Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Physical Geography Chapter 1 Geography as a Subject
RBSE Class 11 Physical Geography Chapter 1 Text Book Questions
RBSE Class 11 Physical Geography Chapter 1 Multiple Choice Questions
The branch of physical geography which studies about the temperature, air pressure, direction and speed of wind, humidity, air masses, etc:
(a) Astronomical Geography
(c) Soil Geography
The component that is controversial as a part of physical geography is:
Geography has two major branches:
(a) Agriculture Geography and Economic Geography
(b) Physical Geography and Human Geography
(c) Plant Geography and Bio – geography
(d) Weather Geography and Climate Geography
(b) Physical Geography and Human Geography
Which geographer used the term Geography for the first time?
Earth’s age is considered to be:
(a) 4.8 billion years
(b) 5.0 billion years
(c) 4.6 billion years
(d) 3.9 billion years
(c) 4.6 billion years
RBSE Class 11 Physical Geography Chapter 1 Very Short Answer Type Questions
What does the word ‘universe’ mean ?
The composite form of existent matter and energy spread out in the infinite space is called the universe. It contains billions of galaxies, nebulae, stars, many planets, dust particles, gas clouds, effect of gravitational force, etc.
What does the solar system mean?
A group of different planets, asteroids, comets, meteors and other celestial bodies revolving around the sun is collectively called the solar system. The sun has the central position in the solar system.
What is milky way ?
There are many galaxies in the universe. One of these galaxies is the milky way or the galaxy in which our solar system lies. It is also known as mandakini. It has more than 1 trillion stars, and our sun is one of them. Our galaxy is broad and spiral in shape.
What does earth’s surface mean?
There is a mutual interplay of the biosphere related to the Earth’s surface, the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the atmosphere and the organisms found in them. Various activities that are performed in all these are the result of a long process of time controlled by the solar system in the form of the Earth’s surface.
What does Biosphere mean?
Between the lithosphere and the atmosphere, a narrow biosphere extends in the form of soil, vegetation and domain of living organisms, in which the distribution of all kinds of organisms, which includes human, animals and vegetation, etc. is developed and found.
RBSE Class 11 Physical Geography Chapter 1 Short Answer Type Questions
‘Geo’ means the earth and ‘graphy’ means its description. Thus, the meaning of geography is to describe the earth. According to the geographical dictionary, geography is the science of study of the Earth’s surface and human interpersonal relationship. In this, Earth is studied in the form of a human planet. This subject describes the pure, systematic and logical description and interpretation of various surface traits of the earth.
State the purpose of geography.
The purpose of geography is associated with human progress and development. A scholar named Heartshorn had said that the purpose of geography is to contribute to the scientific description and study development of the earth as the human world. One step is taken to achieve the objective of solving problems arising from the use of economic, social and cultural development related to human society. At the end of which, the main objective lies in the co – ordination with human welfare and nature in a harmonious way.
What does regional variation mean?
All the conditions found on the earth’s surface are not universally identical, whether it is lithospheric conditions or hydroscopic conditions or atmospheric conditions. In this way, there are many variations in the biosphere as. The variations sound in different regions on the earth are called regional variations.
What are the differences between physical geography and human geography?
Geography is a comprehensive and great science that studies all the abiotic and biotic components and their interpersonal processes. Physical geography and human geography, in which the following differences are found:
|Physical Geography||Human Geography|
|1. In this, physical conditions are studied.||1. It is mainly studied in context to human conditions.|
|2. In this, the focus of study is the earth’s surface.||2. The focus study is human in it.|
|3. It is the study of the effect of human element on the natural environment.||3. It involves studying the changes made by the humans.|
What is the meaning of intra – disciplinary science?
Intra – disciplinary science means a study domain which includes various pure sciences. The topic of study of Geography is the earth’s crust, and to fully understand it, interdisciplinary subjects including many branches of science and humanities are also studied. Geography is also described as an inter – disciplinary science as it involves the study of many fields such as physics, chemistry, sociology, economics, etc.
RBSE Class 11 Physical Geography Chapter 1 Essay Type Questions
“Geography is a tree which has its roots in physical geography.” Analyse this statement critically.
Geography is a wide – domain science whose study area is very extensive. Everything that is visible on the earth’s surface is included in the subject matter of geography. Geography is like a tree in which there are innumerable branches which are related to different facts. But physical geography is the very foundation of all the branches of geography.
The existence of geography remains intact due to physical geography. Without a physical environment, it is not possible to imagine geography. The branches of the geography tree study each aspect of human activity. Direct relationship of all these human actions is given stability in the form of a geography tree by physical geography.
Study is done in the form of physical geography of various terrestrial forms, seas and oceans, biosphere and atmosphere. According to all these, the activities of human beings are accomplished. Physical geography is the synthesized study of many land sciences. Physical geography encompasses all human and social sciences and their branches.
It is not possible to imagine geography without physical geography, as without the roots, the trunk and branches cannot be imagined. Physical geography was developed along with the origin of the earth. Therefore the history of physical geography is very old as is geography. Geography and physical geography both complement each other.
Earth is studied primarily in physical geography and geography is also related to earth. The physical geography is detailed and comprehensive in relationship. Physical geography involves the study of lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. All these components have now become a huge branch of geography, in which the branches have developed in the form of many subjects of science.
Analytical study of the distribution, format and interconnection of physical and biological environment is done under physical geography. It provides information about various components of physical and biological environment and their interaction. It plays its role in the same way as the root of the tree is sure to grow and strengthen the tree.
In the same way, by the growth and development of physical geography, the geography tree has been developed more strong. It can be said in general, that geography without physical geography has no existence of its own. Physical geography is the cornerstone of geography.
Explain the scope and subject matter of physical geography.
Scope and subject matter of physical geography:
Earth’s surface is the focus point of the study of physical geography. Knowledge of physical geography is essential for the study of any branch of geography – not only from the physical environment point of view, but also every human activity and all components of the earth do not remain untouched by physical geography.
Air, water and land, all the three parts of physical elements are included and all these three are related to each other. The main attribute of the physical environment is change. Therefore, with the knowledge of the distribution of physical circumstances, the study of variability is also included in physical geography. By the interplay of this variability, different physical conditions arise. In the scope of physical geography, the following four parts are included mainly:
The study of the phenomena active in these spheres and responsible factors for them is included in the main subject matter of physical geography. Interactive relationship is found in all these components of physical geography. Interaction of components of physical geography. The format of these components is briefly described as follows:
All site segments and their various forms located on the earth’s surface are mainly studied under the lithosphere. Structural studies are done in the form of morphology on the lithosphere.
The gaseous converting spread around us is called atmosphere. It involves studying a variety of seasonal and climate – related conditions. Special study of atmospheric conditions is the subject matter of the atmosphere.
The events and their causes related to the huge water extent found on approximately 71% of the earth’s surface are logically analyzed in the hydrosphere. Studies on the changes in sea and ocean water have been included under hydrosphere.
All the facts related to the living organisms living on the land, the air and the water and all the facts related to them are studied in the biosphere. It studies about the conditions of the biological world. The scope and content of physical geography is depicted through the following illustration:
It is clear from the above picture that the scope and subject matter of physical geography is very comprehensive. This reflects the comprehensive and composite nature of this subject.
Do you agree with the statement that the present geography has become more human centred? Analyze this critically.
Geography is the inclusive study of physical and human activities. The arrival of humans on the earth’s surface is the most recent. Human birth occurred about 2 million years ago on earth. Humans have also made adjustments with physical. conditions during their development. But as the human has used modern techniques and various methods such as aerial survey, remote sensing technique, communication revolution, modern computer etc., the definition of development has changed along with the spread of modernity and technology.
The surface of the earth having undergone many changes over time, is very complex and varied, due to which modern research in geography and efforts for better survival on the earth are also deeply related to the, subject. With increased human focus on geographical topics, the spread of human geography and, related branches has increased manifold. Due to this, physical geography has gone a little bit in the background. Geography is the science of earth’s surface.
In this, the surface of a place and its various characteristics, description and local relations are studied in context to the human world. Earth is the cornerstone of geography on which all physical and human phenomena and actions are accomplished. After 1975, geography has emerged as a scientific study of the Earth’s surface. After this, the humanistic perspective in geography was developed continuously and it transformed into the science of human – oriented geographic interpretations.
Since 1990, geographical knowledge began to be used in the implementation of social, cultural, economic, political sectors and public policies. This made geography more practical and useful for the society and it is currently seen in the form of a human welfare science.
Due to today’s human intervention, due to human interaction with physical geography and due to the human involvement in geography, the dominance of human geography is gradually increasing. Many sub – branches have emerged from human geography according to human needs. In a nutshell, it can be said that in the present age of modern and technological development, the nature of human influence is seen, which reflects the nature of human – centered geography.
RBSE Class 11 Physical Geography Chapter 1 Other Important Questions
RBSE Class 11 Physical Geography Chapter 1 Multiple Choice Questions
What is the name of our galaxy ?
(a) Milky Way
(c) Solar belt
(a) Milky Way
When did the origin of humans took place on earth?
(a) 10 million years ago
(b) 20 million years ago
(c) 30 million years ago
(d) 40 million years ago
(b) 20 million years ago
To which country does the geographer Richhethopen belong?
Which geographer performed the rendering of sequential approach?
Who is the exponent of Regional Approach?
(d) Carl Ritter
(d) Carl Ritter
Which of the following is not a branch of physical geography?
(a) Ocean science
(c) Political science
(d) Glacier science
(c) Political science
Which of these is the science to study earth’s topography?
(a) Geo – morphology
(d) Soil science
(a) Geo – morphology
Physical geography is considered to be an integrated study of other sciences. This statement was made by:
Short – term atmospheric conditions are called:
On what percentage of the earth does water exist?
Which of the following topics performs epochal analysis?
Matching Type Questions
Match Column ‘A’ with Column ‘B’:
|Column A (Scholar)||Column B (Country Name)|
|(i) Eratosthenes||(a) U.S.A.|
|(ii) Kant||(b) Hellenic (Greece)|
|(iii) Peter Haggett||(c) Germany|
|(iv) Richard Hartshorne||(d) U.K.|
|Column A (Science)||Column B (Branch of Geography)|
|(i) Meteorology||(a) Population geography|
|(ii) Demography||(b) Soil geography|
|(iii) Sociology||(c) Climatology|
|(iv) Soil science||(d) Social geography|
RBSE Class 11 Physical Geography Chapter 1 Very Short Answer Type Questions
What is the meaning of the word ‘geography’?
The word Geography has been derived from the Greek word Geographia, ‘Geo’ means ‘earth’ and ‘graphy’ means ‘description’. Thus, the meaning of the word geography is the description of the earth.
What was thought to be the shape of the earth in ancient times?
In the ancient times, Greek and Roman scholars considered the earth to be flattened or disc – like, whereas Indian scholars considered the earth to be spherical.
What study is done in geography?
Geography is the science of earth’s surface. In this, a particular place and its various features, distribution and local relationships are studied in context to the human world.
What is the definition of geography as given by Richard Hartshorne?
According to Richard Hartshorne: “Geography describes the pure, systematic and logical explanation and interpretation of various variable traits of the Earth’s surface”.
What is the definition of geography as given by Peter Hegate?
British geographer Peter Hegate has described geography as a study of the human environment and the spatial and mutual relations of the territories on the Earth.
What has changed in geography after 1990?
After the 1990’s, the application of geographical knowledge in the domains of social, cultural, economic, political sectors and public policies began to be of maximum use. This made geography more practical and useful for the society.
Why is geography considered to be the study of regional variations?
On Earth, we see many variations in the form of physical and cultural environment. Many disparities are found. Hence, geography is considered to be the study of regional variations.
What are the two main approaches of the study of geography?
- Subject matter (systematic) approach.
- Regional approach.
Who performed the systematic and Regional Approach?
Alexander Vaughan Humboldt’s rendering of systematic approach, while Carl Ritter’s rendering of regional approach was performed.
What is meant by rendering of systematic approach?
Any one fact in this approach is studied at the global level. After this, type of regional form is identified.
What does the regional approach mean?
In this approach, the world is divided into different hierarchical levels. After this, all the geographical facts are studied in a particular area.
At present, the definition of development of geography has changed. Comment.
At present, modern techniques and methods are being used in geography. The use of arial surveys, remote sensing, technical communication revolution, modern computer – based mapping, etc. has changed the definition of geographic development.
How has the deep humanization of the Earth’s surface taken place?
The spread of modernity and technology has resulted in a comprehensive and deep humanization of the surface of the Earth.
Write the names of five sub-divisions of physical geography.
In the five sub – divisions of physical geography, mainly, Geo – morphology, climatology, oceanography, biological science and soil science are prominent.
Write the names of five sub – divisions of human geography.
Economic geography, agricultural geography, resource geography, industrial geography and population geography are the main five sub – divisions of human geography.
Which procedures are used under each branch and sub – branch of geography?
Cartography, Statistics, Mathematical Geography, Behavioral Geography and Remote Sensing and GIS are procedures used in each branch and sub – branch of geography.
What are two distinct sub-fields of geography?
What are the two main branches of geography?
- Physical geography
- Human geography.
According to Lobeck, what is the subject matter of geography?
According to Lobeck, the study of the interrelationship between the organism and its physical environment is the subject matter of geography.
What is the subject matter of study in physical geography?
In physical geography, the earth’s – level surface structures, (Land forms), oceans and seas, biosphere and atmosphere is included in the subject matter of study.
How has Kant defined the physical geography?
According to Kant:
“Physical Geography is the first part of knowledge of world, indeed it is essential preliminary for understanding our perceptions of the world.
What is the definition of physical geography as given by Pierre Byrot?
According to Pierre Byrot:
“Physical geography is the study of visible natural surface before……….. the intervention of mankind………”
How did Arthur Holmes define physical geography?
According to Arthur Holmes: “The study of the physical environment by itself is the physical geography, which includes consideration of the surface relief of the globe (Geo – morphology), of the seas and oceans (Oceanography) and of the air (Meterology and Climatology).”
What does the word ‘lithosphere’ mean?
The solid layer located in the upper part of the Earth’s surface is called the lithosphere (Sthalmandal, in Hindi). It studies all the terrestrial expanses and their various forms.
What does the word Geo – morphology mean?
Science of Geo – morphology is the study of various types of topographical formations found on the upper surface of the lithosphere. It is derived from the Greek language, i.e., which means Geo = Earth, Morpho = Shapes and logy = study of the shapes/forms of earth’s surface.
What does the word atmosphere mean?
The gaseous envelop that surrounds the earth is called the atmosphere. The atmosphere enables the presence of life on earth.
What does the word climate mean?
The average of atmospheric conditions prevailing for a long period of time in a particular region is called the climate.
What does the word hydrosphere mean?
On more than two-third part of the Earth, a large body of water is spread. The shape of this huge water reservoir is found in the form of oceans and seas. This is called the hydrosphere, which also includes atmospheric water content and sub – terrainean water.
What human actions are controlled by the climate?
Human habitat, clothing, food, along with available vegetation, pattern of crops, animal husbandry and industries are mainly influenced by climate.
Why has there been an imbalance in ecosystem in the world?
The imbalance has emerged in the ecosystem in the world due to the increasing use of modern technology developed by humans and the excessive exloitation of natural resources by humans.
What is essential for sustainable development?
Knowledge of the physical environment is very important for sustainable development.
RBSE Class 11 Physical Geography Chapter 1 Short Answer Type Questions (SA-I)
Why is the universe called mysterious?
The universe is full of many mysteries in a single form or multi – dimensionally. Human beings the of the universe, and hence get accurate knowledge of universe. Because of the billions of stars, innumerable nebulae, billions of galaxies, stars associated with other galaxies, dust, gas clouds, gravity and its effects and other forces, the universe is still a mystery, and it is a very difficult task to get it solved. That is why, the universe is called mysterious.
What does the term scientific geography mean?
All events and interactions that occur on the earth’s surface under the sky, as a result of interactions between nature and humans, are included in the study of geography. Earth is the basis of study geography, and many different variations are found on it. It is scientific geography which analyzes and describes the Earth, its surface, along with its variations in a pure, systematic, and logical way.
Geography is the science of the earth’s surface. How? Explain.
Geography is considered to be the science of earth’s surface, because it studies the forms of land and its various features, distributions and spatial relations to the human world. Earth is the-cornerstone subject of geography. On this, all material and human events and interactions depend. All these actions take place in the form of mutual relation of time and place. Due to being a logical and authentic study of the Earth, geography is called the science of the earth’s surface.
Give any two important definitions of geography.
The following are two important definitions of geography:
According to Richard Hartshorne:
“The purpose of geography is to describe and explain the territorial or regional variation of the ground.”
According to Peter Hegate:
“Geography is the study of the human environment and the spatial and mutual relations of the territories on the Earth.”
Why should we study geography? OR Why is study of geography necessary?
Geography is studied because we live on the earth’s sin – face. Our life is influenced by the environment around us. We depend on the surrounding resources to make a living and we know that there is a diversification in the natural resource base, technical development, adaptation and refinement that has an inherent relation with physical environment, social organization and cultural development. To study all this, study of geography becomes necessary.
What is meant by human welfare geography?
Organized and sensitive scientific studies of various aspects of geography and earth’s surface started to be done under geography after 1975, resulting in the continuous evolution of humanistic perspectives in geography. Since 1990, the use of geographic knowledge in the study of social, cultural, economic, political sectors and public policies has started to gain momentum. This made geography more practical and useful for the society. It is currently known as human welfare geography.
What are the sub – disciplines of physical geography?
Physical geography is a major branch of geography. Due to the continuous development of this branch, the following sub – sections have been developed: Geodesy, Geophysics, Astronomical Geography, Geo – morphology, Climatology, Oceanography, Hydrology, Glacial Science, Soil Science, Biological Science, Medical Geography, Ecology and Cartography, etc.
Which sub – divisions have been developed under human geography?
Human geography is the name of an important branch of geography. This science performs the inter – analytical study of human activities. For this reason, many of its subheads have emerged over time. These branches mainly include economic geography, agricultural geography, resource geography, industrial geography, transport geography, population geography, domicile geography, urban geography, rural geography, political geography, military geography, historical geography, plant geography, animal geography, social geography, cultural geography, regional planning and remote sensing and GIS, etc.
Geo – morphology is the study of land forms. How? Explain.
Geo – morphology is the science to study the terrestrial phenomena. Various topographical variations are found on the earth’s surface. It mainly consists of study of the origin of the earth, the spread of the globe, the formation of the gravel, the formation of topography and Geo – morphological entities, the internal structure of the Earth, the origin of continents and oceans, the process of mountain formation and erosion in the form of destructive processes. Study of various factors of weathering is also done under Geo – morphology.
“Geography relates to the study of interactivity between nature and the entire unit of humanity.” Explain this statement.
Both physical and human geographic phenomena are not static but they are rather dynamic. These continuous transformations taking place on Earth and continuous action and interactions in intermediate human intervals result in changes in the activities of human beings. Primitive Society was directly dependent on its immediate environment, but at present, there is no such situation. Mankind has reduced direct dependence on nature and now, he creates new possibilities with the indirect help of nature.
RBSE Class 11 Physical Geography Chapter 1 Short Answer Type Questions (SA-II)
How have humans proved to be the most intelligent?
Humans were the last species to evolve on the Earth. Human origin occurred almost two million years ago on the Earth. Crossing the threshold of human civilization in the forests, the path of development has reached the present situation. During this period, humans made initial inventions of fire and wheel.
These inventions played the role of milestones in human development. This pattern of development continued. In this period of development, nature gave humans, affection like a friend and mother and also gave a path to them to move forward. Humans use the resources provided by nature in accordance with their needs, preferences and abilities. By adjusting according to the nature, man proved himself to be the most intelligent being on earth.
Describe the nature of geography briefly.
The nature of geography has been changing over time. Depending on evolution, the nature of geography can be summarized as follows:
1. Geography is the science of Earth’s surface:
Geography is primarily the study of the earth’s surface. The subject matter of geography in the context of any element is the earth’s surface. Geographers like Humboldt considered the study of nature as the subject of geography.
2. Geography is the science of inter – relationships of various elements:
Various elements are not studied in geography, but detailed descriptions of landscapes generated from mutual relationships of different elements are discussed. Therefore, it can be said that geography is the science of inter – relations.
3. Geography is the study of regional integration:
Regionalization and demarcation is done to facilitate the study of geography. A state becomes different from other states on the basis of its homogeneity and functional unity. The emphasis is on the integrated study of territories in geography.
4. Geography is a synthesis science:
The main task of geography is to integrate the contents of various elements in the context of a specific region.
5. Geography is the science of resolving a practical problems:
Geography is a practical science, and its main objective is to find out the problems of the region / regions and to present the method and planning for their solution. At present, geography has become an interdisciplinary science. Its main purpose is to explain the inter – relationships of humans and nature and to make proper use of resources and to plan for human development.
Briefly describe the branches of human geography.
The major branches of human geography are the following:
1. Social / Cultural geography:
This is a regional study of the social / cultural environment of the human beings.
2. Population and Settlement Geography:
Population – structure, population-growth theory, causes, problems, solutions, rural and urban population, migration, practical structure, etc. are studied under this. Settlement geography, a detailed study of origin, development, rural and urban settlement, etc. is done.
3. Economic Geography:
Economic Geography contains a detailed explanation of the distribution, use, conservation, etc. of economic resources.
4. Historical Geography:
Historical interpretation of geographical factors is done in this.
5. Political Geography:
The regional interpretation of political events, boundaries, relations of neighboring units and elections, regional study of behaviors and units is done under this.
What changes have occurred in the two aspects of geography?
Geography has two main aspects:
physical or natural environment and humans. One proof of the advancement of any science is the development of its sub – fields and special studies. At present, on one hand, elements of the physical environment affect the human, while on the other hand, the human being transform themselves in the form of a geographical factor.
Both the earth and the human being are dynamic in nature. Elements of human behavior and the elements of the cultural environment produced in it are studied under human geography. The study of the relation between the organism and its physical environment is the subject matter of geography.
Briefly describe the lithosphere.
All the terrains and their various forms located on the earth’s surface are mainly studied under the lithosphere. Studies are taken into. consideration of the conditions and processes which have transformed the earth’s surface to the present state. This type of study consists mainly of geological history of the earth, the composition of geologal strata, tectonic, endogenous and baroque forces, structural processes, phase, etc.
Different shapes of the lithosphere are studied under Geo – morphology. Under structure its, the part on which we variance and the depth to which we use it are included. The surface of the earth is not very smooth, rather is very uneven. On one hand, there are a vast fields on this surface, and on the other hand, there are small low lying islands or high mountain peaks or somewhere there are moderately elevated plateaus.
Since the creation of continents, various geological powers and processes, have contributed in the formation of different land forms on the surface. Different types of profiles are formed as a result of these geological forces. Therefore, all these facts are part of the lithosphere.
Describe the atmosphere.
The earth’s spherical surface is surrounded by a thick of air, this is called the atmosphere. This atmosphere.is necessary for all atmospheric phenomena and life activities on the ground. All this is studied under climatology. The various layers of the atmosphere are important, useful and basic resource for envelope.
The atmosphere is also a Very variable component in context to other components of physical geography. Under this weather conditions, atmospheric long – term and short – term conditions are included. Under these atmospheric phenomena, the structure of the atmosphere, height, temperature, air pressure, speed of winds, direction and origin of winds variations of humidity, air pollution, the climate of the world, cloudiness, rain, etc. are included.
Describe the hydrosphere.
Two – thirds of the Earth’s surface is surrounded by water which is present in seas and oceans. The presence of water is found in small or large reservoirs. In addition to the depth, there are wide variations in water.
The origin and distribution of seas and oceans on the earth, the physical and chemical properties and structure of the sea, water, ocean currents, ocean deposits, temperature in oceans, salinity, density, tide, coral reefs, waves, ocean profiles, etc. are included in this. Different types of motion are found in the water bodies. Limitless stores of organic and inorganic resources are also found in the hydrosphere. All the above facts are studied in context to the water bodies under hydrosphere.
Explain the importance of physical geography.
Importance of physical geography:
Under physical geography, the study of earth, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere is included. At present, physical geography is evolving as a topic related to the assessment and management of natural resources. Understanding the relationship between physical environment and human beings is essential to fulfill this objective.
Physical environment provides various resources and ensures the economic and cultural development of human beings by their proper utilization of these resources. Increasing use of technology has created ecological disturbances throughout the world. Therefore, knowledge of the physical environment is vital for sustained growth, which demonstrates the importance of physical geography.
RBSE Class 11 Physical Geography Chapter 1 Essay Type Questions
Describe the major branches of geography briefly.
Major branches of Geography:
Geography is an inderdisciplinary science. In this, many physical and social sciences are included. In the present form, based on the study of physical and human geography and appraisal, dualism is also seen in the form of regional and global geography, but this division can be only theoretical, not practical. In fact, the study of geography is performed by its integrated study. Geography is divided into branches and sub-divisions in the following way:
The brief explanation of the two main branches of geography is as follows:
A. Physical Geography:
This is the most important branch of geography. It is a detailed study of earth’s origin, internal structure, rocks, volcanoes and earthquakes, weathering and erosion factors, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere, etc. A brief analysis of the major subdivisions of
physical geography is as follows:
1. Geo – morphology:
In this, a detailed study of the factors of origin, development, structure, erosion of land forms is done.
It is studied in terms of weather and climatic factors, seasons, climate regions and their characteristics.
This is the study of the oceans, their mineral compositions, structures and origin, temperature, salinity, ocean water movements, etc.
4. Astronomical Geography:
It involves the study of earth’s planetary motions and its relative position to Sun and Moon.
5. Bio – geography:
In this, geographical analysis of vegetation and organisms is done.
6. Soil geography:
It is studied in the form of soil origin, construction process, characteristics,, distribution, productivity, etc.
7. Environmental geography/Ecology:
It is studied in context to the environment, environmental factors, changes in them, and their impact and conservation, etc.
B. Human Geography:
Human geography is the second most important branch of geography. In it, the human species, its origins, races, their distribution and detailed explanation of their activity and their environmental interactions are studied.
The major branches of human geography are as follows:
1. Historical Geography:
It is used to conduct the geographic study of ancient countries.
2. Economic Geography:
In this, the geographic description of the economic activities of the human being is studied. Agricultural geography, industrial geography, resource geography, transport geography, tourism geography, etc. are the branches of economic geography.
3. Social geography:
Under this, the social characteristics of the human classes living in different regions and the geographical impact on them is studied.
4. Cultural geography:
In this, geographical analysis of cultural landscapes and cultural structures of different regions is done.
5. Political Geography:
Under this, study of political boundaries, administrative arrangements, borders, regional disputes and international relations and resources of different countries/territories is done.
6. Population Geography:
This includes a discussion about population distribution, growth, density, migration, structure, characteristics and population policies.
7. Settlement Geography:
This is the study of the origin, pattern, types, functions, etc. of rural and urban habitations in relation to geographical conditions.
In fact, the division of different branches of geography may be appropriate on the basis of theoretical basis, but the overall study of any area is completed from the collective study of different branches. Geography is an integrated science, in which the integrated study of different sciences is done through sequential and regional practices.
Define geography and briefly explain the importance of the study of physical geography.
Definitions and importance of the study of Physical geography:
Geography is the science in which the study of ‘earth’s surface’ and description is done in context to human world and human habitation, in terms of its total characteristics and reciprocal relation. The earth’s surface is not evenly formed over the earth. Human actions also have their impact, everywhere in the field. Geography makes a detailed explanation of all of these. Therefore, it is said that geography is the science of distributions. It analyzes surface variations.
The following are the major definitions of geography:
1. According to Hatner:
“The study of variation in the factors related to reasonably related different parts of the earth’s domains.”
2. According to the geographical dictionary:
“Geography is the science of the earth’s surface and its inhabitants.”
3 According to the Hartshorne:
“Geography is the science that explains the description and interpretation of the transformation from one place on earth to another, in the form of the human world.”
Importance of The Study of Physical Geography:
According to Richard Hartshorne, “The purpose of geography is to describe and explain the territorial / regional variation of the ground.”
In physical geography, detailed study of the Earth, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the biosphere is done. The soil is formed by a certain process in which the climate plays an important role. Over time, the soil gets mature and this soil is helpful in the creation of the life and its survival.
Land forms are the basis on which human activities are performed. Different, types of human activities develop on different land forms and different types of cultural landscapes are formed. Plateau is generally a stock of minerals. Mountain areas are evolving as tourist destinations. The sources of rivers also exist there.
Study of climate in geography is important. Climate affects human habitat, their level of living, food, apparel and their culture. Vegetation, agriculture, animal husbandry, industry, etc. are also influenced by many climatic factors.
There are huge reserves of sea resources. Apart from fishes and other marine organisms, sea minerals have also been considered as reserves. India has developed the technique of collecting manganese ingots from the sea floor. Apart from this, various types of products are derived from sea organisms. Sea transport also plays an important role in transportation.
Soil is an important resource which is life – supporting, which can be improved and which can be kept fertile for more time. This is the basis of agriculture. It is the basis life of various of plants, animals and useful microbes. Its study is important in geography.
In essence, physical geography is currently developing as a topic related to the evaluation and management of physical resources. At present, many environmental problems are arising from the over – exploitation of natural resources. It is necessary for sustainable development that the physical environment is well – understood. From this point of view, the importance of physical geography can be considered paramount.