Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 6 The World Between 1919 and 1945
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 6 Text Book Questions and Answers
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 6 Very Short Answer Type Questions
Which US president played the most important role in the establishment of the League of Nations?
US President Woodrow Wilson played the most important role in the establishment of the League of Nations.
Who adopted the New Deal policy to overcome the economic crisis?
US President Roosevelt adopted the New Deal policy to overcome the economic crisis in 1933.
Who was the leader of Fascism in Italy?
Benito Mussolini was the leader of Fascism in Italy.
When and between which countries did the treaty of Laussane take place?
The treaty of Lausanne took place between Greece and Italy in 1923 AD.
Which party adopted the symbol of the Swastika?
The Swastika was the symbol of the Nazi party.
What is the name of the book, which was written by Hitler?
The book written by Hitler is named Mein Kampf.
When did World War-II start?
The second World War started in 1939.
Which country first used the atom bomb?
The atom bomb was first used by the United States of America.
How many members are there in the Security Council?
There are 15 members in security council, out of which 5 are permanent and 10 are temporary.
What is the meaning of Veto power?
If a permanent member of United Nations Security Council casts a negative vote, that is called veto power.
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 6 Short Answer Type Questions
What was ‘Mandate System’?
At the end of 1st World War, the responsibility of the administration of the colonies taken away from Germany and Turkey was taken over by the League of Nations. Under the system in which the League of Nations gave the colonies for administration in the protection of countries such as Japan, France, Belgium, England, etc. is called Mandate System or Protectorate System.
Write down the effects of economic crisis.
From 1929 to 1934 AD, there was a period of economic recession in the whole world. Its effects were as follows :
- Militarism spread due to economic crisis.
- The democratic government was unable to deal with unemployment, inflation, instability and insecurity, so people became disillusioned from democratic system.
- The failure of the democratic government led to the promotion of authoritarianism.
- As a result of the crisis the control of the state became stricter on economic activities.
- Dissatisfied masses were attracted to communism due to state control over economy.
- Countries with a sense of insecurity started developing military power.
- The economic downturn caused deep damages to the purposes of the League of Nations. The focus of nations has shifted from global security to national security.
What were the main reasons for the rise of Fascism in Italy?
The organization formed by Mussolini and ideology of its policies is called Fascism. The reasons of its rise were the following :
- According to the Treaty of Versailles, the territory which the Allies had promised to give to
Italy, the people of Italy became angry because they did not get these territories, which give rise to Fascism. s
- In first World War, industry, trade, agriculture, etc. suffered a lot. Because of not recovering from this financial crisis, the people of Italy turned against the then government. This condition also led to the rise of Fascism.
- Communist party promised to empower Italy, but Mussolini took advantage of it. As a result, the people became in favour of him.
- Due to the influence of philosopher Hegel’s ideology, the people of Italy agreed to support Mussolini.
- Mussolini gave the assurance of giving a stable government to Italy, so that the people became in favour of Fascism.
What do you think hour Rome-Berlin-Tokyo axis was formed?
Hitler had a friendship with Italy by making Italy victorious in the Abyssinian war. After this Germany signed the Anti-communism Pact on November 21, 1936 AD to establish friendship with Japan. By which Germany and Japan opposed any kind of political agreement with Russia because Russia was an obstacle to both the empires’ expansion. On 6th November, 1937, Italy also signed this pact and thus the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo axis was formed.
Write the main thoughts of Nazism.
In Germany Nazi party became ruling party under the leadership of Hitler. The ideology of this party is called the name of Nazism. Its ideas are the following :
- The state and its symbol perspective, the authoritarian is considered supreme.
- To support and imitate the diatator and to be willing to quell any revolt.
- All sources of power of governance were in the hands of the leader.
- Military discipline and post-heirarchy in party.
- Curb freedom of expression.
- Generating patriotism and war hysteria and resorting to terror.
What do you mean by appeasement policy?
Such a diplomatic policy that pacifies any other power to avoid war is known as appeasement policy. For example, Hitler was anti-communist, so the United States of America and Britain seemed to achieve their objective against Soviet Russia. Due to this reason they adopted a policy of appeasement towards Germany.
Write a short note on Non-alignment.
Non-alignment means to be neutral in supporting any faction’s policies. After World War-II new sovereign nations followed the policy of Non-alignment to remain separate from the cold war. The main goal of non-alignment is to maintain equal distances from the super powers and get support from them in their development and bring themselves into the category of developing countries.
Write the necessary conditions to adopt the membership of UNO.
To receive the membership of the United Nations, the following are the pre-requisites in accordance with Article-4 of the charter :
- The nation that receives (adopt) membership is peaceable.
- Qualified and interested to accept the responsibility of the charter.
- The member states (countries) will not impose any kind of impact on the UN objectives. Any country of the world who accepts the above conditions can adopt membership of the UNO.
Write the functions of the Secretary General of UNO.
The General Secretary is the Chief administrative officer of the United Nations. His functions are as follows :
- The Secretary General participates in all the meetings of the institution and gives the report to the General Assembly.
- The Secretary General also does the work assigned by the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council and the Trusteeship Council.
- The whole responsibility of the secretariat administration is on the General Secratary.
- To prepare budget, to collect subsidies from member states and to control expenditure are his financial functions.
- Suggesting the Security Council for international peace and security.
- The Secretary General represents the United Nations.
What is the Human Rights Declaration?
The Decree of the human rights was accepted by the General Assembly of the UNO on December 10, 1948. This declaration is a detailed and heterogeneous document. In its 30 paragraphs, this declaration is a detailed description of the basic human rights and freedoms. There is a provision that no discrimination will be made on the basis of dynasty (family) colour) (varna), gender, language, religion, political opinion, national origin, property, birth or other circumstances. Human rights help human beings to ensure a fear-free and hunger-free life.
RBSE Class 11 History Chapter 6 Long Answer Type Questions
Describe the main objectives of the League of Nations, mention its failure and describe its organs.
As a result of the tireless efforts of US president Woodrow Wilson on January 10,1920, the League of Nations was established for world peace. The main office of this union was in capital of Switzerland, Geneva.
Main objectives of League of Nations : The main objectives of the League of nations are the following :
- To establish peace and security in the world.
- Preventing future wars.
- Implementation of the stipulations of the treaty of Paris Peace Conference.
- Resolving disputes peacefully between the nations.
- Do good deeds for human welfare.
- Take care of the interests of all the nations.
Parts of the League of Nations : There were following parts of the League of Nations :
- General Assembly : It was and important part of the League of Nations. To pass the budget of the League of Nations, to appoint judges in the international court, to select temporary members of the council, and to make new members, were the main functions of it.
- Council : There were five permanent members in this powerful body Britain, France, Italy, Japan and America. The main functions of the council were to protect member states from external attacks and organize international conferences.
- Secretariat: The head of the secretariat was called General Secretary. The functions of the secretariat were to prepare information about the critical issues for general assembly and council, to arrange meetings, keep records of treaties, etc.
- International Court : Its headquarter was established in the Hague. There were 15 judges in this. Its functions were to resolve disputes among the nations, to clarify the International laws and to give legal counsel to the general assembly and council.
International Labour Organization : Its main objectives were to improve the condition of labour and their living standards by international efforts. The headquarter of this organization was in Geneva. The causes of failure of the League of Nations :
- By not following the rules of the League of Nations by the super powers, their personal interests and imperialist desire made the principles of the League of Nations ineffective.
- Member states destroyed international unity and harmony in their ideology of sovereignty and nationalism.
- The principles of security and peace of the League of Nations were ignored by the spread of militarism, communism, capitalism.
- The League of Nations had not any armed force. To implement its decisions, it depended on the armies of the members states.
- The autocratic governments of Italy, Germany, Spain and Portugal did not follow the principles of the League of Nations.
- Due to non-cooperation of the superpowers, the League of Nations could not succeed in its objective.
Write the main causes and consequences of the economic crisis.
In the year of 1929 AD, the economic crisis began in the world. The currency was devalued and the value of agricultural products came down drastically. The condition of farmers and labourers became pathetic due to unemployment and inflation. This economic crisis started in 1929 and prevailed till 1934. The causes of this economic crisis were the following :
- Effect of the first World War : In the first World War, the products were supplied by the industries for the army thereby, income, employment opportunities and purchasing power were increased. But after the end of the first World War this increase took the form of an economic crisis.
- Mechanization of Industries : A large number of workers became unemployed due to the implementation of mechanization in industries. The workers were replaced by the machines. As a result, unemployment invited the economic crisis.
- Excess of Production : Increased production capacity due to mechanization, but lack of buyers due to unemployment. For this reason, the factories gradually started shutting down and unemployment increased more.
- Economic Nationalism : Most of the nations followed their selfish economic policy by not worrying about the world economy after the war. They reudced their imports increased taxes on foreign goods, which caused the loss of international trade.
- Uneven distribution of gold : After the II World War, America started to recover it debts in form of gold, which caused the lack of gold in other countries. European countries had to impose restrictions on gold exports, which was the cause of economic crisis.
- Decline of American stock market: In October 1929 the value of shares fell to 50 billion in the American stock market. It has an impact all over the world. Many banks became bankrupt.
Effect of economic crisis : The economic crisis affected all the small and big countries.
The effects of economic crisis are the following : .
- Japan’s imperialistic aspirations started to grow due to economic crisis. As a result, Japan invaded Manchuria.
- During the economic crisis government was unable to deal with unemployment, inflation, instability and insecurity. As a result of this, the people were disillusioned with this method.
- As a result of economic crisis, most of Europe’s territories came under the control of dictators.
- As a result of the crisis (downturn), government control began to grow in the economic sector.
- Masses dissatisfied by economic system, were attracted to communism.
- Countries with a sense of insecurity started developing their own military power.
- The economic downturn shifted the attention of nations from global security to national security, this caused damage to the objectives of the League of Nations.
Write the causes of rise of Nazism and its consequences.
After the first World War, Nazi party emerged and ruled under Hitler’s leadership in Germany.
The ideology of this party is known as Nazism. The causes of rising of Nazism are the following:
1. Abusive Treaty of Versailles : Germany’s economic structure collapsed with the treaty of Versailles and Germany lost all its colonies. Hitler convinced Germany of financial progress, which led to Hitler’s tendency to overturn public opinion.
2. Weimar Republic’s Failure : Due to not being able to establish a skilled and stable government in Germany, people became resentful towards the Weimar Republic. The advantage of this situation was taken by Nazism.
3. Disillusionment with the Democratic System : The people of Germany were not satisfied with the functioning of the democratic system. The public needed such a ruler who could free them from the pitiful condition. So they supported Hitler.
4. The Threat of Communism : Hitler generated (created) a sense of fear towards communism in the minds of the people of Germany, he clarified that communism is a major threat to Germany’s nationalism.
5. Anti-Semitism : Hitler convinced the people of Germany, that he would forgive the Jews’ debt on the German people and expel the Jews out of the country.
6. Hitler’s Impressive Programmes : Hitler could only establish Nazism in Germany by raising confidence in the mind of the German public.
7. Support of German Youth, Soldiers and State Employees : In order to make Nazi programmes successful and oppose disarmament, soldiers, employees, German youths etc. all supported Hitler. It strengthened the Nazi ideology.
8. Traditional Political Ideology : The history of Germany began with the national hero. Public believed in the rule of power that Germany’s people saw in Hitler, so the public supported him.
Results of Nazism (Effects)
- Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Romania, etc. agreed with the fear of Hitler in unity pact in Geneva.
- Hungary, who neglected the treaty of Versailles, decided to give support to Germany.
- Due to success of Nazism, Poland made a friendship with Germany under an agreement in 1934 AD.
- Communist Russia, frightened by Germany’s rising military power took the membership of the League of Nations.
- France was frightened about its security with the rise of Hitler. As a result, it forged friendship with Italy, Czechoslovakia and Russia.
- Britain adopted a policy of appeasement towards Germany because Hitler was anti-communist. Britain and America thus saw fulfilment of their objectives against Russia.
- The success of Hitler, increased the sense of insecurity among European nations.
- In Hitler’s aggressive personality, the signs of upcoming war began to be clearly visible.
- Hitler unified German nationals (caste) living in Austria, Switzerland, Czechoslovakia and the Baltic states in Germany.
- By cancelling the terms of the treaty of Versailles, Hitler adopted rearmament.
- Hitler signed ‘Anti Communist Pact’ with Japan and Italy and built Rome-Berlin-Tokyo axis.
- To avenge the treaty of Versailles, Germany broke, the treaty with Poland and attacked Poland, which led to the beginning of II World War.
Write causes and consequences of II World War.
Twenty years after the end of 1st World War, the II World War began in 1939. It was a tragic war that pushed humanity into a trough of destruction. The causes of II World War we the following:
- The abusive conditions of the treaty of Versailles denied Germany colonies and caused great harm to its trade and commerce. To get a revenge for this insult. Germany got the opportunity against the Allies as soon as possible, and the war started.
- The power of the dictators like Hitler in Germany and Mussolini in Italy strengthened the conditions of World War.
- The League of Nations could not succeed in its objective. For this reason the international peace and security was broken and the situation of war was created.
- Increasing imperialistic aspirations of Japan, Italy and Germany, created the atmosphere of the second World War.
- Due to the mutual hatred of nations, no treaty on any aspect of disarmament could be reached by America, Soviet Russia and many other nations. As a result, rearmament started.
- In place of international interest, most countries adopted nationalism, which caused international security to be dissolved and the conditions of war were created.
- Due to the appeasement policy of Britain towards Germany the confidence of dictators was increased and due to this policy, Austria’s invasion, violation of Czechoslovakia, military action in the Rhineland, etc. created a launchpad for II World War.
- Hitler benefitted from the dissatisfaction of minority caste against the treaty of Versailles. He negotiated western powers and occupied Austria and Sudetanland and invaded Poland which led to the beginning of II World War.
- Disillusionment ended in nations as a result of economic crisis and they got engaged in arms race.
- The division of the world into two factions also proved to be responsible for World War-II. On the one hand Germany, Italy and Japan were never satisfied and on the other hand the Allies, such as Britain, France, the Soviet Union and America, formed an organization together.
Results (effects of II World War) : This World War started in 1939 and lasted for 6 years. The results (effects) of this World War are the following :
- America dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima on 6th August, 1945 and Nagasaki on 9th August 1945. Due to this massacre the nuclear era started.
- After II World War, the world was divided into two ideologies—communism and democracy.
- Germany was divided into two parts. Communist economy was established in eastern Germany with democratic republic. In western Germany the capitalist economy was established with the federal Republic.
- Control of the pubic’s powers and the need for action in the interest of the state started the establishment of all authoritarian rule by abolishing true democracy.
- The world’s leadership went into the hands of two superpowers, United States of America and Soviet Russia. Soviet Russia began to implement the communist system and the US adopted the capitalist and democratic system.
- The Cold War started with allegations on two factions of two superpowers (America and Soviet Russia) and anti-political propaganda.
- African-Asian nations followed the policy of non-alignment and kept themselves separate from the superpowers.
- Having strengthened the feeling of nationalism, many countries became independent from Britain’s occupation and the colonial era ended.
- On October 24, 1945, the United Nations Organization was formed to protect mankind from future wars.
- With the progress made in the field of scientific field, the countries with similar ideologies developed various organizations and tried for development.
Describe the functions of the main organs of the United Nations Organization
(UNO) and its special bodies.
The United Nations Organization (UNO) was formed on 24th October, 1945. The main
objective of establishing this organization was to maintain international peace and security
and keep aggressive tendencies in control.
The UNO according to article 4 of the United Nations Charter, it has 6 major organs :
1. General assembly : This is the main administrator of the UNO in which the representatives of all member states (countries) are included. The main functions of this :
- Pass budget
- Election of members
- Receiving reports from other organs.
- Co-operate for human welfare
- Trying for international peace and security
- Consider the entry, removal, etc. of member countries.
2. Security council: It is the executive of the UNO. There are 5 permanent, 10 temporary and total 15 members. Its main task is to find out the reasons for such a dispute that threatens world peace. Along with this, it has also been planned to regulate the production and deployment of weapons (Arms). It takes action against the invasion of any nation.
3. Economic and Social Council : This institution provides freedom to world from scarcity. The main functions of this are :
- To create favorable conditions for economic and social development.
- Commitment to implement fundamental freedoms.
- Transmission of records of the related committees to the General Assembly.
- Te send information to the security council.
- Carrying out the tasks assigned by the General Assembly.
4. Trusteeship council : Its main functions are the following :
- Preparing a list of political, social, economic and educational progress of the people of the trustee’s regions.
- Examining the report received from the administrative authority.
- Touring (visit) the trustee territories for inspection.
5. International Court : This is the UNO’s judiciary. Its headquarter is in the Hague. There are a total of 15 judges in this. Judges have three types of jurisdiction:
- Voluntary jurisdiction
- Compulsory jurisdiction
- Advisory jurisdiction
6. Secretariat : The United Nations General Secretary is its chief administrative officer. The Secretary General supervises the administration of the secretariat and recruits the staff. Trigive Lie was the first Secretary General of UNO. At present Baan-Ki-Moon is the Secretary General of UNO.
Specific bodies of UNO : The specific bodies of UNO are following :
- UNESCO : It was established on 4th November, 1946. New experiment in the field of science, making knowledge universal and accessible to the world, are the main functions of this. Its Headquarter is in Paris.
- International Labour Organization (ILO) : It was founded on the basis of the conditions of the treaty of Versailles on April 11, 1919. Its headquarter is in Geneva. It collects information related to the world’s labourers and publishes the report.
- Food and Agriculture Organization : It was established on 16th October, 1945. Its functions are to increase the production and distribution of food items and improve the level of living standard of rural population.
- World Health Organization (WHO) : It was established on 7th April, 1948. It helps the member countries to improve the level of public health.
- International Monetary Fund : It was established in December, 1945. Its headquarter is in Washington. Economic development of member countries is its main function.
- International Reconstruction and Development Bank (IRDB) : It is also known as World Bank. The World Bank came in existence in June, 1946. Its headquarter is in Washington. It gives loan to member countries for its development.
- UNICEF : It was established in 1946, with the aim of providing relief to children. Its head office is in New York.
- World Trade Organization (WTO) : It was established on January 1st, 1995. Its head office is in Geneva and it acts as a platform for discussions on any future issues related to trade and tariffs.
- Human Rights Declaration (HRD) : This Declaration accepted an December 10th, 1948 ensured that no person will be discriminated against on the basis of race, colour (Varna), gender, religion, language, property and birth.