was appointed chancellor of Germany.
In this way, Bismarck’s contribution in the unification of Germany is unforgettable. ‘
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 4 Other Important Questions
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 4 Objective Type Questions
The continent called ‘New world’ is
|With which continent is the Aztec civilization related?
(a) North America
(a) North America
With which continent is the Incan civilization related?
(c) South America
(c) South America
The Mayan culture and civilization of Mexico was based on
(a) maize cultivation
(b) wheat cultivation
(c) gram cultivation
(d) rice cultivation
(a) maize cultivation
Where have the remnants of Mayan civilization been found?
(a) in England
(b) in Russia
(c) in Mexico
(d) in India
(c) in Mexico
After whom were the territories of North and South America named?
(a) Amerigo Vespucci
(b) Vasco de Gama
(d) None of these
(a) Amerigo Vespucci
Which of these seafarers addressed native Americans as ‘Red Indians’?
(a) Amerigo Vespucci
(b) Christopher Columbus
(c) Vasco de Gama
(d) All of these
(b) Christopher Columbus
The reason for people of European countries to reach America was
(a) precious metals
(b) policy of imperialism
(c) propagation of Christianity
(d) All of these
(d) All of these
Between which of these two countries was the Seven-year war fought?
Boston massacre happened on
(a) 26 December 1773
(b) 5 March 1770
(c) 19 April 1775
(d) 10 May 1775
(b) 5 March 1770
In which year was the first continental congress conference held?
Independence Day is celebrated every year in United States of America on
(a) 5 July
(b) 4 July
(c) 15 August
(d) 26 January
(b) 4 July
The political reason for the French Revolution was
(a) Centralised rule
(b) incapable ruler
(c) extravagant regime
(d) All of these
(d) All of these
Who among the following thinkers emphasised the establishment of an ideal society?
(d) All of these
(d) All of these
Which these thinkers gave the principle of segregation of power?
(d) None of these
“Man is born free, but he is bound in chains everywhere”. Who said this?
With which revolution is the ‘Tennis court oath’ related?
(a) American Revolution
(b) Russian Revolution
(c) Chinese Revolution
(d) French Revolution
(d) French Revolution
The centre of Jacobian party was
The French ruler during the French revolution was
(a) Louis XIV
(b) Louis XVI
(c) Napolean Bonaparte
(b) Louis XVI
The main cause of Napoleon’s downfall was
(a) Continental system
(b) Campaign against Russia
(c) Pope’ insult
(d) All of these
(d) All of these
“I am the revolution, I am the one who ended the revolution”. Whose statement is this?
ssential element for nation, state and country is
(d) All of these
(d) All of these
Zollverin is a treaty related to
An important role in the unification of Germany was played by
(d) Wilhem I
Where was the treaty between Wilhem I of Prussia and Austrian ruler Francis Joseph signed onl4 August 1865?
(c) Paris .
When was the Treaty of Frankfurt signed?
(a) 26 January 1873
(b) 26 January 1871
(c) 15 July 1870
(d) 15 August 1747
(b) 26 January 1871
The founder of ‘Young Italy1 was
Who formed the ‘Red Coats’ organisation?
(d) Wilhem I
Who inaugurated the Parliament of unified Italy on 12 June 1871?
(c) Victor Emmanuel
(c) Victor Emmanuel
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 4 Matching Questions
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 4 Very Short Answer Type Questions
Who discovered the continents of North and South America?
Christopher Columbus in 1492.
Give the names of the major civilizations of the continent of North America.
Write the name of the native place of the Arawan tribe.
Which civilization prevailed in the South American continent?
Where was the Mayan civilization prevalent?
Who was the main deity of Aztec community?
After which Aztec deity was Mexico named?
By which name did Columbus call the native inhabitants of America?
Which country’s sea route did Christopher Columbus actually set out in search of?
The sea route to India
Which book did Ptolemy write?
Who said that the revolution was a conflict between the colonies and Britain over economic interests, in context of the American War of Independence?
Write any two reasons for the American conflict.
(i) Lack of sympathy for England
(ii) Intellectual awakening.
Name the book written by Thomas Paine.
Who founded the American Philosophical Society?
What was the name of America’s first newspaper? When was it published?
Boston Newsletter, published in 1704.
When and between whom was the seven-year war fought?
Seven-year war was fought between England and France from 1757 to 1763 AD.
Who won the seven-year war?
When was the Sugar Act promulgated in America?
In 1764 AD.
When did the Boston Tea Party happen?
On Decembr 26,1773.
When was the first continental congress held?
September 5, 1774.
When and under whose chairmanship was the second continental congress convened?
Under John Hancock’s chairmanship on May 10, 1775.
Who proposed the resolution of American independence in the Continental Congress?
Richard Henry. .
When did the continental congress pass the resolution for American independence?
On 2 July 1776.
When was the declaration of American independence made?
4 July 1776.
When did representatives of England and American colonies sign the Paris Treaty?
3 December 1783.
Question 26. Who was the French ruler during the French Revolution?
Give any two social reasons for the French Revolution.
- Social inequality,
- Corruption in life in the Church.
Write the names of four major thinkers who contributed to the French revolution.
Which scholar did Napoleon give credit for being the main inspiration behind the French revolution?
When and in whose reign was the first convention of the Estates Generale held?
In 1320, during the reign of Phillip the Fair.
When were the special privileges abolished in France?
4 August, 1789.
When was the written constitution prepared for the first time in France? Answer: In 1791 A.D.
Acording to whose wishes was the French constitution prepared?
The wishes of the citizens.
What was the ‘National Convention’?
This was the third Parliament of revolutionry France. In its tenure, monarchy was abolished and democracy was established on 21 September, 1793.
Mention the constituent organs of the National Convention.
(i) Public security committee,
(ii) General security committee,
Write the names of major political parties that supported the republican cause in French politics.
(i) Zirondist Party,
(ii) Jacobian Party.
Which French political party’s leaders were idealists and republicans?
Leaders of Zirondist Party.
Who were the main leaders of the Jacobian Party?
Dante, Robbespiere, Haber and Mara.
Give the period of implementation of Directory system in France.
October 1795 to November 1799 AD.
Write any two effects of French Revolution.
- Abolition of Feudal system
- rise of Nationalism.
Who was handed over the church’s property in France?
The Church’s property was handed over to the farmers in France.
Which French political party was the supporter of workers and the poor?
Which slogan was given during the French Revolution?
‘Liberty, equality and fraternity’ was the slogan of the French revolution.
When and where was Napoleon Bonaparte bom?
Napoleon Bonaparte was bom on 15 August 1769 on the island of Corsica.
Give the names of Napoleon Bonaparte’s parents.
Napoleon Bonaparte’s father was Carlo Bonaparte and his mother’s name was Laetitit Remalino.
Who became the Chief Counsel after the abolition of directory system in France?
When and where did Napoleon Bonaparte take the Oath of emperor of France?
Napoleon Bonaparte took the Oath of Emperor of France on December 2, 1804 in the Notre Dame Church. ,
When was the Battle of Trafalgar occur faught, and what was its outcome?
The Battle of Trafalgar took place on 21 October, 1805. In this battle the Naval commander of the British fleet, Nelson defeated Napoleon in a naval battle.
When did the Battle of Australitz take place? What was its result?
The Batde of Australitz took place on December 2, 1805, in which Napoleon defeated the combined army of Austria and Prussia.
Through which treaty did Napoleon integrate the many small states of Germany to form the Rhine Confederation?
Treaty of Pressburg.
Who established the Bank of France, and when?
Napoleon established the bank of France in 1800 AD.
Which country did the continental system make an enemy of France?
Who was defeated in the battle of Waterloo?
When and before whom did Napoleon Bonaparte surrender?
Napoleon Bonaparte surrendered before British Naval officer. Metland on July 15,1815.
When and where did Napoleon Bonaparte die?
Napoleon Bonaparte died on 5 May, 1821 on the Island of St Helena.
Give any two reasons for the fall of Napoleon.
- Continental system,
- Insult of pope.
According to Lypson, who was the founder of modern Germany?
Name the federation formed by Napoleon by integrating many small states of Germany.
Which country was the biggest obstacle in the unification of Germany?
Which union was formed as a result of economic integration of Germany?
In which university and when was Berschenshafft organisation established? Answer: In 1815, at Zena University of Germany.
Which policy did Bismarck employ to unify Germany?
Policy of Blood and Iron.
Under the leadership of which powerful state was the unification of Germany done?
In the leadership of Prussia.
Which treaty was made between Austria and Prussia on 23 August 1866?
The treaty of Prague.
When and where was the German emperor Wilhem I coronated?
On January 18,1871 at the Versailles Palace.
When and between whom was the treaty of Frankfurt made?
On 10 May 1871, between France and Prussia.
Which were the contributing major organisations in the unification of Italy?
- Young Italy
When was the Carbonneirri, a secret organisation, established and where?
Answer: In Naples in 1810.
Which organisation did Mazzini found?
Who is called the mind and spiritual force of unification of Italy?
Or Who can be called the soul of unification of Italy?
Between whom was the Plombiers pact made?
Between Napoleon III and Cavour.
“We are about to make history.” To whom is this statement attributed?
When and where was Guiseppe Garibaldi bom?
Guiseppe Garibaldi was bom in 1807 in the city of Nice.
Who was the founder of the ‘Red Coats’ organisation?
In which year was the unification of Italy completed?
In 1871 AD.
Which territory did Italy receive after the Austro-Prussian war?
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 4 Short Answer Type Questions
Describe the Aztec culture in brief.
The Aztec culture emerged in Mexico region of the North American continent. The Aztec society here was class-based. Warriors, Priests, elite class and traders were accorded due respect in this society. The king was the supreme authority. This community was quite aware about education. This community was representative of urban culture. The students here were educated to make them warriors and priests.
Give three reasons for the advent of Europeans in America.
The main reasons for the advent of Europeans in America were as follows:
- Gold : Gold implies precious metals like gold, silver and other valuable metals. The Europeans aimed at obtaining these.
- Glory : Glory implies the feeling of expansionism. Inspired by this, the Europeans considered it a matter of pride to occupy other countries and establish their colonies in order to expand their territories.
- God : God implies the preaching and propaganda of Christian religion in all countries of the world. The traders, landlords, elite class, and Christian missionaries of European countries discovered new routes to propagate Christianity and reached America. The ruler of Spain and Portugal also bore the expense of these expeditions.
How did the lack of affection and goodwill towards motherland England become a cause for the American war of Independence? Explain.
Persecuted by unbearable religious campaigns and oppression in England, or after being banished from their country due to criminal activities, the so disillusioned Britishers and other Europeans had no attachment or goodwill towards England. The British government did not make any efforts for the welfare of their citizens living in America. The people living in America had developed the sense of social equality completely, while class distinction still prevailed in England. Thus, it was unnatural for American residents to bear this emergent economic burden. Unfair taxation was implemented on the American people, and without changing the American sentiment in favour of England. This was seen as an attempt to curtail the liberal lifestyle of Americans and compromise the freedom of American people. Thus, naturally, struggle against the British laws began.
What was the Sugar Act in America?
In 1764, import of foreign liquor was banned in America, and tax was imposed on buying molasses from England and other countries. Molasses was a byproduct of sugar industry which was used to make alcohol. The American traders bought molasses or sugar from the French or Dutch colonies which was cheaper, and no duty was imposed on them. Due to this law, the American traders had to forcibly buy molasses or sugar from England at higher rates, since now they could not import them from other countries. The manufacturers of molasses in England profited from this. British ships were ordered to check smuggling of molasses or sugar across seas. The act was also implemented strictly. Intense anger arose in America agaisnt this law.
What was the Stamp Act (1765) in America? Explain.
According to this Act implemented in America in 1765, court and non-judicial bond papers, newspapers, deed papers, advertisements, registration and other various types of documents were made mandatory to be affixed with stamp papers. This law was implemented strictly. The courts levied harsh penalties for infringement of this law. It was opposed vehemently by the Americans. American traders stopped importing goods from England, which resulted in loss to British industry. Seeing the increasing opposition to it, the British government repealed the law.
What do you know about the Boston massacre? How did it inspire the American struggle for independence?
There was a fierce reaction in the various colonies of America, in opposition to the Townshed laws. Under the Billeting Act of 1767, the New York assembly was dissolved because arrangements were not made for the accommodation and food for British soldiers. This issue caused tension between British soldiers and the American people. The situation became violent in Boston. In army artillery attack on 5 March 1770, three American citizens were killed. The American people called it the Boston masssacre and the incident was condemned everywhere. This massacre ended the Townshed taxes.’The Boston massacre was publicised widely in America. Anti-British meetings were held, and this gave impetus to the American freedom struggle.
What is meant by Boston Tea party? Explain briefly.
The financial condition of the British East India company was not good. In such circumstances, the company obtained monopoly rights to sell tea in America, in order to avoid bankruptcy. This company was going to sell tea at lower than normal prices, to end the smuggling trade in America. When the ships laden with boxes of tea reached Boston harbour, American nationalists in the guise of porters, under the leadership of Samuel Adams attacked the ships on 16 December 1773, and threw the boxes of tea into the sea. This incident was called by the name of Boston Tea Party.
Question 8. The British government took the Boston tea incident as a challenge. Which oppressive laws were passed by the British Parliament in response?
- The Boston Port was to be closed till the destroyed tea was compensated with its cost, so that the traders of Boston would not suffer loss.
- The responsibility for accommodating and feeding the British soldiers was put on local authorities.
- The murder trials conducted in American courts were now to be conducted in other British colonies.
- The followers of the Catholic faith were given the freedom of worship.
- The king was given the right to elect the legislators from Massachussets.
Comment on the declaration of American independence.
The Nationalists were in a majority in the Continental Congress of June 1776. Richard Henry proposed the resolution of American independence, which was seconded by John Adams. A five-member committee was made to declare the American independence, which included Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sermon and Robert Livingston. On July 2 1776, the Congress ratified the independence proposal and declared the independence of America on July 4, 1776. The declaration of independence said, “We do understand the facts clearly that all men are born equal and the creator has adorned them with indivisible rights, in which the major ones are search for freedom in life and comfort. Thus, we the representatives of the United States of America, to obtain all those born rights which are given to people of free countries, declare the independence.” With this declaration, the American colonies became independent.
What was the effect of American independence struggle on the French revolution?
The French soldiers had gone to fight against the British in the American war of independence. They were deeply influenced with the freedom, love for liberty and self-respecting lifestyle of the American people. Feelings of patriotism and liberty were awakened in the French soldiers. The soldiers and officers who returned from America, propagated the ideals of freedom, and dedication to the motherland of the American people in French society. They became aware of the political, religious and social rights of people. They began to demand these rights in France itself. Thus, despite the American revolution being of a different form it became an inspiration for the French revolution.
Question 11. How did the centralised rule and oligarchical regime create the background of the French revolution?
There was a dynastic, autocratic rule in France. The king here enjoyed unrestricted powers and claimed divine rights, he was seen as a god. The king’s wish was the law, the infringement of which was a punishable offence. The king’s order were the basis of taxation and treasury expenditure.
‘Lettre de Cache’ was a sanction document, by which the king could order the arrest of any person. Thus, the common man remained in terror, his liberty was not secured. Louis XIV further strengthened his autocracy. He claimed, “I am the state.” This statement was a symbol of absolute autocracy. These elements created the basis of the French revolution.
Describe the social condition of France in the eighteenth century.
The French society was divided into three classes before the revolution of 1789.
- Clergy class : This class included the high officials of the clergy. They enjoyed many privileges, and did not have to pay any taxes. The people of this class were rich and lived a luxurious life.
- Elite class : This class included high officials of state and big landlords. They too enjoyed special privileges. They took feudal taxes from the farmers. Not only this, these people also possessed their own territories.
- Middle class : This class included farmers, artisans, petty officials, workers, lawyers, teachers and small traders. These people were overburdened with taxes. Unpaid labour was exacted from them. This was the most dissatisfied class of France. Farmers constituted the largest part of this class. The class was deprived of rights. This class contributed substantially to the explosion of the revolution.
What is the importance of 14 July in the history of France?
14 July has special importance in the nistory of France. On this day, the French revolutionaries stormed and occupied the Bastille fort. Bastille was a very ancient French fort, in which political prisoness were kept. This fort was seen as a symbol of the autocracy and cruelty of the French rulers. On 12 July 1789, a young lawyer, Casmiie Desmola, gave a rousing speech in Paris and inspired the people to take up arms, which made the crowds in Paris violent. On 14 July 1789, this agitated mob attacked the Bastille fort and freed the prisoners kept there. This fort had been witness to cruelty on people. The fall of this fort was the end of a politically unrestricted rule. It was an important and unique incident in world history. In France, it was the victory of democracy and defeat of autocracy.
Write the features of French constitution prepared in 1791 AD.
The features of French constitution in 1791 were the following :
- A written constitution was made on the basis of people’s wishes.
- France was declared a constitutional monarchy by this.
- The powers of the king were restricted. His role now became symbolic only. He was made a salaried official.
- The National Assembly was given the right to make laws.
- The power of the people was made paramount and the principle of sovereignty of people was implemented.
- The principle of segregation of power given by Montesque was implemented. The powers of governance were divided into legislature, executive and judiciary.
What is meant by reign of terror?
The leader of the Jacobian party, Robbespierre, adopted a policy of terror to protect republic canism, put down internal revolt and to secure France from external attacks, from 1793 to 1794. This was called the reign of terror.
Under this regime, Robbespierre began to put the revolters under the Gullotine, which was an implement to carry out a death sentence. The European nations were allying against France. Vigilance committees were made who searched for revolters and put them to death. The results of this terrorising system were very destructive. In fact, the leaders of the Jacobian Party, used terror to fulfill their personal ambitions and react to partisan enmity. The end to this reign of terror came with the fall of Robbespierre on 27 July, 1794. This period in France was a blot on the entire revolution.
What do you know about Napoleon Bonaparte?
Napoleon Bonaparte was born on 15 August 1769 on the Island of Corsica. His father’s name was Carlo Conaparte and his mother was Laetatia Remalino. Nepoleon took advantage of the political and economic instability in France and with the army’s help, he took control of the rule. He declared himself emperor of France in 1804. He defeated many neighbouring countries and removed old dynasties to form new empires, he made many educational reforms and formulated a law code in France. His Moscow campaign weakened his power. He was badly defeated in the battle of Waterloo in 1815. He was imprisoned on St Helena Island where he died on 5 May 1821.
Write a brief comment on Napoleon’s Moscow campaign.
Napoleon Bonaparte wanted to establish his absolute rule over Europe. He wanted to exclude Russia from Europe. Making pacts with Austria and Prussia and obtaining their help,Napoleon declared war on Russia in 1812. Defeating the Russian army, he reached Moscow. The Russian army kept retreating. The Russian Czar waited till the onset of harsh winter and snow. The French army suffered terribly from disease, hunger and cold. Lakhs of French soldiers died of cold. In this way, Napoleon’s Moscow campaign failed. According to Fischer, the Moscow campaign was not a conflict between two nations, but it was a confrontation between an ambitious person and the nationalist sentiment of a religious community.
Give the reasons for Napoleon’s decline.
The main reasons for Napoleon’s decline were the following : (i) Continental war, (ii) continental system, (iii) Pope’s insult, (iv) campaign against Russia, (v) decay of national character (vi) England’s strong position and superior naval power, (vii) decline of nationalistic feelings, (viii) continuous occurrence of wars, (ix) flaw in character, (x) favouritism towards relatives and family, (xi) autocratic regime.
Describe the law code of Napoleon.
Napoleon made many significant reforms in France, among which, the formulation of the law code was the major one. Napoleon constituted a committee of four law experts and attempted to formulate the laws of France. He abrogated all outdated and irrelevant laws. This law code m^de in 1804 was called the ‘Napoleonic code’. It included five types of laws : (i) Civil code, (ii) Civil jurisprudence code, (iii) Penal code, (iv) Criminal procedure code, (v) Commercial code. This code did not discriminate on the basis of social, political or religious bias, and on the contrary, importance was given to equality, religion, tolerance, morality, joint family system, discipline, patriotism, individual right to property, human rights etc. while making these laws. This code made on the basis of common sense and experience, is considered to be a great contribution of Napoleon.
Describe the educational reforms introduced by Napoleon.
Napoleon instituted many educational reforms. He freed education from the influence of the Church and brought it under state control. Napoleon himself appointed teachers in colleges and universities. Education was divided into primary, secondary and higher sections. Religion was separated from education. Stress was laid upon vocational education. Familial discipline and military education was included in the curriculum. Schools were opened to train teachers. Teachers became government employees and began teaching Napoleon’s policies. In this way, Napoleon strengthened his regime through education.
Mention the main features of the Gestine Pact.
A pact was made between king Wilhem I of Prussia and Francis Joseph of Austria at a place called Gestine on 14 August 1865. The main features of this pact were as follows :
- Prussia’s right on Blesweig was accepted.
- Austrian domination over Holstein was agreed upon.
- Prussia paid to gain occupancy of Lavenbourg and bought if from Austria.
- Prussia got the right to fortify the strategically important Keil port.
What were the major outcomes of the Treaty of Prague?
After the defeat of Austria at the hands of Prussia in the battle of Sedova, the Treaty of Prague was made on 23 August 1866. Bismarck adopted a soft approach towards Austria in this treaty so that Prussia could gain from Austria’s alliance in future. The major outcomes of this treaty were :
- The German federation was dissolved.
- Prussia’s right was accepted on territories of Hamburg, Bleisweig and Holstein.
- A North German confederation was formed under the leadership of Prussia. Austria was not included in it.
- The territory of Venetia was given to Italy.
- The Southern states were left on their free will.
What were the main provisions of the Plombiers pact?
A pact was made between French emperor Npoleon III and Cavour at a place called Plombiers near Sardinia, on 21 July, 1858. The main features of the pact were the following :
- In the event of a war between Sardinia and Austria, France would give military assistance
to Sardinia. ‘
- In return of military help, Sardinia would cede the territories of Nice and Savoy to France.
- Lombardy and Venetia would be given to Sardinia, after the defeat of Austria.
- Naples, Sicily and the Papal states would remain as such.
- Calathide, the daughter of Victor Emmanuel, would be married to Jerome Napoleon, the paternal cousin of Napoleon III.
- Palarma, Modena and Tuscany would combine to form a new state on which Napoleon Ill’s cousin Jerome Napoleon would rule.
What do you know about Guiseppe Garibaldi?
Guiseppe Garibaldi was the most famous freedom fighter of Italy. He was bom in the town of Nice in 1807. His father was an officer on a merchant ship. He was sentenced to death for a naval mutiny. At that time, Garibaldi went to America. He received training in guerilla warfare there. He formed a patriotic group named the ‘Red Coats’. In 1860, the Sicilian people revolted against the autocratic rulers of the Bumo dynasty and invited Garibaldi to lead the revolt. Garibaldi established control over Sicily in June 1860. Garibaldi declared Victor Emmanuel as the ruler of the annexed territories.
Describe the role of Mazzini in the unification of Italy.
Mazzini was a great revolutionary leader. He was bom in Geneva in 1805. He became a member of a secret organsation ‘Carbonneir’. In 1831, he founded the organisation named ‘Young Italy. He wanted to exclude Austria from Italy and unify Italy as an integrated republican state. Mazzini’s organisation, ‘Young Italy had three slogans : believe in God, brother become one, and free Italy. Mazzini is considered to be the mind of Itaiys unification, spiritual power, and the soul of Itaiys unification. Through his organisation, he instilled the sentiment of patriotism, struggle, sacrifice, martyrdom and freedom. He was a nurturer of republican principles and revolutionary methods. In this way, Mazzini’s contribution to Italy’s unification was incomparable.
When and between whom was the Treaty of Frankfurt made? Mention its major outcomes.
The Treaty of Frankfurt was signed between France and Prussia on 10 May, 1871. Its major outcomes were as follows:
- This treaty completed the unification of Germany and a powerful nation emerged under the leadership of Prussia.
- This treaty made France handover territories of Alsace and Lorraine to Germany after the war.
- The insulting provisions of the treaty towards France laid the foundation of the First World War.
- The ‘Blood and Iron’ policy of Bismarck made a fatal attack on liberalism.
- A war indemnity of 20 crore was put on France. The German army was to stay in France till the payment of the indemnity, whose expense was to be borne by France. This was an insult to France.
- After the war, Italy took control over Rome. Alongwith Germany, the unification of Italy was also completed.
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 4 Essay Type Questions
What were the reasons for the advent of people of European countries in America?
The main reasons for the advent of Europeans in America were as follows :
Propagation of Western Civilisation and Culture : The possibility of converting the people of outer world to Christianity inspired the people of Europe to take to the seas. Spain and Portugal were the countries most influenced by such feelings.
Discovery of precious metals and spices : The victory and occupation of Constantinople by Turks in 1453 caused European trade to decline, and they had to pay more taxes. In addition, the reserves of gold and silver were getting low in Europe. In order to obtain more and more gold, the Europeans were inspired to search for new sea routes.
Aspiration to obtain Political Rights : The political power in Europe lay in the hands of the elite and clergy classes. The other class i. e. the middle class was deprived of political benefits and rights. Disillusioned by the rule in their countries, they were attempting to reach America, where they could establish their own reign.
Expansionist and Colonial Sentiments : Having control over more and more lands and colonising them began to be seen as a symbol of nationalism. This was a sign of prestige among European countries. The rise of cities and industrialisation sped up the process of colonisation. These colonies could become a market for sourcing of raw material and selling of finished products. This is the reason why instead of India, incidentally, America was discovered.
Atrocities of Church : The atrocities and religious persecution at the hand the Church compelled the people of Europe to go to other lands. The Britishers who founded the colony of Plymouth near Massachussets came there in hope of religious freedom.
Bloody Wars : Some people were oppressed with the bloody wars between European countries. To get away from these, these people went to America in search of a safe place to live.
Population increase and problem of Rehabilitation of Criminals : Slavery and trading of slaves were prevalent in Europe at those times. Slaves were sold to fight in wars. To escape from this, they began to leave their country to go to America. It was also necesary to find new lands to resettle the growing population and the criminals so that in addition to solving this problem, their economic objectives could also be fulfilled. Banishment from the country was a prevalent punishment at that time. Thus, some people went to America because of this law.
New Awareness about Geography : The book ‘Geography’ written by Ptolemy proved to be a milestone in increasing the people’s awareness about geographical facts. He told Europeans for the first time that the world is round. This mystery inspired brave adventurers to go on vogages.
Describe the main causes of the American struggle for Independence in detail.
Or Describe the causative factors responsible for the American Revolution.
The main reasons of the American revolution were the following
1. Lack of sympathy and goodwill towards England : Due to religious persecution in England or due to banishment for crime, the Britishers who came to America, and also the other Europeans who came to America had no affection or goodwill towards England.
2. Rise of Intellectual Awakening : The continual progress of education, literature and journalism awakened a feeling of existentialism in the people of America. Thomas Paine spread the feeling of love towards country through his book ‘Common Sense’. Benjamin Franklin founded the American philosophical society where exchagne of new ideas and discussion meets were held. James Ottisi, Patrick Henry and Samuel Adams contributed greatly towards the development of intellectual awakening. Education and journalism also played on important role in increasing intellectual awakening. Harrard college was founded in 1636. The newspaper named ‘Boston Newsletter’ was published in 1704. The gradual development in fields of knowledge and science also inspired the feeling of nationalism.
3. Effects of Seven-year War : The seven-year war for Colonial supremacy between England and France ended in 1763 with the victory of England. The French occupation and influence ended in America. All American French colonies came under England’s control. There was a majority of French Catholic and native Red Indians. Tension prevailed since the very beginning between Red Indians and Britishers. Thus, some reserved areas were given to the natives. Due to this the expansion of area, colonialism stopped there.
4. Tensions between Governor and local legislative Assembly : The conduct of the regime of colonies was done by the executive council constituted by the governor. Both of them were answerable to the British emperor, but the assembly of local people opposed their interference. As a result, there existed tension between them both.
5. The Faulty economic policies and regulations of Gerge III : Emperor George Ill’s Prime Minister Granville, concluded in 1763 that in comparison to the expenditure incurred in America, the income generated from there was less. Thus, he made new plans for American administration in which implementation of direct taxes, stopping smuggling trade and maintaining a permanent army in America were included. Granville made laws to implement direct taxation in America, in which the Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Currency Act, Quartering Act and Tea taxation were the major ones. The above taxation caused Americans not to keep quiet. They argued that the British Parliament had no right to impose taxes on the American people.
6. Demeaning Behaviour towards the Americans : The British officials, soldiers and officers posted in different parts of America considered themselves superior to native Americans, and behaved rudely with them. In the British territory located in America, almost 70 percent American soldiers were treated like animals by British officers. These dissatisfied soldiers served as trained soldiers in the struggle for independence in the American army. It can be said conclusively that these reasons lent impetus to American struggle for independence.
Describe the major events in the American war of Independence.
The major events of the American war of independence were as follows :
1. Boston Massacre : Under the Billeting Act, because of the inability to arrange accommodation and food for British soldiers, the New York assembly was dissolved in June 1767. Moreover, extensive demonstrations and riots occurred in different parts of America to oppose the Townshed laws. The situation in Boston became violent and agitated over these issues. The British officers took help of the army to suppress the Boston revolt. In an army artillery attack on 5 March 1770, three American citizens were killed. The Americans called it Boston Massacre and it was condemned. This massacre ended the Townshed laws. England had to bow down, but the tax on tea continued to be levied. Boston massacre was widely publicised in America. Anti-British public meetings were held. This gave imspiration to the American freedom movement.
2. Boston Tea Party : In order to prevent bankruptcy, the East India Company asked for the right to sell tea in America. On the company’s request, the British Parliament gave East India company the right to sell tea in America. This company aimed at selling tea at rates lower than normal so that smuggling could end in America. The American nationalists opposed this tea policy of the British. Meetings were held at many places. Opposition was very violent in Boston city of Massachussets. On December 26,1773, when boxes packed with tea reached Boston port, American revolutionaries led by Samuel Adams entered the ships with tea in guise of porters and threw about 340 boxes of tea into the sea. This incident was called ‘Boston Tea Party’.
3. First Continental Congress Convention : The British government took Boston Tea party as a challenge, and to protest against the oppressive laws made by British Parliament, called a meeting of representatives of all American colonies except Georgia in Philadelphia on September 5, 1774. This was the first all American conference. The purpose of this conference was to ponder over the current situation in the colonies and to get their demands accepted by the British. For this, a representative delegation was sent to England.
4. Lexington Massacre : On 19 April 1775, in protest against the arrest of John Hancock and Samuel Adams, a group of volunteers attacked the British soldiers. In this incident, eight volunteers were killed. The American volunteers took revenge of this massacre by Killing British soldiers at a place named Concorde.
5. Second Continental Congress Convention : After the violent incident at Lexington on 10 May 1775, the second continental congress convention was held in Philadelphia under the chairmanship of John Hancock. For the first time, the issue of American independence was discussed seriously in this convention. It was decided in this convention that armed conflict with the British army was necessary. For this, a continental army was decided to be formed under the command of George Washington. Moreover, it was felt that relations be severed with England and foreign help be sought.
6. Declaration of American Independence : American nationalists were in a majority in June 1776. Richard Henry proposed the Independence of America, which was seconded by John Adams. A five member committee was formed to declare independence. This committee included Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sermon and Robert Livingstone. On July 2, 1776, the Congress ratified the proposal of independence and declared American independence on July 4, 1776.
Describe the main causes of the British defeat in America.
Or Describe in detail the reasons for British failure in the American freedom
The main reasons of British defeat in the American war of independence were the following:
Long distance between England and America : There was a distance of thousands of kilometres between England and America. In addition to this, the British soldiers were not familiar with the geographical condition of America. On the other hand, the navies of Spain, France and Holland stopped England from sending crucial military equipment to America on high seas. In this way, the American army got assistance from France, Spain and Holland together which proved beneficial for it.
Lack of enthusiasm among British soldiers : The British soldiers had to fight against their common caste brethren living in America. Thus, they lacked enthusiasm. On the other hand, the American people were committed to sacrifice everything in order to come out victorious in their struggle to obtain their political, economic and social rights.
Most soldiers in British Army were mercenaries : Most of the soldiers in British army were mercenaries which they had rented from Germany. They had no interest in victory and were only interested in getting their contractual money. Because of this, they could not stand against the American volunteers who were full of patriotism.
The oppressive policy of George III: The oppressive policy of George III also proved helpful to America. People were angry with England. And the British soldiers squandered away opportunities of victory deliberately. The situation was so bad that the British war minister Lord German sometimes read the messages and letters sent back from the battlefield. On the other hand, George Washington proved himself to be an able army commander.
Large extent of field of struggle in America : America was a large country with the view point of area. The battlefields there were spread out in a large area which was a clear disadvantage to the British army. It became very difficult for them to fight on every battlefront.
British Political events favoured America : American people observed everyday political events of Britain closely. England’s deteriorating relations with various European nations proved beneficial for America. France, Spain and Holland gave help to America.
The capable leadership of America : The American freedom movement received the leadership of capable leaders like George Washington and AbrahaiH Lincoln, which helped America and became a nightmare for England.
The dedication of american patriots : The American people were fed up with the violation of human rights. They formed an army of patriotic volunteers who sacrificed their all and played a crucial role in getting freedom from British rule.
How was the faulty political system responsible for the French revolution?
Explain in detail.
The faulty political system of France was certainly responsible for the French revolution. These
faults can be understood under the following points :
1. Centralised rule and Autocratic regime : An autocratic, dynastic rule prevailed in France. The monarchy enjoyed unrestricted power and divine sanction. The king was seen as a manifestation of God. The King’s dictat was the basis for taxation and treasury expenditure. The king could arrest anyone and punish him through a sanction letter called ‘Letrre de Cache’. Thus, the common man in France was terrified. A person’s freedom was not secure. Louis XII increased this oppression.
2. Incapable rulers : The French ruler Louis XV was a pleasure loving and incapable ruler. Instead of making improvements in his regime, he spent all his time on pleasure pursuits. Louis XVI was also an incapable ruler who was an indolent, pleasure loving and foolish person. He was unaware of the pitable condition of France under the influence of his wife and courtiers.
3. Corruption in the judiciary : The Judicial system of France was faulty, unorganised, expensive, unjust and corrupt. The king’s dictats were the law. In the way that language changes every 5-8 miles, French laws changed very frequently. The king had such a sanction document by which he could arrest and punish anyone, anytime. The penal system was the most cruel one. No judicial remedy existed. In such political disarray, how long could the people of France live in subjugation! Thus, a revolt against this system became unavoidable.
4. Extravagant regime : The kings of France used to spend most of their time in the palaces of Versailles, for away from Paris. These palaces had thousands of servants who served to fulfill the king luxurious, pleasure seeking needs. The money spent on them was
very large. France condition became so bad that the income of the state was less than its expenditure. As a result, due to levying of extra taxes, the common man was oppressed, and this became a cause for the revolution.
5. Incapable representative assembly : There was a representative assembly named ‘Estates Generale’ in France,which included the elite class, clergy class, intellectual class and common citizens. This assembly was dominated by the elite, clergy and intellectual classes. It war unable to decide in favour of the common citizens. No other convention was called after 1614 AD. There was no one to listen to the common man. In this way, the faulty political system of France created the background for the French Revolution.
Describe the social factors responsible for the French revolution.
The social reasons responsible for the French revolution were as follows :
1. Social inequality : Many scholars believe that the reaosn for the French revolution was the social inequality prevalent in French society. French society was divided into four classes : (i) clergy class, (ii) elite class, (iii) middle class, (iv) common class. The first two classes were economically prosperous. The plight of the common class was the worst. The clergy and elite classes enjoyed many special privileges and relaxations. They were not burdened with any economic responsibility. As a result, they possessed 5th part of France’ entire wealth. On the other hand, the middle and lower classes were overburdened with taxes. They had to pay additional cess to the king. The farmers and workers did not enjoy any privileges, and this class was the largest constitutent of the population. The condition of farmers was very pitiable as compared to the royal clergy and elite classes. Almost 80 percent of their income went to taxes. The middle class included small traders, teachers, lawyers, doctors, artists and government employees. This class contributed the most in the French revolution. Their jealousy towards the elite class because of the latter’s education
and wealth drove them to change the system. They also hated the clergy class. Napoleon Bonaparte also held the middle class responsible for the revolution.
2. Corruption in Church : Corruption was rife in French churches. They imposed
religious taxes on the people. The Church had a lot of wealth and property. The clergies lived a luxurious and comfortable life. The money received from the common people was spent on immoral activities, while the priests of small churches in rural areas lived a frugal life. The poor and hungry people resented the activities of the Church. ‘Tithe’ a voluntary tax, was now levied compulsorily. This behaviour of the church fomented hatred among the farmers towards the clergy. Thus, the poor people of France, were compelled to think about plundering the wealth of Church which they used for their luxuries. *
3. Dynastic and privileged administrative class : The elite class occupied all high posts in France. These people enjoyed prestige and respect in society. This class did not pay any taxes. This administrative class collected taxes, implemented laws and looked after the judicial system and ensured the security of the country. This class exacted unpaid labour from the poor and farmer classes. The French people were oppressed by this privileged administrative class. They had to look to the elite classes for employment, trade, salaries, industry, agriculture etc. This situation caused extensive discontent. This discontent exploded with such ferocity in 1789 that it could not be stopped.
Describe the important reforms carried out by Napoleon Bonaparte in France.
Napoleon Bonaparte brought may reforms in France. These were as follows :
(i) Educational Reforms : Naopleon Bonaparte freed education from the control of the church, and brought it under state control. The national educational system was made extensive and effective at all levels. Separate arrangements were made for technical, vocational and military education. Napoleon himself appointed teachers in colleges and universities. On the secondary level, schools called ‘lycee’ were set up and normal schools were established to train teachers. Family discipline and military education was included in the curriculum. In this way, Napoleon aimed at strengthening his regime through education.
2. Making of the law code : Napoleon abolished all irrelevant and outdated laws and made them in conformity with the French system. Napoleon formed a committee of four law experts and attempted to compile French laws. The law code made by law experts in 1804 is called the ‘Napoleonic law code’. It included five kinds of laws : (i) Civil code, (ii) Penal code, (iii) Citizen Process code, (iv) Criminal Procedure code and (iv) Commercial code.
Human rights were declared in this law code. All were deemed equal before the law.
There was no social, political and religious discrimination in this code. Importance was given to equality, religion, tolerance, morality, joint family system, discipline, patriotism and right to private property while devising these codes In order to end the influence of the clergy, civil marriage and divorce were recognised. The position of men and women in a family was kept subsidiary to the male head. This code prepared on the basis of common sense and experience is considered to be a great contribution of Napoleon.
3. Reforms in administration : Napoleon attempted to strengthen the central administration. He exercised absolute control over state officials. Inefficient administrators were punished severely. Napoleon was a diligent, efficient and discipline- loving ruler. He divided the departments of France into sub-departments. He appointed military officers in every district.
Napoleon invited the rebellious priests, feudals and elites again to France and settled them there. State services were opened to all classes.
4. Economic reforms : Napoleon established the ‘Bank of France’. He made income, expenditure and monetary system rationalised and organised. He encouraged domestic industries and imposed restrictions on British imports. Taxes were incresed on liquor, salt and tobacco. Distribution of food material and transportation system was started. Taxes were now collected by state officials. Napoleon imported raw material from French controlled territories at cheap prices and exported finished Products at high rates, thus increasing France capital.
Indirect taxes were abolished, and direct taxes were collected stringently.
5. Religious Policy : Napoleon made a pact named ‘treaty of Concorde’ with the Pope in
1801. He declared the Church to be under ‘State control’. The priests were made salaried employees of the state. Napoleon wanted to appease the Roman Catholic people of France. He himself was not a follower of any religion. He believed that even if God did not exist, we would have to invent him. All other religions were granted freedom of worship in , France. This was a diplomatic victory of Napoleon. He was successful in suppressing the
anti-revolution propaganda of religious followers. ,
Describe the main causes of the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte.
The main reasons of Napoleon’s fall were as follows :
1. Extreme ambition s Napoleon began his life in an ordinary family, and his ambitions ‘ lay only in continuing to win. Calling himself the son of the revolution, he kept waging war
against the nations of Europe in the name of the revolution-borne principles of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity. His high ambition of becoming the ruler of entire Europe led to his downfall. The French republicans became his opponents. .
2. Autocratic regime : Napoleon ended democracy in France and re-established absolute monarchy. He took newspapers under strict control. He also banned formation of labour unions. Napoleon strangled the freedom created by the French revolution. The principle of the right to self-determination bom from the French revolution was taken away from the people by autocratic monarchy as soon as Napoleon became the emperor.
3. Continental wars s Napoleon Bonaparte’s annexation of Spain proved very harmful for him. This incident gave the opportunity to all European nations to unite. There was intense opposition in Spain against this development. A wave of nationalism swept the country and friendly nations formed a joint front against France to heip Spain. This continental war brought great harm to France. In this war, France lost about 3 lakh soldiers.
4. Continental system : Napoleon devised a new plan to defeat England in the economic sphere, which was called ‘Continental system’. He wanted to inflict loss on England in trade through this system. He believed England to be the lone obstacle in his vision of becoming victorious over the entire world, and it could not be defeated directly in battle. Thus, he put an embargo on Britain’s trade relations with other European nations through the continental system.
This system caused a great increase in prices of commodities in entire Europe. Moreover, a scarcity of commodities was also created. Friendly countries like Russia also became opponents of France due to this continental system. France objective of harming England economically also remained unfulfilled. The continental system only helped in increasing France, enemies, and France did not benefit in any way. This system became a major cause of Napoleon’s decline.
5. Campaign agHnst Russia : Napoleon’s attack on Russia proved fatal for him. Two-thirds of French soldiers died because of lack of military supplies and equipment, and bitter cold. Ignorant of the geographical conditions of Rusia, Napoleon inflicted a severe setback to himself because of his vanity.
6. Insulting behaviour towards the Pope : Napoleon Bonaparte behaved rudely with the Pope, because of which he earned the ire of public opnion. The Pope was insulted after being invited to the coronation of Napoleon as Emperor. When the Pope was about to put the crown on Napoleon’s head, Napoleon took the crown and put it on hismelf saying : ‘1 found this crown lying in dust, and I have picked it up with the point of my sword”. This was in a way, an insult to the Pope. Because of this, all European Catholics became Napoleon’s opponents.
7. Napoleon’s favouritism towards family : Inspite of calling himself the son of the revolution, Napoleon could not give up his affection towards his brothers and relatives. He tried to prove himself to be an aristocrat by appointing his family members to high offices of the state. He appointed a brother, Louis Napoleon, ruler of Holland, another brother, Joseph, ruler of Spain and third brother, Jerome, ruler of Westphalia, though they were not fit for the posts.
8. Decline of national character : The soldiers in Napoleon’s army were mostly recruited from different countries and nationalaties, forcibly. Thus, his army lacked a national character.
9. Flaw of character : Napoleon Bonaparte was a stubborn and highly ambitious ruler. Upon becoming the emperor of France, Napoleon stopped taking advice from his well-wishers. He thought of his own decisions as being the best. This proved fatal for him.
Describe the major events of the French Revolution.
The major incidents of the French Revolution are as follows :
- Convention of the Estates Generate : (5 May, 1790) : After the resignation of Calone, the Palermas opposed the imposition of new taxes leived by the King, and demanded the convention of Estates Generale. The public and the army sided with the Palermas and this convention was held on May 5,1789.
- Tennis Court Oath (June 20, 1789) : The king locked the Assembly Hall to favour the elite on June 20, and under such conditions, the common classes held their assembly in a nearby tennis court. All the delegates took an bath to stay put on the tennis court till the constitution was made. This oath is called the Tennis court oath’.
- National Grand Assembly (27 June, 1789) : The king ordered a joint session of all three houses after being compelled to do so on 27 June. This was a victory for the people of France.
- Fall of Bastille Fortress (14 July, 1789) : In the duration of the constituent Assembly’s tenure, the king under pressure from the queen and the aristocracy, removed Naiker from the post of Finance Minister, and called in the army. A leader named, Casmile Desmola called upon the people to take up arms. On July 14, a crowd in Paris occupied the fortress of Bastille and freed the prisoners held there. This fortress had been a symbol of the king’s cruelty and oppression. Its fall meant the political demise of autocratic rule. 14 July was declared a national holiday.
- Abolition of special privileges (4 August, 1789) : The night of August 4, 1789 brought the beginning of a new era in the history of France. On this day, the elite, the aristocrat and the clergy classes voluntarily gave up their special privileges. The doors for state services were opened for one and all.
- Declaration of human rights (27 August, 1789) : The national assembly declared the charter of Human rights upon the proposal of Lafayette. This charter included those definite objectives and principles of the revolution, which the people could understand and relate with and which could become the basis of the constitution to be made in future.
- Women’s campaign : On October 5, about six-seven thousand women reached the emperor’s Versailles palace and began to demand bread. The king became a prisoner in his own palace. After ten days, the National Assembly also came to Paris.
- The written constitution of 1791 AD : A written constitution was prepared for the first time in 1791. This constitution was made on the basis of the wishes of the people and their writ.
- The King’s flight: On 20 June 1791, the French king Louis XVI was caught near Baren village while attempting to flee. This incident ensured the end of monarchy and establishment of a republic. The French king Louis XVI was sentenced to death on January 21, 1793 and hanged.
- September massacre : The military commander of Prussia ordered the French people to release the French ruler. He warned the people of dire consequences on non¬compliance of the dictat. This proclamation incited the French people. Dante put all those to death who were suspected of helping the King or the enemy countries. This massacre occurred between 2-6 September. That is why it is called the ‘September Massacre’.
- National convention (1792-1795 AD) : It ruled from 20 September 1792 to 26 October 1795. This period is known for the conflict between Jacobian and Zirondist parties and the murders committed by the Jacobians. In spite of this, the covention lent stability to the country and established democracy and republican regime.
Which were the major obstacles in the unification of Germany? Explain in
The main obstacles in Germany’s unification were the following :
- The reactionary regime in Austria : Austria was a major powerful country in contemporary Europe’ politics. It was the major reactionary power in the unification of Germany. It kept its continued interference in Germany. The Austrian Chancellor Matternich cruelly suppressed the nationalist movements in Germany.
- Lack of intellectual awakening : The people living in German states were ignorant of the new ideas. Traditional ideas were prevalent here. The rulers here were narrow minded and the concept of a unified Germany was beyond their understanding. The thoughts of the intellectual class also differed on German unification. Some wanted Germany to unite under monarchy, or were divided on the question of the monarch. Some supported Prussia, while some sided with Austria.
- England’s interference : Like France, England also took interest in the German states. It maintained its interference in the northern states on the pretext of Hanover province.
- Mutual conflict among German states : National unity had no importance for German states. The rulers were engaged in constant conflict with other states to guard their freedom and interests.
- Social and economic differences in Germany : The whole of Germany was divided into small states, and each state was socially, economically and politically different from one another. It was because of these differences that the unification of Germany was very difficult.
- The opposition of France : The main centre of politics in Europe was the capital of France, Paris. France could not tolerate the rise of another powerful country on its borders at any cost. Thus, it was opposed to Germany’s unification.
What were the helping elements in the political unification of Germany?
Or Mention the favourable elements in the unification of Germany.
The major helping elements in Germany’s unification were the following :
1. Zollverin : Before the political unification of Germany began, the feeling of national unity was strengthened among the German people by the foundation laid by the economic unification that preceded it. Prussia made a customs duty pact with the small state of Schwarzburg and Saunderschossan, named Zollverin. Under this pact, custom duty was abolished on trade between the two states, and goods began to be transported without any obstacle. This increased trade considerably. This economic unity decreased the regional and territorial influences that were a detriment to Germany’s unification.
Gottleib had said, “The formation Zollverin strengthened the path of Germany’s unification under Prussia’s leadership.”
2. Intellectual movement : The contribution of philosophers, historians, litterateurs, and poets is important for the formation of any country. Lifte, Engels, Dolman, Hardenberg, Hentick-byne etc. called the German revolution as the superior most. Germany’s Zena University created a patriotic organistion named Birschenshaft in 1815. This organisation intstilled the feelings of justice, liberty and unity in the people.
3. Industrial development : Sufficient reserves of coal and iron were present in every region of Germany for industrial progress. These two are even today considered to be the foundation of all industries. These resources enabled the beginning of industrial revolution in Germany. Railway tracks were laid for transportation. The Zollverin pact between Prussia and Schwarzburg made Prussia the leading industrial region of Europe. This industrial progress gave birth to that commercial class, which saw its own benefit in Germany’s unification. They wanted German trade to flourish without obstacles.
4. Bismarck’s Contribution to German Unification : Prussia’s emperor Wilhem I (1861-1888) was an astute and strong-willed man. He knew that Germany’s unification was possible only through monarchy and its strong army. Because of this, he appointed Bismarck his Prime Minister. Bismarck was a clever politician, an expert international relations and an astute diplomat. On the one hand, Bismarck wanted to drive out Austria from within the German states by military might, and on the otherhand, he wanted to take advantage of the international situation. In this direction, he began efforts to force secret pacts and carry out diplomacy with other countries. The unification process of entire Germany can be divided into three treaties.
What do you know about the Franco-Prussian War and Treaty of Frankfurt?
Prince Leopold, a relative of Prussian ruler, was invited to sit on the throne of Spain. This would naturally increase Prussia’s influence and prestige. On the other hand, there was intense opposition to this in France. It was evident that Leopold’s abscent to Spanish throne would enhance Prussia’s power and pose a grare threat to the security of France. French ambassador met Wilhem at a place named Ames and asked him not to put Leopold on Spain’s throne. The French ambassador also asked Wilhem to promise not to do so in the future.
The description of this conversation was received by Bismarck through telegram. Bismarck exhibited diplomacy and published the message. This had the same effect as Bismarck desired. France and Prussia both took this publicity as their insult. War began between Prussia and France on July 15,1870. The decisive battle was fought at Sedan on September 1,1870. In this battle, the Prussian General Von Moltke defeated the French army.
Napoleon III surrendered himself alongwith 8,300 soldiers. Emperor Wilhem was coronated at the Versailles Palace on January 18, 1871 as ruler of Germany. As a result, the treaty of Frankfurt was signed on 26 February 1871.
Results of the Treaty of Frankfurt:
- This treaty completed Germany’s unification and established a powerful nation under the leadership of Prussia.
- The post-war treaty compelled France to hand over the industrial regions of Alsace and Lorraine to Germany. This further accelerated Germany’s industrial development.
- The blow to France’ prestige in this treaty laid the foundation of the First World War.
- The secret treaties which Bismarck had forged to unify Germany were now about to change the political future of Europe. Bismarck made a mark in the world as an able politician and expert diplomat.
- France was imposed a war indemnity of 20 crore pounds. It was also decided that till the time France paid up the amount, the German army would stay in France on France expense. This wa^ an outright insult to France.
- Italy took control over Rome because of this war. Alongwith Germany, the unification of Italy was also completed.
Which were the favourable and helpful major organisations and personalities
that contributed towards the unification of italy? Explain in brief.
The following were the helpful organisations and personalities that contributed towards the
unification of Italy:
1. Carbonneiri : This secret organisation was founded in 1810 in Naples. The main objective of this organisation was to drive out foreigners and establish statutory freedom in Italy.
2. Young Italy : Young Italy was founded by Mazzini in 1831. This institution had three slogans : believe in God, brothers unite, and free Italy. Mazzini is considered to be the brain behind Italy’s unification. This organisation instilled the feelings of patriotism, struggle, sacrifice, martyrdom and freedom in the citizens of Italy. Mazzini called upon the people of Italy and said, “Do not pursue any other goal except the vision of a unified Italy. Italy is one nation and it will become one.” Mazzini was an angel in the eyes of patriots who had come to build Italy’s future.
3. Count Cavour (1810-1861) : Cavour was born in an aristocratic family in 1810 at Turin (Sardinia). He wanted to complete the unification of Italy through the Savoy dynasty of Peidmont. To propagate his ideas in this direction, he published a newspaper called ‘It Resurgimento’. In 1852, he was appointed Prime Minister by Victor Emmanuel. Cavour was a pragmatic, diplomatic, political and pro-monarchy person. He was well acquainted with the power and capability of Italy. Thus, he wanted to internationalise the issue of Italy’s unification.
Cavour’s internal policy, reforms and foreign policy enabled the unification of Italy and created a new history and geography on Europe’s map.
4. Garibaldi : Guiseppe Garibaldi was born in Nice in 1807. His father was an officer on a merchant ship. This gave him experience of travels across the Mediterranean Sea. He came into contact with patriots during his travels. It was because of him that Naples and Sicily merged in Italy. He was the sword of Italy. He formed a patriotic organisation named ‘Red Coats’ and entered sicily on its strength.
5. Rome : The ruler of Catholic sect, the Pope ruled Rome. The French army also remained in readiness to defend his territory against external aggression. Thus, it was not within Italy’s ability to attack Rome and make other Catholic countries its enemy. The dream of occupying Rome came true when international circumstances became unfavourable to France.
In 1870, war erupted between Prussia and France. France had to put in its entire
strength in the war against Prussia. It called in its army from Rome, and yet it was defeated. Italy took advantage of this opportunity and occupied Rome. Rome was made the capital of unified Italy. Victor Emmanuel inaugurated the parliament of unified Italy on July 12,1871. It can be said in conclusion that Mazzini. Garibaldi, Cavour and Victor Emmanuel contributed notably in the unification of Italy. Some scholars call Italy’s unification ‘God’s blessing’ because the people of Italy were used to living and thinking separately for many centuries. They also lacked that level of feelings for unity and freedom that could bring about Italy’s unification. Italy’s unification revolves around Cavour’s political acumen and diplomacy.