Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 5 Nature of State
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 5 Textual Questions
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 5 Very Short Answer type Questions
On which divine elements, Manu has regarded the formation of a king ?
Manu has accepted the formation of a king as an amalgamation of divine parts of divine elements, namely, Indra, Vayu, Surya, Yama, Varuna, Chandrama, Agni, Prithvi and Kuber, etc.
What is the basis of the origin of the state as regarded by Kautilya ?
Kautilya regarded the origin of a state on the basis of the consent and acceptance of the people.
How many functions are entrusted to a state as per Mahabharata ?
As per Mahabharata, the functions of a state are physical safety of the people progress of their social, economic and moral life.
Mention two helping events in the development of liberalism.
The helping conditions in the development of liberalism are:
- Religious Reformation.
Mention the names of two writers of positive liberalism.
- John Stuart Mill
- T.H. Green.
Mention the names of two writers of negative liberalism.
- Jeremy Bentham
- Adam Smith.
Mention two characteristics of negative liberalism.
- Emphasis on negative role of the state for the safety of freedom of an individual,
- Demand of political rights.
Explain the State principle as propagated by Marx.
According to Marx, state is an artificial institution and an institution which encourages the exploiting class. It forecasts end of private property and establishment of class – less society.
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 5 Short Answer type Questions
Clarify the views of Manu on sovereignty.
Manu accepts the sovereignty of the state. This sovereignty is in the form of right to punishment which is created by God Himself and he has gifted it to the king. Power of punishment is not unlimited or tyrannical, but it is under the restrictions of Dharma (religion). Power of punishment is not bestowed as a person upon a king, instead is in endowed with the institution in the form of the throne.
The punishment related sovereignty is meant for safety of moral values and their growth in the state. These moral values are defined as Dharma by Manu. Sovereignty is a saviour of Dharma and is also under Dharma. In this way, Manu accepts Dharma – based punishment. Manu accepts that ‘Dharma’ and ‘Dand’ (punishment) are the bases of sovereignty.
Which principles are described in Mahabharata in respect to origin of a state ?
The following principles are described in Mahabharata in respect of origin of a state:
1. Divine Principle:
According to this principle of Mahabharata, the gods themselves originated / created the state. The king is accepted to be eternal who wanders in this world in human form.
2. Social Agreement Principle:
In respect of divine principle, there is a description of social agreement principle in Mahabharata, According to which, besides divine power, people’s power is also recognized in the origin of a state.
3. The principle of force in the origin of state:
According to this principle, a state should have other traits of governance bounded in the quality of power.
4. The principle of Saptang:
Mahabharata describes the nature of a state and lists its seven organs-king, minister, treasure, army, allies, fortress and the country of a state. Formation of a state is done with those organs.
Which are the seven organs/elements of a state, as per Kautilya ?
According to Kautilya, the following are the seven elements of a state:
- Swami (The Ruler)
- Amatya (The Minister)
- Janapada (The population)
- Durg (The fortified capital)
- Kosh (The Treasury)
- Dand (The Army)
- Mitra (Ally and Friends)
What is the basis of origin of a state as per Shukra Niti ?
Though Shukra Niti has not provided any detailed and distinctive concept in respect of the origin of a state, yet two episodes of the epic insinuate that Shukra had supported the divine principle on the origin of a state. In one reference, Shukra says that lord Brahma has appointed a king as the preserver of the subject who levies taxes on people as his salary and his existence is for the service to the people.
In another reference, it is also told that where there was no swami (king), and obviously there was anarchy all over, and people were running here and there for shelter, then God himself created a king for the safety of the world. Shukra accepts materialistic prosperity and moral growth of the subjects as the basis of existence of a state.
What do you mean by ‘Liberalism’ ?
Meaning of Liberalism:
Liberalism is an important and progressive line of thought of modern era. Not only that, it is also a lifestyle and movement, which rejects orthodox doctrine of medieval period and adopts new thoughts. The word ‘Liberalism’ is derived from a Latin word ‘Liberal is’, which means ‘freedom’.
In this way, Liberalism stands for an outlook free from any narrow – mindedness of thoughts, faith in democratic system and constitutional changes. It favors to grant optimum freedom in contemplation, dignity, rights, expression, exchange of thoughts, belief, business and cooperation, etc. in one’s life. It is a doctrine having faith in goodness, dignity and freedom of an individual. It has faith in law and rational administration. According to Satori, “In simple words, liberalism is a principle or behaviour of individual freedom, judicial safety and constitutional state.”
What do you mean by traditional liberalism?
It is also called negative liberalism. The form of traditional liberalism was negative. Its beginning took place with an aim to oppose tyrannical monarchy and feudalism for political freedom of an individual and also against rampant dominance of church and feudalism.
And as such, traditional liberalism emphasis-ed on rationality, freedom and individualism of a person.
The followers of traditional liberalism thought freedom as lack of restrictions and they considered the state to be against the freedom of an individual. Traditional liberalism, while accepting state as a necessary evil, advocates for the reduction of scope and rights of a state.
It emphasis-ed the opposition of tyrannical and arbitrary laws, faith in laws and national system of administration, natural rights of an individual. This doctrine also justifies struggle and revolt against the system of administration if there arises some compulsion for this.
Liberalism is not synonymous to democracy. How?
Liberalism is a political philosophy which supports freedom of an individual, constitutional state, rights and liberty of an individual, freedom of press, administration of law, impartial judiciary and decentralisation. Liberalism is accepted as a fundamental principle of democracy, because of the support it lends to the freedom of an individual and equality. It also advocates that administrative powers should be in the hands of people and no individual or a group should impose his will and fancies in the administration.
It is the conception of liberalism that certain restrictions and rules can be imposed on an individual only with his consent. In this way, at the helm of democracy, there is a liberal doctrine for the freedom of an individual. But, it should not be construed that liberalism is synonymous to democracy. Though both are closely inter-related, yet they are not one. The basis of liberalism is freedom, whereas the basis of democracy is equality. In this way, it can be concluded that liberalism is not synonymous to democracy.
Liberalism is synonymous to socialism. How?
Even after considering an individual as an accomplishment, liberalism does not neglect social interests. Though it regards state the as means, yet it supports the restriction of freedom of individual to the point where he is entitled to get all the social benefits. In fact, liberalism draws a balanced coordination between inclusive development of an individual and welfare of the society. Liberalism is based on social welfare, and hence it can be regarded as synonymous to socialism.
Liberalism is not synonymous to Individualism. How?
Generally, liberalism is thought to be synonymous to individualism, but it is not so, because both have significant differences. The doctrine of individualism does not accept state’s intervention in the life of an individual, whereas in modern period, liberalism is moving beyond individualist outlook and it accepts the positive role of the state and deems it as appropriate if the state interferes in the life of an individual for the sake of people at large. Hence, liberalism is not synonymous to of individualism.
Explain the ‘principle of extinction of state’ of Marx.
Principle of Extinction of state of Marx:
Revolutionary and a proponent of scientific socialism, Marx propagated the principle of extinction of the state. This principle of extinction of a state is a part of his entire range of state-related concept. According to Marx, in socialist society, certain materialistic circumstances will emerge, and because of which, there shall be no need of a state to exist, and as a result, it will vanish. Simultaneously, socialist society will be replaced by communist society. According to Marx, in socialist society, a state gradually gets weaker and hence is exterminated because of the following reasons:
1. According to Marx, “State – institution is originated in the form of saviour of individual property, but in socialist society the institution of individual property gets terminated. In this way, the very basis of existence of a state will get ruined and then the process of extinction of the state will start.”
2. In a socialist society, capitalist class will end and only the labour class will remain in existence and hence class – struggle will also end. In this situation, there will be no need of a state and then the process of extinction of a state will get underway.
3. There will emerge such just and exploitation-less circumstances in the socialist society, that there will be no crime. And hence, there will be no necessity of a state to maintain peace in the system. In the wake of the above reasons, a state gets ruined in a socialist society. Conclusively, a communist society will be established, which will be a stateless and classless society.
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 5 Essay Type Questions
Explain the origin of a state and its nature as described in Manu Smriti.
Origin of a state as described in Manu, Smriti Manu in Manu Smriti, has described the situation of the time before the formation of a state that there was an atmosphere of injustice, torture and insecurity in the society in a stateless situation. Those who were powerful, unleashed multiple types of torture on the weaker section of the society. In this situation, God himself created a king in order to establish peace and safety in the entire world.
The origin of a king in place of that of a state as described in Manu Smriti implies that Manu presented a king and a state in synonymous terms. But Manu has clearly differentiated between a state in the form of soverign institution and a king or administrator in the form of the operator of this institution.
Manu, while describing the divine origin of the state, says that God created a king by the amalgamation of divine elements of Indra, Vayu, Surya, Yama, Varuna, Chandrama, Agni, Prithvi and Kuber, etc. Because of these divine elements borne by the king, the king used to be glorious. Because of having brightness like the Sun, none was able to look upon him.
While describing divine obligations of a king in the form of divine elements, Manu has imposed ample moral bandages on the administrator. The ruler cannot disobey these restrictions. Manu himself has stated that if a king does not comply with divine pledges of divine elements, then he will fall down from divinity and gradually his existence will come to an end because his very formation has been done by combining the divine parts of these divine elements.
The divine nature of king as propagated by Manu imposes moral bondage on both the king and the people. In order to accomplish serious tasks, like royal obligations, a king needs to have abilities and capabilities.
Nature of state:
There is a description of organic form of state in Manu Smriti and a state has seven elements (organs) which are called by the name, ‘Prakriti’. These are given below :
1. Swami (The King):
It is mandatory for a state to have a king who is filled with moral qualities and administrative capabilities, and he is also dutiful.
2. Mantri (Minister):
A king’s power is not his private power, instead, it is an institutionalised power. Hence, the use of power can be done in institutional form only. This institutionalized power of a state is the council of ministers. And as such, a king should discharge his obligations on the advice of his ministers.
Pur Means the capital of state. Manu has described such a region to be made a capital, which is well-protected and is also having fortress.
4. Rajya (State):
Manu terms ‘Rajya’ as the entire land area within the boundary of the state and also the people living there. And in this way, this also is an important organ of the state.
5. Kosh (Treasury):
A state administration should have significant collection of money (treasury), so that a king can accomplish activities with regard to safety of the people and also for welfare schemes.
Dand or army is stated to be a must for the safety of a state. The army carries double (dual) responsibilities, as it has to deal with both internal/external security. It is expected of a king to keep all the components of the army quite strong.
7. Mitra (Allies):
Manu accepts ‘mitra’ as a necessary organ of a state. A state has to have relations with other states too, and therefore a king should keep or develop the relations in such a way as to maximise the number of good allies.
Manu clarifies as to which organs are relatively more important and said that every prakriti (organ) has more importance than the prakriti (organ) that follows it. And as such, the king is regarded as the topmost organ. For smooth conduct of all the activities of a state, all the above organs (prakriti) should be used meticulously.
Explain the duties of a state, in accordance with Arthashastra of Kautilya.
Duties of a state as per Kautilya’s Arthashastra:
In Arthashastra, Kautilya has described in vivid datails, the range of duties of a state, which are as follows:
1. Safety of people:
It is the most important task of a king to ensure safety to his people from internal and external invasions. In the context of internal crises, he should deal with the persons of criminal records and eliminate them and in respect of external threats, a king should protect his people.
2. Public welfare:
Kautilya has expected a king to undertake welfare schemes. A state should render all possible help towards the aged, children, women and helpless people. It is the responsibility of a state to take proper care of the agricultural system, irrigation system and employment, etc. Besides rendering help in the times of drought famines, epidemic, etc., it is also the responsibility of a state to maintain hygienic system, medical system, water reservoirs and their construction and cleaning as a part of its welfare schemes.
3. Regulation and control of economy:
According to Kautilya, a state should ensure regulation and control of the economy in such a way that the economic resources do not get centralised and the economic interests of all the classes are well-protected. The state should have a control on all the businesses and the activities of their owners, price control of the produce. It should also see that no business or businessman enjoys monopoly in the economy.
4. Judicial responsibility of state:
Kautilya has termed judicial responsibilities as the most important obligation a state has to discharge and termed it as the basis of the state. Kautilya describes two aspects of justice. One is distributive justice, that is to say that a state has to ensure that no section of the people suffers from paucity so that there is an equitable distribution of resources in accordance with justice and principle. The second aspect of justice is remedial, that is to say that a state should protect the rights of the people and should punish those who may dare to disobey the rules of the state. The culprits should be suitably punished.
5. Maintenance/Subsistence of social system:
According to Kautilya, a state should ensure that the social system of the state is carried on in accordance with recognized system of ‘Classes’ and Varnas’ described in Vedas and other epics and literature. All the people should perform their duties in the light of their ‘classes’ and ‘Varnas’. The king should also organise and regulate mutual relations of different classes and also their marital system.
6. Execution of administrative ststem:
According to Kautilya, a state should have a competent administative system for fulfilling its wide range of responsibilities. The state sets up various departments and it should appoint in them able officers and officials. The state should have control on gazetted officers and should also ensure that these officers and officials are not exploiting the people of the state.
7. Policy of foreign relations:
Kautilya expects a mature and skill full attitude of a state in relation to foreign policy of a state or otherwise the state may be in danger. A state should try to avoid unnecessary wars in international arena, and it should try to increase the number of allies and decrease the number of enemies.
Mention the duties of a state as per Mahabharata.
Duties of a state as per Mahabharata:
In Shanti Parva (Book of peace) of Mahabharata, the scope of a state is said to be quite broad and a state is regarded to be responsible for the people, starting from their materialistic safety, to proper upkeep and growth of their social, economic and moral parameters of life. The importance of distinction between the emergence of people and general concept of rise of people is useful in the context that these both express positive and negative obligations of a state.
A state has to discharge its duties towards the safety of the people from foreign attacks, preservation of life and property, general upkeep and judicial management and simultaneously, a state has to initiate multifaceted social, economical and moral activites for the development of the people of the state. For example, provision of education, medical care, business, transport management, development of forest and mines, care of the poor and down trodden, etc.
It is expected of a state that it has to protect its inmates from foreign attacks. Besides, it is also a responsibility of a state to keep check on wine – house owners, prostitutes, gambling, and other anti – social professions, as without these checks, the people get distressed. In addition, a state has to perform other welfare schemes like construction of big roads, arrangement of doctors and dispensaries, well construction, construction of safety walls, removal of weeds and trash for fear of fire, development of agricultural land, etc.
Other Works of a State:
In Shanti Parva of Mahabharata, there is a mention of other state duties also, apart from those mentioned above. These additional duties are:
- Country’s deference system
- Resolution of problems of state
- Safety of the weak
- Security from foreign attacks
- Service to the people
- Arrangement of Agricultural and business system
Describe the origin and nature of a state, as per the description in Shukra Niti.
Origin of state as per Shukra Niti:
Though in Shukra Niti, there is not much description with regard to the origin of state, yet through two references, it is seen that Shukra has supported the divine principle of origin of a state. In one reference, Shukra says that, “Brahma created the king as a servant to the subject who receives taxes from public as his salary. His existence is for the service of the people”.
In the second episode, Shukra says that, “When there was no king in the world, that is, there was chaos everywhere and people began to run here and there in search of a hideout, then God created a king for the safety of this world”. In the context of Shukra Niti, there are only two references where from an outlook is drawn in respect of origin of a state. While propagating the principle of existence of a state, a state has been considered as an important and natural institution in the scripture.
While describing the state as the basis of emergence of the world in the epic, its comparison has been made with the moon and it has been said that as the moon is the base of growth of ocean, similarly, state is the original basis for emergence of people. He described appointment of a king by ‘Brahma’ and also supported the divine principle with regard to origin of a state by describing creation of a king by God, but by terming king as servant to his subject, he has negated the divine rights of a king.
Nature of state in Shukra Niti:
Shukdra, while propagating the organic form of a state, describes its seven organs:
- Raja (King)
- Mantri (Minister)
- Mitra (Allies)
- Kosh (Treasury)
- Rashtra (Boundary)
- Durg (Fortress)
- Sena (Army)
While drawing comparison of a state with human body, Shukra assumes the Raja (King) as the head, minister as the eyes, allies as ears, treasure as mouth, sena (army) as mind, durg (fortress) as both the hands and country as both the feet. In Shukra Niti scriptrure, a state has been compared to a tree in another context by terming Raja as roots of a tree, ministers as stem, army chief as branches, army as leaves, people as soil, the material obtained from land as fruits and state’s land as seed.
Shukra Niti has clarified the difference between a nation (rashtra) and a state (rajya). Two elements are included in rashtra, with the first immovable element as land, hills, natural wealth, etc. A community devoid of sovereign control is called ‘Rashtra’ and this ‘Rashtra’ is transformed into a ‘Rajya’ by way of sovereign control. That is, to say in precise manner, that a public organisation living on a definite piece of land is a rashtra if it is without sovereign control, and it is a rajya if it is with sovereign control.
What do you mean by liberalism? Analyse the main characteristics of liberalism.
Liberalism is an important and progressive thought of modern age. This is not only a thought, but it is a lifestyle and movement also, which negates the medieval orthodox line of thought and adopts new thoughts. This word is derived from a Latin word, meaning freedom. In this way, the meaning of liberalism is a line of thought having faith in democratic system and it constitutionally supports optimum freedom in one’s life in the fields of articulation, dignity, rights, expression, exchange of thoughts, faith, business and cooperation, etc.
This line of thought has belief in one’s welfare, dignity and freedom. This thought believes in lawful and rational system of administration. According to Encyclopedia Britannica, “Liberalism is a thought in the form of philosophy or principle, which is committed to the freedom in the light of principle of organization of society in the policy of the government and also in the lifestyle of society”. According to Satori, “In simple words, liberalism is a principle of behaviour of personal freedom, judicial safety and constitutional state”.
Main Characteristics of Liberalism:
The following are the main characteristics of liberalism:
1. Liberalism is such a line of thought which supports consistent improvements on the basic of rationality in social, economic and religious domains.
2. This thought emphasizes on the individual freedom of a person.
3. This doctrine adopts the policy of free trade in economical field and minimum state intervention.
4. The thought of liberalism has faith in constant improvement by parliamentary and legal methods in the field of politics. That is, liberalism is a mixture of two separate elements in the form of political principles
5. This thought gives special importance to the freedom of citizens.
6. This line of thought has faith in the progress of human society.
7. Liberalism is such a mental tendency which mulls over social, political and economical questions freely with an open mindset. On the basis of wisdom and logic, it observes all the institutions in the context of social interests and it tries to weed out any evils found in its course. It lays stress on all – round development of an individual.
8. This thought does not regard state as a necessary evil, instead it thinks a state to be a moral, public welfare and social service institution. It regards a state as a coordinating institution. As per it conception, state establishes coordination between people of different communities, classes and interests.
9. Liberalism in the context of its development, is divided into two parts:
- Traditional liberalism or negative liberalism
- Modern or positive liberalism. Traditional liberalism gives much importance to the belief that a state has to adopt positive role in controlling and balancing mutual relations among the persons.
Which are the two streams of liberalism? Clarify their differences.
There are two streams of liberalism –
- Traditional liberalism
- Modern liberalism.
Difference between Traditional liberalism and modern liberalism:
Both the forms of liberalism – traditional and modern, think of the individual as the central point of the entire system. These thoughts regard an individual as the accomplishment and other organizations including the state as the means. Both, the freedom of an individual and his rights are at the topmost priority. The distinction between ancient and modern liberalism can be understood on the basis of the following points:
1. Difference on the basis of development:
The development of ancient liberalism took place in 16th to 18th century, whereas the development of modern liberalism is thought to be since 19th century till date.
2. Difference on the basis of reasons of their development:
At the back of the development of ancient liberalism, there are many reasons, including reaction against tyrannical monarchy, imperialism and populism, whereas the advent of modern liberalism took place in the form of reaction against capitalism and Marxism.
3. Difference on the basis of concept of the state:
Ancient liberalism regards the state as a necessary evil. In it, there has been a stress on negative role of a state for the protection of freedom of an individual, whereas the line of modern liberalism does not the regard state as a necessary evil. It considers it as a moral and welfare institution. In modern liberalism, the welfare of an individual, especially the welfare of a weak and person, considered mandatory for his freedom.
4. Difference on the basis of nature of state:
Traditional liberal thinkers have faith in non – interference of the state, whereas modern liberals believe in a moral and public welfare state.
5. Difference in the light of freedom:
Ancient liberalism supports unlimited freedom of an individual, whereas modern liberalism supports controlled freedom of an individual under the acknowledgment of social and state – related interests.
6. Difference in the light of rights:
Ancient liberalism assumes the rights of an individual as natural, whereas modern liberalism assumes them (rights) as having been provided and are to be controlled by the state.
7. Difference in respect of social and economical viewpoints:
Ancient liberalism accepts minimal role of a state in social and economic fields, whereas modern Liberalism accepts a wider and pervasive role of the state in socio – economic field.
8. Difference in viewpoints of main supporters:
In the development of ancient liberalism, Jeremy Bentham, Adam Smith, H. Spencer, John Locke, Ricardo, etc. played an instrumental role, whereas in the development of modern liberalism, John Stuart Mill, T.H. Green, L.T. Hobhouse, H. J. Laski and Maclver contributed in a big way.
Explain the causes and characteristics of the development of modern liberalism.
Reasons of development of modern liberalism:
In the 19th century, liberal thinkers carried out amendments and changes in traditional liberalism in accordance with the demand of time. Modern liberalism in not a rejection of original liberalism. Instead, it is a new edition of fundamental liberalism in the context of socialist era. With the changes in the accomplishment of liberalism, its new methodologies were invented.
Its fundamental ideal was very much retained, that is, everywhere a free person, but the meaning of the ideal and its means of accomplishment changed. This new turn in liberalism came because of the challenges provided to it at political and philosophical levels. Orthodox Marxists and socialists kept on hinting at it.
And as a result, liberalism was compelled to take along democratic, nationalist and socialist sentiments after 1848. Among the main supporters and thinkers of modern liberalism, the names of John Stuart Mill, T.N. Green, L.T. Hobhouse, H.J. Laski and Maclver are the major ones in terms of their contribution and its development.
The supporters of modern liberalism do not assume the state to be a necessary evil. They regard a state as a positive and welfare institution for addressing people’s interests and their safety. They want to bring in social and economic improvements in the society by way of adopting constitutional, democratic and parliamentary methods, and it is also expected that the evil of illiteracy, poverty, epidemics, exploitation, etc.
spread’among citizens in the state will end and consistent efforts be made for the up liftment of people. Contrary to ancient liberalism, modern liberalism believes that a state should play a positive role in the context of regularization and balance of mutual relation of the people. Later, this modern liberalism did transform itself to the concept of welfare state.
Main Features of Modern Liberalism:
The following are the main features of modern liberalism:
- A state is a moral and welfare institution. It is not a necessary evil.
- It has faith in public dominance and lawful administration.
- It is the responsibility of the state to ensure all – round development of all the citizens.
- Freedom and rights of the people are protected by the state.
- State should have inclusive control on the economy.
- The state should adopt constitutional and democratic methods for carrying out political, social, religious and economic changes.
- State’s rights are not unlimited. It should have certain appropriate control.
- An individual and the state are not mutually contrary, instead, they are supplementary to each other.
8. Analyse the main principles of liberalism
Main principles of liberalism:
Liberalism is a right to get freedom from slavery and restrictions, and also to work as per one’s discretion. The following are the main principles of liberalism:
1. Faith in one’s rationality:
In medieval period, a person’s life was dominated by uncontrolled impact of religion, blind faith and popal dictats, and there was oppression and torture in place of use of rationality to regulate one’s life. In religious domain, all directives of the church had to be followed. In royal domain, there was a strong control of tyrannical monarchy, and in social domain, conservative conventions filled with blind faith were rampant.
In this situation, soul of an individual and rationality was suppressed, because of which, an individual and the society were at loss. The end of medieval time came with the call of renaissance that a human being is a logical creature. According to liberals, all the decisions in all the fields of a person’s life should be taken with wisdom and rationality. Summarily, liberalism supports self contemplation.
2. Negation of historical traditions:
The development of liberalism has taken place in the form of reaction against arbitrary and oppressive governance of state, church and Pope in medieval social system. According to liberals, a new society should be formed on the basis of application of wisdom and logic, by ending ancient historical and traditional basis.
3. Support to freedom of individual:
Liberalism is based on the fundamental convention that a person is born free and freedom is a natural right of every person. In this way, he should be given full freedom in political, economical, social, intellectual and religious spheres.
4. Society and state are artificial institutions:
Liberalism does not accept the state and society as a divine institution. According to it, these are artificial institutions. Formation of a state and its development is done by the people for fulfilling their necessities.
5. An individual is accomplishment and society and state are means:
Liberalism accepts an individual as an accomplishment and the state as means. A person forms a society or a state for his own interests, and hence there can be no community, society or state, for which a human being can be sacrificed.
6. Supporter of natural rights of an individual:
The supporters of liberalism have faith in the concept of natural rights of an individual. They deem certain rights for an individual as his natural rights since his birth. As per the notion of Locke, an individual has three main natural rights : life, right to wealth and right to freedom. A state carries the obligation to protect these rights.
7. Concept of an individual without a king:
Liberal thinkers believe that a human being is naturally free and perfect. He is a master of his own will. Every individual has different aspects of personality. He can render good for the development of his personality and also for materialistic and spiritual welfare as per his own discretion.
8. Belief in administration of law and equality of persons:
Liberalism has faith in equality of person and administration of law. It accepts that all persons should be deemed equal in the context of law and administration. They should not be discriminated against on the basis of caste, gender, religion or language, etc.
9. Recognition of idea of a secular state:
Liberals propagate the idea of non – intervention of the state in context to religion. They also believe in religious freedom and tolerance. It is quite important for a state to be secular for the freedom of an individual.
10. Supporter of the principle of nationalism:
It is a convention of liberals that the people of every state have moral and political right to launch struggle against foreign administration’s subordination. According to it, freedom of an individual can be preserved only when the administrator is of his consent and choice.
11. Support of administration of democratic system:
Liberalism believes in peaceful and democratic changes and improvements in the society, in place of revolutionary changes.
12. Flexible outlook in relation to objects and duties of states:
There has been a change in the outlook of liberals in respect to objects and duties of a state. In this context, their outlook can be put into two divisions:
- Traditional outlook
- Modern outlook. Traditional liberalism supports a limited scope of a state, whereas modern outlook believes in the concept of public welfare state.
“Liberalism is not synonymous to individualism nor to democracy, and nor to socialism.” Analyse this statement.
Liberalism is neither synonymous to individualism, nor to democracy and nor to socialism. In the form of philosophy or principle, liberalism is a thought which is committed for freedom in government’s process and policy, principle of organization of a society and lifestyle of individual and society. The above statements can be clarified in the following ways:
1. Liberalism not synonymous to individualism:
In general, liberalism is thought to be synonymous to individualism, but it is not so, because both have major differences. Individualism does not tolerate state’s intervention in the life of an individual, where as in modern era, liberalism, moving beyond individualism, accepts the positive role of a state and it does not have any objection to its intervention, if it is in the interest of general public. –
2. Liberalism not synonymous to democracy:
Some people believe that liberalism is synonymous to democracy, but this is also not true. Though, there is a close relation between democracy and liberalism, yet these are not the same. The basis of liberalism is freedom and it is against centralized administration, whereas fundamental basis of democracy is equality.
3. Liberalism not synonymous to socialism:
Liberalism cannot be regarded to be synonymous to socialism. Despite taking man/individual as an accomplishment liberalism does not undermine social interest. Thought it assumes the state as a means, yet it supports personal liberty to an extent where it is good for collective interests. Liberalism opposes socialism and communism of modern period.
Explain the state-related thoughts of Marx.
State – related thoughts of Marx:
Karl Marx accepts a state as a class-oriented institution. The origin of a state is because of class differences. A state has continuously been a source of exploitation. Because of the state’s help, it becomes possible for the exploiting class to exploit the weak and downtrodden. State – related thoughts of Marx are as follows:
1. Origin of state:
Marx accepts a state as a classified institution. According to Marx, there was no clash in people’s interests in the society in primitive communist situation. People used to work in mutual harmony and there was no existence of a state. Private wealth came into being as a result of gradual development of the society and the entire society got divided into two classes-wealthy section and wealth – less section. Marx termed this condition as slavery era, and during this period, a state originated.
2. Nature of state:
According to Marx, a state, by its nature, is a class – based institution, and not a moral institution. Its formation was done by exploiting class for their own interests. Law and judicial system was made to promote the interests of the exploiting class. The state’s sovereignty, was, in fact, sovereignty of the exploiting class.
3. Objective of a state:
According to Marx, the objective of the state is to preserve the interests of those people only who are having right of authority on governance. On account of unequal development of society, powerful class starts enjoying dominance on the state. This powerful class exploited the wealth-less class. State only served to protect the interest of the wealthy class which exploited the poof minority.
With the establishment of socialist society in the future, majority wealth – less lebour class or the exploited class will have authority on the governance of a state and then the purpose of the state will be to protect the interests of labour class. In this way, a state has never been an institution for the welfare of the entire society.
4. State arrangement related to its social condition:
According to Marx, state system of any period is related to its own social conditions. Physical and economic circumstances found in any social condition emerge with a certain kind, and in this context, there are specific interests of the exploiting class as interests of king, monarch or capitalists.
And while protecting their own interests, the exploiting class decides and manipulates the fundamental principle of constitution, arrangement of rights in the system of administration, law and judiciary system, etc.
5. Emergence of stateless and classless society:
According to Marx, the state is not a permanent institution. Its existence is because of class-struggle. After the dominance of wealth – less labour class upon governance, the existence of a state will no longer be there because there will be no opposing class in this condition.
With the establishment of classless society, the state will end. It will be the communist state of the society. Everybody will be getting goods as per their requirements, and every individual will do work as per his ability. Such society will not discriminate on the basis of religion, caste, color or wealth.
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 5 Multiple – Choice Type Questions
Manu Smriti accepts a state as a:
(a) Divine institution
(b) Socialist institution
(c) Democratic system
(d) Communist system
(a) Divine institution
Creation of king is believed to have been done by Rishis in:
(a) Manu Smriti
(d) Shukra Niti
Kautilya accepts the origin of state by:
Unit of social analysis of liberals is:
Who is not a liberal thinker ?
(a) J.S. Mill
(c) Herbert Spencer
Principle of welfare state is related to:
Marxist socialism is called:
(a) Illusion – ism
(c) Scientific socialism
(c) Scientific socialism
As per Marx, a state is:
(a) A Law-making institution
(b) A public welfare institution
(c) A class – based organization
(d) A means of revolution
(c) A class – based organization
‘Das Kapital’ is the creation of:
Other name of scientific socialism is:
(c) Democratic socialism
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 5 Other Important Questions and Answers
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 5 Objective Type Questions
“State is a group of organised people who reside in a particular part of earth to live peacefully”. It is said by:
(a) Woodrow Wilson
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Karl Marx
(d) Adam Smith
(a) Woodrow Wilson
The objective of a state is – “Acquisition of unacquired, conservation of the acquired, growth of the conserved and then its distribution among eligibles.” Who said this?
(b) Martin Luther
In which scripture, codified form of political science is called as state dharma?
(a) Manu Smriti and Mahabharata
(b) Arthashastra and Shukra Niti
(c) Ramayana and Rigveda
(d) None of these
(a) Manu Smriti and Mahabharata
The concept of ‘Ramrajya (Utopia)’ is propounded by which Indian thinker?
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(c) Subhash Chandra Bose
(d) Dadabhai Naoroji
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
The central element of liberalism is:
(b) Tyrannical government
(c) Scientific revolution
(d) Indian contemplation (philosophy)
The Glorious Revolution of England took place in:
Belief of liberalism is in:
(a) Extreme nationalism
(b) Freedom of the individual
(d) none of these
(b) Freedom of the individual
Characteristic of traditional liberalism:
(a) Faith in Individual’s freedom
(b) Opposition to tyrannical laws
(c) Faith in non – interference of State
(d) All of the above
(d) All of the above
Positive liberalism is related to:
(a) Public welfare state
(b) Marxist state
(c) Socialist state
(d) All of the above
(a) Public welfare state
Which line of thought believes in the concept of welfare state?
The principle of liberalism is:
(a) Faith in one’s rationale
(b) Opposition to historical traditions
(c) Support to democratic government system
(d) All of the above
(d) All of the above
What is liberalism as per Sartori?
(a) Freedom of individual
(b) Judicial safety
(c) Principle of constitutional state and behaviour
(d) All of the above
(d) All of the above
Who was the leader of religious reform movement in Europe?
(a) Martin Luther
(c) Adam Smith
(d) Thomas Paine
(a) Martin Luther
“State and society are artificial and man – made. Its formation has been done by the people for their own comfort as per their choice.”This thought is related to:
As per Hobhouse, the number of freedoms of an individual is:
Liberalism is a principle of amendments because it dedicated to:
(a) Improvement in economic sector
(b) Improvement in political sector
(c) Improvement is social sector
(d) All of the above
(d) All of the above
The beginning and end of liberalism takes place with:
Liberalism is political philosophy of which class?
(d) All of the above
Who assumes state as a necessary evil?
(d) None of the above
The contribution of liberalism is in:
(a) Political sector
(b) Social sector
(c) Economic sector
(d) All of the above
(d) All of the above
Who is the first socialist writer?
(a) Karl Marx
(b) Saint Simon
(c) C.M. Joad
(d) Robert Owen
(a) Karl Marx
Scientific liberalism is:
Which thinker has described the state as a class-based institution by its nature?
(a) Woodrow Wilson
(b) Karl Marx
(d) Jeremy Bentham
(b) Karl Marx
Marxism is a political philosophy of which class?
(a) Labour class
(b) Capitalist class
(c) State official class
(d) None of these
(a) Labour class
Advent of Marxism was a reaction against which society?
(d) All of the above
Who is considered as the father of Marxism?
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) Karl Marx
(c) Woodrow Wilson
(b) Karl Marx
Which thinker propagated the principle of extinction of a state?
(a) Karl Marx
(b) Martin Luther
(a) Karl Marx
Who considers the State as an institution which encourages the exploiting class ?
(a) Martin Luther
(b) Karl Marx
(b) Karl Marx
According to Marx, the reason of origin of state is:
(a) Public welfare
(b) Labourers’ interest
(c) Class difference
(d) None of these
(c) Class difference
The ultimate goal of Marx is:
(a) Stateless society
(b) Capitalist society
(c) Classless society
(d) Stateless and classless society
(d) Stateless and classless society
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 5 Very Short Answer Type Questions
In Indian philosophy, from where are the rules of concept of a state derived ?
From Vedic literature.
In which Indian texts, there is a clear and detailed description of state’s concept and its purpose ?
- Manu Smriti
- Shukra Nitisara
According to Manu, what is the topmost duty of an administrator ?
According to Manu, it is the foremost duty of an administrator that he should rule according to religion and he should also ensure people’s behaviour as per religious doctrines.
In the context of activities of state, which political thinker presented the, concept of a public welfare state ?
In which Indian scripture, there is a detailed description of contractual theory of state ?
Valmiki’s Ramayana and Mahabharata.
Define the subject area of State-religion.
In state-religion (Rajya Dharma), certain ideal rules with regard to mutual relations of king and people, scope of a state, objectives of a state and control over state powers and their decorum, use etc. are included.
In which Indian scriptures, there is a decription of organic theory of a state ?
- Manu Smriti
What do you mean by Saptang (7 – origins) ?
Saptang means seven organs of a state:
Swami, Amatya, Janapada, Durg, Kosh, Dand and Mitra.
Which Indian political thinker accepts a state to be the symbol of organized violence ?
Which type of state is advocated by Gandhiji ?
Who propagated the concept of decentralised village self governance ?
Who termed the centralization of political power as violence ?
On which issue, did Gandhiji lay stress upon ?
Gandhiji laid emphasis on the autonomy of village political system and making it a self – reliant unit.
What was Gandhi’s immediate political goal ?
Non – violent democracy or reformist form of representative democracy was Gandhiji’s immediate political goal.
Who has been said to be Reya by Manu in Manu Smriti ?
According to Manu, Raja (a king) is supreme on the Earth. He is the representative of God, hence, he is answerable to God only.
Who was termed by Manu, as the god of wealth and glory ?
Manu termed ‘Kuber’ as the god of wealth and glory.
What is the basis of sovereignty as per Manu ?
Manu accepts religion and punishment as the basis of sovereignty.
The word polity has been used in which connotations in Mahabharata ?
The word ‘polity’ has been used in many senses like punishment policy, RajDharma (State – religion), State Scriptures, State-craft, politics etc. in Mahabharata.
In Mahabharata, the word ‘Dand’ has been used for which system ?
The word ‘Dand’ has been used in Mahabharata for a special system, which eliminates the disorderly persons and punishes the culprits.
In which scripture, do we get the description of Divine theory or Saptang principle of origin of state ?
In the Mahabharata.
What is the basis of State’s existence as per Shukra ?
As per Shukra, materialistic safety and moral development are the basis of existence of a state.
Who created Arthashastra ?
Kautilya created Arthashastra.
Which are the two aspects of justice as per Kautilya ?
- Distributive justice
- Reformist justice
What do you mean by liberalism ?
Liberalism is a political philosophy which advocates optimum freedom in all walks of an individual’s life: thought, expression, exchange of thoughts, business, faith and cooperation.
What is the main purpose of liberalism ?
To free an individual from all types of autocracy is the main objective of liberalism.
According to Sartori, “In simple words, liberalism means individual freedom, judicial safety and principle and behaviour of constitutional state”.
Who is considered as the Father of Economics ?
Adam Smith is considered as the Father of Economics.
Who is the author of ‘Wealth of Nations’ ?
What are the reasons responsible for emergence of liberalism ?
The emergence of liberalism was a result of renaissance, intellectual revolution, England’s glorious revolution, America’s struggle for liberty and French revolution.
Which movement contributed in a big way to free an individual from the slavery of church ?
Religious reformation movement.
Which element propagated the thought of non-interference of the state ?
Liberalism supports which kind of system of administration ?
Democratic system of administration.
What are the main features of liberalism ?
To oppose autocratic monarchy, communist system and dominance of the church.
Write the names of two thinkers related to intellectual revolution.
- Voltaire and
Mention the types of liberalism.
- Traditional liberalism.
- Modern liberalism.
Why is traditional liberalism called negative liberalism ?
It is so, because there has been an emphasis on the negative role of a state for the safety of freedom of an individual in traditional liberalism.
In which nature of a state does negative liberalism believe ?
Negative liberalism regards a state as a negative institution and a necessary evil.
Mention two characteristics of modern liberalism.
- State is a moral and welfare institution.
- Faith in administration of law.
What kind of nature of a state does positive liberalism believe in ?
Positive liberalism has faith in moral and public welfare form of a state.
Which two important events can be attributed to positive liberalism ?
- Glorious Revolution of England.
- State Revolution of France.
Which line of thought is absolutely opposed to all types of autocracy ?
What relation is accepted by positive liberalism between freedom of an individual and duties and powers of a
Positive liberalism accepts the mutual complementary relation between freedom of an individual and duties and powers of a state.
What is the fundamental doctrine of liberalism ?
The fundamental rule of liberalism is personal freedom.
What is the form of liberalist state ?
As per liberals, state is a man – made institution, created for the welfare of an individual.
Mention two principles of liberalism.
- Faith in one’s rationality.
- Support of democratic governance system.
According to liberals, an individual is an accomplishment or a means ?
According to liberals, an individual is an accomplishment.
What is a society and a state as per liberalism ?
Society and state are means as per liberalism..
Define the condition of a state and a society as per liberalism.
According to liberals, state and society are artificial and man has ‘created’ them. These institutions of state and society are created for the comfort of the people according to their own discretion.
According to liberalism, are the rights of an individual natural or artificial ?
According to liberalism, people’s rights are natural.
What are the main natural rights of an individual, according to Locke ?
“Freedom is the birthright of an individual.” This statement is related to which political thought ?
Who was the main supporter for freedom of an individual ?
Which types of freedom of an individual are stated by Hob house ?
- Civil liberty.
- personal freedom.
- economic freedom.
- financial freedom.
- domestic freedom.
- social freedom.
- political freedom.
- Racial and national freedom.
- International freedom.
How was the modern outlook of liberalism developed ?
As a reaction to the form of traditional liberalism, the modern outlook of liberalism emerged and developed.
What is at the root of the principle of public dominance ?
At the root of principle of public dominance, lies the liberal outlook for the freedom of an individual.
Which belief of political science says that it is necessary for a state to be secular for freedom of an individual ?
Mention two points of criticism of liberalism.
- State is a necessary evil.
- Liberalism is a philosophy of capitalism.
“Marx is the first socialist writer whose work can be said to be scientific”. Who expressed these thoughts ?
Which thinker is regarded as the Father of Marxism ?
What is Marxism ?
Marxism is a political philosophy of labour class which supports equality, social justice, end of all types of exploitation, employment to all and a planned economic system.
What is the other name of scientific socialism ?
Marxism is the other name of scientific socialism.
Who presented the socialist doctrine ?
Which thinker emphasis-ed upon the necessity of revolution for the establishment of socialist society ?
Mention the names of two socialist thinkers.
- Karl Marx.
- Sir Thomas Moore.
The advent of Marxism was in the form of reaction against which society ?
Against capitalist society.
According to Len Lancaster, which are the two main bases of Marxism being scientific socialism ?
- It is based on reality.
- It adopts a scientific outlook.
“State, by its nature, is a class – oriented institution”. Who said this ?
“State is an artificial institution whose formation has been done by the exploiting class for the protection of their interests and it is a means of exploiting class to torture the exploited class”. Which scholar said this ?
Which classes are always present in the society as per Marx ?
- Exploiting class.
- Exploited class.
What is the purpose of a state, as per Marx ?
According to Marx, “The purpose of the state is to protect and develop the interests of the class who has right on governance”.
According to Marx, a society is necessarily having struggle between two classes. Which are those classes ?
Between capitalist class and labour class.
What is the ultimate ideal of Marx ?
The ultimate ideal of Marx is the establishment of communist society.
Mention two points of the criticism of state-related principle of Marx.
- State is not a class – based institution.
- Establishment of stateless society is not possible.
Who presented the principle of extinction of the state ?
According to Marx, how will the formation of communist society occur in place of socialist society ?
According to Marx, in socialist society, certain circumstances will emerge because of which here will no longer be a necessity of a state, and it shall gradually get destroyed and there shall be formation of communist society in place of socialist society.
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 5 Short Answer Type Questions
Clarify the concept of a state as per Manu.
Explain in brief the Indian concept of a state as described in Manu Smriti.
Manu Smriti, written by Manu, analyses in detail the concept of a state and its purpose. In Manu Smriti, there is a vivid and systematic description of all the related issues covering nature of state, sovereignty, nature of administration, necessity of control on state government, its methodologies, justice and punishment system, relations between society and people, etc.
Under the responsibility of ‘public protection and ‘public service’, Manu has included many welfare activities. In Manu Smriti, there is a description of many principled, institutional and practical remedies to dignify the powers of an administrator. According to Manu, a king has to behave religiously and he should also ensure the same from the people. There is a description of ‘Saptang’ principle of state in Manu Smriti.
Explain the concept of a state as presented by Kautilya (Chanakya).
Explain in brief the concept of a state as presented in the treatise ‘Arthashastra’ written by Kautilya.
Kautilya is also known by the name of Chanakya. The treatise written by him on political matters is Arthashastra. Kautilya has presented a concept of public welfare state in Arthashastra. The purpose of a state envisioned by Kautilya includes “acquisition of the unacquired, conservation of the acquired, growth of the conserved, and distribution of growth among eligible ”. Kautilya gives a a great deal of importance to census and public plebiscite and he accepts the evaluation of a king on the basis of religious conduct.
Explain the concept of a state as presented in Ramayana and Mahabharata.
There is a detailed description on the Indian concept of a state in these scriptures. There is a detailed analysis of contractual principle of a state in Ramayana and also in Shanti Parva of Mahabharata. In Mahabharata, the sequential form of political knowledge has been compared to ‘Rajdharma’, ideal rules are there, it includes the matters pertaining to mutual relations between administrator and the people, scope of the state, purpose of the state, use of state powers in a controlled and dignified manner. It is expected from the administrator that he will render his responsibilities in a positive way for the welfare of the people and he will be maintaining the expected dignity while using administrative powers.
Describe in brief the ‘Saptang’ principle of a state, as described in Arthashastra written by Kautilya.
Arthashastra, written by Kautilya, has described the of ‘Saptang’ principle of a state. ‘Saptang’ principle means seven organs of a state:
Swami implies the king who is the head of organisation, and he is sovereign.
Amatya is in-charge of many duties and activities of a state. He provides help to the king in his royal duties.
Janapada stands for a definite land area and population.
Durg refers to the capital of the state. Durg are of many types.
Kosh means treasury. A state must have a rich treasury for accomplishing the administrative works of a state.
Dand refers to army, which is of many types.
Mitra means important and reliable allies who are there to help the state in the times of need.
Explain in brief the ‘Saptang’ principle of state as described in Shukra Nitisara.
Shukra Nitisara written by Shukra also accepts ‘Saptang’ principle of a state. While explaining the organic form of a state, in Shukra Niti, at one place, there has been a comparison of the state with human body. Among the seven organs of a state, Raja (king) is referred as head, Mantri as eyes, Mitra as ears, Kosh as mouth, Sena as thoughts (heart), Durg as both the hands and Rashtra as both the feet.
In another reference, a state has been compared to a tree, wherein Raja is regarded as the root of the free, ministers as stem, senapati as branches, sena as leaves, Praja as dhul (soil), substance received from land as fruits, land of state as seed. In the ‘Saptang’ principle, as propagated in ancient Indian philosophy, four organs presented by the western thinkers – population, definite piece of land, government and sovereignty are included.
Clarify the state related views of Mahatma Gandhi.
Explain the concept of state as per Gandhi’s outlook.
Gandhiji’s thoughts were also influenced by ancient Indian concepts. Analysis of moral basis of a state is quite explicit in the thoughts of Gandhiji. Gandhiji regards the state as a symbol of organised violence. In ideal form, Gandhiji presented the principle of Ramrajya (Utopia), where there arises no need for any external control, but every individual is committed to truth and non – violence to the level Gandhiji expects.
And as such, the ideal of Gandhi ji with regard to a state cannot be transformed in practical terms. In the form of sub-ideal state, Gandhi ji presented a concept of decentralised village self – governance. Gandhiji terms the centralization of political powers as organised violence. According to Gandhiji, only a decentralised political system can be regarded in accordance with ideals of non – violence. He emphasized for a self – reliant and autonomous village political system.
Liberalism, is not contrary to conservatism. How ?
Though liberalism has been quite an opposite line of thought as compared to the prevalent outlook of conservatism of in England, yet liberalism has always supported ‘Changes’. Liberalism has supported all revolutionary changes. It has become a symbol of individual freedom. Liberalism supported French and American revolutions. At the same time, the conservatism of England was having contradictory outlook for reforms and changes.
It was in favour of protecting the special rights of the kings, monarchs and officers of the church. And as such, liberalism was deemed to be contrary to the outlook of conservatism. But this conception is not right. Liberalism has even objected to the socialist and communist viewpoints of the present era, whereas these schools of thoughts are in agreement with revolutionary changes. Hence, liberalism cannot be regarded as contrary to conservatism.
Liberalism is not synonymous to Individualism. How ?
Generally, liberalism is thought to be synonymous to Individualism. However, Liberalism and individualism are quite distinct from each other. Individualist line of thought came into existence in 15th and 16th century when renaissance and reform movements had completely destroyed the medieval traditions. Individualism regards the state as a necessary evil. This thought does not accept the intervention of the state in the life of an individual.
It goes by the concept that no work can be accomplished by the state as good and beautiful as when it is done by the people. Liberalism is the line of thought between the end of medieval period and beginning of modern period. In modern era, it moves beyond individualist outlook and accepts the positive side of the state and it does not term the intervention of the king in the life of an individual as wrong if it is in public interest. Hence, conclusively, it can be said that liberalism is not synonymous to individualism.
Liberalism is based on social welfare. How ?
Liberalism accepts an individual as accomplishment and a society or a state as means. According to liberals, it is the most important issue for an individual in context to his moral and spiritual welfare and development. While regarding an individual as an accomplishment, liberalism does not neglect social interests.
It supports the freedom of an individual, till it is appropriate to ensure collective interest. It emphasises on public welfare form of a state. It accepts the state as a means of public welfare. In this way, it establishes a harmony between inclusive development of personality of an individual and welfare of the society.
What does Manu explain in Manu Smriti with regard to judicial system ?
In Manu Smriti, the judicial system has been given top priority. It has been included as one of the most important activities of a state and it is termed as the foundation of the existence of a state because God himself created the king to address the need of justice in the society and also for the establishment of a system of justice. According to Manu, there is a lack of pious people in the world.
An individual starts looking at the rights of others under the influence of lust, anger and greed; and avoids his defined duties and obligations. According to Manu, power of punishment of a state terrorises the culprits and thus compels all to work in the line of their obligation and also makes them ‘capable’ to use their rights.
In this way, only a state inculcates a sense of security among-st all the people. In Manu Smriti, there is a clear and detailed classification of crimes and punishments and it is also considered as mandatory for the king to function in-line with justice.
Explain the origin of ‘scripture’ described in Mahabharata.
According to Mahabharata, the scripture created by Lord Brahma included Dharma, Arth, Kama and Moksha. Political science originated from it. The scholars classified this as exclusive and liberal scripture, and by getting steadily brief and summarised, this scripture now turned out to be easily available and the most important.
Mahabharata supports the divine origin of political science, which is a symbol of its ancestry. Its creators are Brahma, Vishnu and Saraswati. In another reference, in the Shanti Parva of Mahabharata, Bhim has regarded Vishalakcha, Bhagwan Kavya, Sahastrachh, Prachet, Samun, Bhardwaj and Muni Gaurshira as the father of sociology.
Mention three factors which helped in the origin and development of liberalism.
Which are the supportive circumstances or factors in the development of liberalism ? Mention any three of them in brief.
Supportive elements / circumstances / factors in the origin and development of liberalism:
The following are the supporting factors or circumstances in the origin and development of liberalism:
(1) Religious Reformation Movement:
The movement initiated under the leadership of Martin Luther against the autocracy of religion and Pope in 16th century paved the way for spiritual and intellectual freedom of an individual. This movement established the ‘Protestant Religion’ in Europe. This movement made a person’s outlook broad and generous and this gave rise to the development of liberalism.
(2) Industrial Revolution:
Industrial revolution of Europe in the 18th century gave rise to new industrialists who opposed the restrictions imposed by the state in political and economic life, in order to gain maximum profits and thus paved the way for liberalism.
(3) Reaction against autocracy:
The main reason of advent of liberalism was the reaction against autocratic governments. In 16th and 17th century, Europe had autocratic monarchy. In this situation, John Locke, J.S. Mill, Herbert Spencer and T.H. Green, etc. propagated the concept of rights and liberty of an individual, and because of this, liberalism came into existence.
Write a short note on the types of liberalism.
Types of liberalism:
Two main types of liberalism are:
- Traditional liberalism
- Modern Liberalism.
1. Ancient Negative Liberalism:
Initial form of liberalism was negative. It regards the state as against the freedom of an individual. Its thought is that because of negative activities of a state, there is a decline in the freedom, equality and rights of an individual, and therefore, negative liberalism takes a state as necessary evil.
The eminent supporters of traditional liberalism are John Locke, Jeremy Bentham, J.S. Mill, Adam Smith, Ricardo, Herbert Spencer. Earlier, this liberalism was confined to the demand of constitutional safety to personal rights, but later on, liberalism emerged with the demand of religious freedom, tolerance, constitutional and political rights.
2. Modern / Positive Liberalism:
The revised and changed version of traditional liberalism in 19th century is now called modern or positive liberalism. Its main supporters were various scholars, including T.H. Green, John Stuart Mill, Laski, Hob house, Maclver, etc. Positive liberalism considers that a state is a positive and welfare institution for the safety and development of the people.
As per its doctrine, a state in not a necessary evil. State and a person are complementary to each other. Modern liberalism accepts that a state should perform a role of controlling and balancing the people’s mutual relations.
Mention any four differences between traditional liberalism and modern liberalism.
Clarify four differences between traditional and positive liberalism.
Traditional (negative) and modern (positive) liberalism have the following differences:
(1) Difference on the basis of development:
The development of ancient (traditional) liberalism took place between 16thto 18th century, whereas modern liberalism developed from 19th century to date.
(2) Difference on the basis of reason of advent:
At the back of the development of traditional liberalism, there were many reasons of reactions against autocratic monarchy, feudalism and papal authority, whereas modern positive liberalism emerged and spread as a reaction against capitalist system and Marxism.
(3) Difference on the basis of concept towards state:
Traditional liberalism considers a state as a necessary evil, whereas positive liberalism does not consider a state as a necessary evil. It accepts the state as a moral and welfare institution.
(4) Difference on outlook of rights:
Traditional liberalism accepts an individual’s rights as natural, whereas modern liberalism accepts the rights of an individual to be provided and protected by the state.
Mention any four principles of liberalism.
The following are the four main principles of liberalism:
(1) An individual as an accomplishment and society or state as a means:
According to liberalism, an individual is an accomplishment and society or state is the only means to develop the personality of an individual.
(2) Support for freedom of an individual:
Liberals consider the concept that an individual is free since birth. He is the master of his own. Therefore, freedom is his natural and birth right.
(3) Support of democratic system of administration:
Liberals have faith in constitutional means. They do not believe in accomplishing any task forcefully. According to them, the basis of state governance or system should be public consensus. Application of any bondage on an individual should be as per his consent.
(4) Recognition of views of a secular state:
According to liberals, state should not interfere in the religious matters of its citizens. Religion is a matter of one’s faith and belief. A person should be free to follow any religion. There should not be any discrimination between the citizens on the basis of religion.
Mention any three bases for criticism of liberalism.
The following are three main bases for criticism of liberalism:
1. State is not a necessary evil:
Liberals accept the state as a necessary evil, but this concept is not true. The formation of a state is done for fulfilling necessities of a human – being and its ideal is to perform human welfare. Without a state, one cannot imagine to have a civilised and cultured society.
2. Capitalist Philosophy:
According to Marx, liberalism has encouraged capitalism and economic exploitation in the world. Liberalism is the saviour of the interests of the economic and political system of capitalists.
3. Wrong principle of social change:
It is the concept of liberalism that social change is possible by gradual development, but the fact of the matter is that only class-struggle and revolution can bring out changes in a society divided into classes.
Explain the importance or contribution of liberalism.
The effect of liberalism can be seen in which spheres of life ?
The effect / importance /contribution of liberalism can be seen in the following spheres:
1. Social Sphere:
In this field, liberalism has opposed the prevalent blind faiths, conservatism, useless traditions, farces, illiteracy, hunger, etc. in the society and it has endeavored to make life pleasant.
2. Religious Sphere:
In this field, liberalism has laid emphasis on religious freedom and tolerance and it restricted the arbitrary attitude of the Pope in Rome. Liberals have been on the front to provide freedom to an individual in religious outlook.
3. Political Sphere:
In political field, liberalism supported freedom, equality, rights, tolerance, fraternity and democratic system of administration because of which various monarchical systems collapsed and there has been the formation of democratic governments on the basis of public franchise in many parts of the world. ,
4. Economic Sphere:
Liberalism has contributed a lot in economic field. It has laid stress on non – interference of state, and as a result, business links were established with the remote countries and the concept of global market got consolidated.
Explain the ‘Saptang principle’ of nature of state as described in Mahabharata.
Founders of political science have imagined the nature of a state and there has been a deep analysis on seven organs of a state, and on this basis, a state is accepted to be comprised of seven organs (Saptang) or seven Prakriti. In the Shanti Parva of Mahabharata, Shukra Niti, Kautilya’s Arthashastra and Manu Smriti, a principle of ‘Saptang’ (seven organs) of a state is accepted.
In Mahabharata, a detailed description of seven organs are given –
- Raja (King)
- Mantri (Ministers)
- Kosh (Treasury)
- Sena (Army)
- Durg (Fortress)
- Mitra (Allies)
- Desh (State).
There have been repeated analyses of it with the change of names in the scripture. In other episode, while using the words of Bhim, Vyasji explained with regard to duties of a king that it is appropriate for a king to safeguard seven things. These seven things are-king’s own body, Mantri, Kosh, Dand, Mitra, Rashtra and Nagar. While accepting the Saptang principle of a state in Mahabharata, there has been an indication with regard to contractual principle of nature of a state.
What are the duties of a state in different spheres as suggested in Shukra Niti ?
The following working activities or duties of a state have been suggested in Shukara Niti:
- Safety of people
- Nurture of people.
- Management of economy.
- Education – related works of a state.
- Management of social system.
- Management of judicial system.
- Management of administrative system.
- Management of relations with foreign countries.
Before Marx, why were the socialists called Utopian socialists ? Explain
Karl Marx was not the first socialist thinker. Before Marx, there was a string of thinkers – Sir Thomas Moore, Saint Simon, Charles Courier, Robert Owen, Bavek, John, de. Sismondi, Hallu and William Thompson, etc. These socialists opposed the disparities prevalent in the society in respect to individual property, capitalism, social and economic oddities. According to them, there should be control of the entire society or the state on the resources on land and products in place of dominance of a particular class or section.
Every individual of the society should have the opportunity to employment and he should get wages in return for to the work. These thinkers emphasis ed equitable distribution of money, but they failed to state the causes of the disparity and the nature of its relation with the factors of production. Neither did they explain any process of change in the society nor did they offer any practical suggestion for the improvement of the prevalent system. And hence, because of this, the socialist thinkers before Marx are called Utopian Socialists.
Why is the school of thought propagated by Karl Marx called scientific socialism ? Explain.
The line of thought propagated by Karl Marx is called scientific socialism. Marx’s outlook was purely scientific. Thinkers preceding Marx emphasis-ed on eliminating the rampant economic disparities and also for judicial and proper distribution of economic sources in the society.
Because of what reasons, this disparity is born and what is its relations with the factors of production, no definite logic was put forth regarding these questions. Marx not only exposed the defects prevalent in capitalism, but he also came out with a definite blue-print for formation of class – less society by ending capitalism.
He brought socialism out from an imaginary background and provided a scientific basis to it, terming it as Marxism. Len Lancaster accepts Marxism as scientific socialism because of two reasons:
1. It is based on facts, not on imagination
2. It not merely transforms old system in a scientific way but it also adopts a scientific outlook in order to get a new system altogether. Taylor has also said that the powers which are defined in Marxism are capable to carry out social changes and these powers make it scientific.
According to Marxism, what is the meaning of a state getting ‘extinct’ ?
According to Marxists, because of being the result of a class – based society the state is a class-oriented institution. It is neither impartial, nor is full of justice. This is a biased, oppressive and exploitative institution. This is for the safety and development of the interests of that class, which is having control over governance.
In the past, the minority exploiting class was having authority over the governance of the state and the state rendered works for the safety of the interest of this class only, but in future, a socialist state will be formed and the majority labour class (exploited class) will have hold over governance. And then the object of the state will be to preserve.
the interests of labour class. With the passage of time, when socialist society turns into communist, then the state per se will get ‘extinct’. Once, a communist society is formed, there will not be any need of a state for the labourers, that is, gradually it shall get exterminated. The society emerging after socialist system will be a class-less and state-less society.
According to Karl Marx, how did the origin of the state take place ?
Origin of the state according to Karl Marx : According to Karl Marx, State was not present in the primitive communist system. In this state, there was no conflict of interest between the people of the society. People used to jointly perform all the functions. Private property did not exist.
As a result of the sequential development of the society, private property emerged and the entire society got divided into two classes-wealthy class and wealth-less class. Marx termed this stage as slave age. In slave age, the wealthy master class was more influential, but its number was less than the wealth-less and unsatisfied slave class.
Mention any two bases of criticism against the state principle of Marx.
The state – related principle of Marx can be criticized on the following bases:
1. State is not a class – based institution:
Marx was the supporter of classified principle of origin of a state. He accepts that the origin of state is the result of class struggle. A state is an institution for preferring the interests of oppressing class, but this is not a fact. A state is an organization for the welfare and service of its people. The advent of a state is for the interests of people, and not for the safety of interests of a particular class.
2. Capitalist state related wrong conception:
In present time, the way the capitalist states are making progress, the concept of Marx stands untrue. Marx had defined capitalist states as a means of exploitation of labourers, whereas at present, capitalist states have accepted the responsibility for the welfare of labour class. According to Marx, capitalist states ought to end, whereas in modern time, capitalist states are becoming more powerful and more influential than earlier times.
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 5 Essay Type Questions
Explain the Indian concept of a state.
Indian concept of a state:
The Indian concept of a state is based on broad philosophical conventions. In Indian philosophy, the rules of the concept of a state are derived from Vedic literature. In Manu Smriti, Arthashastra, Ramayana, Mahabharata etc. there is a detailed analysis on the concept of a.state and its purposes.
(1)Concept of state in Manu Smriti:
There has been a systematic study of the nature of state, necessity to control the government, its methodologies, justice and punishment system, relations between state, society and its people in Manu Smriti.
(2) Concept of Arthashastra:
There is a concept of public welfare state in the Arthashastra created by Kautilya. Kautilya has given detailed description with regard to purpose of a state acquisition of the ‘not acquired’, conservation of the acquired, growth of the conserved, and distribution of its growth among eligibles.
(3) Concept of a state in Ramayana and in Shanti Parva of Mahabharata:
There is a detailed description of contractual principle of state in Ramayana and in Shanti Parva of Mahabharata. In Mahabharata, the codified form of political knowledge is branded as Rajdharma (State religion).
Under the sphere of Rajdharma, there is a string of ideals pertaining to the relations of administrator and people, scope of state, objective of the state and control and dignified use of state power. In Shukra Nitisara, the ‘Saptang’ principle of state has been accepted, and while expressing the organic form of a state in this scripture, the state is compared to a human body at one place in the book.
(4) Seven organs of a state are compared:
King to head, Mantri to eyes, Mitra to ears, kosh to mouth, Sena to mind, Drug to both the hands, Rashtra to both the feet. In another reference, a state has been compared to a tree; Raja to the root of a tree, ministers to stem, army head to branches, army to leaves, people to soil, substances found out of land to fruits, and land of state to seed. The ‘Saptang’ principle of a state in Indian philosophy includes four organs of a state as propagated by western thinkers : land, population, government and sovereignty.
(5) State – related concept of Mahatma Gandhi:
Mahatma Gandhi’s thoughts are also influenced by Indian traditions. Analysis of a state on moral basis is quite expressive in Gandhi’s thoughts. Gandhi deems a state to be a symbol of organised violence. In ideal form, Mahatma Gandhi propagated the principle of Ram Rajya (Utopia), where there in no necessity of outside control. An individual has to be committed to the level which Gandhiji expected. Gandhiji’s vision of an ideal state cannot be converted into practicality.
In the form of sub – ideal state, Gandhiji propagated the concept of decentralised village self governance. Gandhiji equated the centralization of political power as organised violence. Gandhiji did not support any hindrance in the state. His immediate goal was to enforce an amended form of non-violent democracy or representative democracy.
Analyse the origin and nature of a state as described in Arthashastra.
The Origin of a state according to Arthashastra:
Kautilya, while portraying the situation prior to a state, states that there was anarchy all over the society because of non – existence of a state and there was an atmosphere of injustice, oppression and fear all around. In order to get freed from this situation, people appointed Manu, the son of Vivaswan as the administrator and it was put in agreement that they (people) would remain loyal and obedient towards the king (administrator) and they shall provide a part of their income to the administrator so that the administrator could discharge his royal obligations.
The people accepted to give him (administrator) 6th part of the income earned from agriculture produce and 10th part of the income received from business and gold, etc. and in lieu of this, the administrator would arrange for yogkshem (acquisition of the things not available and then safety to the acquired) of the people. It is quite clear from the above analysis with regard to origin of a state that Kautilya propagated the contractual principle of a state and he accepts the origin of state an a result of social agreement.
This agreement is made between administrator and the ruled ones, wherein there are certain duties of an administrator towards the people and also there are certain rights of the people against the administrator. The use of appointing another person as a new administrator by dislodging the king by the people or by the ruled ones, indicates that Kautilya regards the people as the ultimate origin of administrative powers; and people’s consent or acceptance to be the basis of administrative power. In this way, it seems quite close to the modern democratic system.
The description of the situation made by Kautilya prior to the existence of a state is approximately identical to the description of ‘Prakriti’ done by Hobbes. Nature of state in Arthashastra Like Manu, Kautilya also accepts seven organs of a state while describing the organic form of a state. These are also called ‘Prakritis’.
Kautilya accepts Swami or king as a supreme part of a state. It is the king who is ultimately responsible for the execution of all state-related obligations. Kautilya has desired a king to be of high moral character, and having quality attributes.
Kautilya terms amatya or minister as an important part of a state, because the state’s power is not the personal power of a king, instead, it is an institutional power. Kautilya has recommended capable persons to be appointed as ministers.
What Kautilya meant by Janapada is boundaries of a state and the people living within. Kautilya has described a Janapada which can be equated with modern district-like administrative unit.
With security point of view, Kautilya accepts a ‘Durg’ as an important part. According to him, forts should be built along the boundaries of a state and also in the centre of the boundaries, choosing appropriate spots. These forts may be of four types:
- Audak Durg, which has inundation of water from all the sides.
- Parvat Durg, that which has stone ramparts on all the four sides.
- Dhanvan Durg, that which is build on an open field.
- Van Durg, that which is having dense forests on all the sides. These forts can be used for different purposes.
Kautilya regards Kosh (treasury) as very important for accomplishing state – related responsibilities and it also advised the king that he should try to continuously increase the treasury by all possible means. Appropriate persons should be appointed to operate the treasury.
The military power of a state is defined as ‘Dand’ by Kautilya, which is quite necessary for internal and external security of a state.
Kautilya has advised that a king should implement such diplomatic policies on international front that the number of the allies increases and the number of his enemies lessens.
Explain the thoughts of Adam Smith, Bentham and Spencer in context to traditional liberalism.
Adam Smith (1723 to 1790):
Adam Smith is referred to as the as the Father of Economics. In his famous creation, “Wealth of Nations” (1776), he supports Individualism and policy of non – interference and he writes that every individual has a simple nature of business which compels him to earn more profit. A laborious person encourages selfishness but also promotes general interests, because of which, the government, businessmen and masters get benefited. And as a result of this, wealth of the nation increases.
Adam Smith terms industrial and business freedom as natural freedom and underlines its importance for national growth. With regard to industry and business, the government should adopt the policy of Laissez Faire. In this situation, a government has only three duties left – safety of a state from foreign attack, enforcement of justice and works of public construction.
Bentham (1748 to 1832):
Bentham was an utilitarian thinker, who presented a logic that the theories like absolute rights, absolute sovereignty and absolute justice do not match with reality on the ground. There is only one criteria applied in relation to human being. Hence, public policy should be based on a single point criterion and that is “maximum benefit for the maximum persons”. According to Bentham, nature has put an individual under two powers, happiness and sorrow.
The works which increase happiness and decrease sorrow to an individual are useful deeds; and the works which decrease happiness and increase sorrow are useless deeds. The duty of a government is also to accomplish this objective, because every individual is the best decider of his interests. Hence, the government should formulate some policies in order to ward off independent hindrances coming in the way of the activities.
It is also the duty of the government to impose proper restriction on the people and punish the guilty criminals, but the government should not interfere in the working of those people who obey the rules. In this way, Bentham supports both individualism and interference.
Herbert Spencer (1820 – 1903): Spencer was a thinker from England, who pushed the principal of minimal administration to the peak. He imagined a society in the form of a living creature. He says that the if any organ of the living creature stops functioning, then it decimation is beneficial to the society.
Those who are capable people of the society do not have the duty to keep on inflicting loss to the society by giving shelter to the incapable. Spencer has made Charles Darwin’s theory as the base that in the struggle of life, that there is the “Survival of the fittest”.
According to Spencer, it is a hindrance for the state to help the poor and downtrodden of the society in context social development. Hence, such efforts are condemn able. In the sense of progress, Spencer says that all the individuals should be left free for their own progress and obviously the capable will steer forward and the incapable will lag behind in the race of progress.
If a state starts helping the weak and incapable people in the name of public welfare, them this very task shall deem to be an interference to the natural system. A state should execute only those works by which the freedom of an individual is sustained.
Mention those circumstances from the history of Europe, which have contributed in a big way in the development of liberalism.
Explain in detail the assisting attributes in the development of liberalism.
Explain the causes / reasons for the advent and development of liberalism.
Which natural conditions have been the reasons for the advent of liberalism in the field of political thought ? Explain in detail.
Advent and Development of Liberalism:
Main attributes / circumstances of birth (advent) and development of liberalism are as follows :
In the 14th century, the renaissance in Europe starting from Italy reached France, Spain, Germany, and as a result, the dominance of church in the field of art and culture ended, and in politics also, the common man got motivated. This changed the outlook of human beings whose impact was visible in philosophical, scientific, economic and technical fields.
(2) Religious Reformation Movement:
The main reason for the advent of liberalism is religious reformation movement. Prior to this movement, there was a dominance of church in whole of the Europe. The pope was equated to God, and in religious sphere, he was considered supreme and an individual was his ‘slave’. In the 16th century, Martin Luther objected to the autocracy of the pope. He has the concept that any person having faith in God can establish contact with him through the study of religious scriptures, and for that, there is no need for any mediator in the form of a pope of Catholic church. Luther’s movement come into existence in the form of “Protestant Religion”.
(3) Scientific Revolution:
As a result of scientific revolution in 16th and 17th century, one part emerged that the whole world is like a ‘loom’ (machine), which is omnipresent, self operative and is managed by unaffected rules. In this way, scientific methods got encouraged to find out the truth. This method became the foundation stone of liberalism.
(4) Intellectual Revolution:
In 18th century, the entire western world was swept over by an intellectual revolution, which changed the line of thoughts and view-points of the period. Voltaire, Rousseau, Locke, Montesque, Adam Smith, Getel, Kant and Thomas Paine, etc. clarified that it is logical power of an individual, which is capable to retrieve truth with regard to any field of life. This outlook became the ideal of liberalism.
(5) Industrial Revolution and Advent of Capitalist Class:
In medieval period, an individual had no free existence and rights. People had no economic and religious freedom in their life. They were under the influence of the church and feudal powers. The industrial revolution took place in 18th century. It is an indicator of these changes in economic field which are the obvious results of scientific revolution. As a result of industrial revolution, big factories were established resulting in growth in production. As a result, the economic power shifted from feudal class to upper-middle class. There appeared new industrialists and a new labour class.
(6) Reaction Against Autocracy:
Another main reason of the advent of liberalism was reaction against feudal autocratic governments. In 16th and 17th century, there was feudal government system in Europe. Some of the kings regarded themselves as the incarnation of God and established autocracy. In this condition, many thinkers like John Locke, Herbert Spencer, T.H. Green, J.S. Mill etc. propagated the concept of freedom and rights of an individual. Because of this, the path of advent of liberalism was paved.
Define liberalism and clarify its types.
Ans. Meaning of Liberalism: Liberalism is an important and progressive thought of modern era. It is not only a line of thought, but also a lifestyle and movement, which adopts a new thought process rejecting the conservative line of thought. The word ‘Liberalism’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Liberals’, which means ‘freedom’. In this way, liberalism is a line of thought which gives optimum freedom to an individual in every field of life- contemplation, expression, interaction, faith, analysis and cooperation, etc. Freedom is the core element of liberalism.
Types of Liberalism:
On the basis of historical development, liberalism can be divided into two parts:
- Traditional liberalism
- Modern liberalism.
1. Traditional liberalism:
It is also called negative liberalism because the previous form of liberalism was negative. This started with the demand of freedom of the individual from autocratic political system and feudalism. In traditional liberalism, a state is thought to be against the freedom of an individual because there becomes suppression of freedom, equality and rights of an individual due to negative activities of a state.
It was limited to the demand of constitutional protection of individual rights. In due course of time, ancient liberalism emerged with the demand of religious freedom, tolerance, constitutional and political rights. Jeremy Bentham, Adam Smith, Herbert Spencer, etc. are thought to be the main supporters of traditional liberalism.
2. Modern Liberalism:
In the 19th century, liberal thinkers incorporated certain amendments and changes in traditional liberalism in accordance with the demand of time. In this, there was an emphasis on positive role of a state in place of its negative role, and as such, it is called positive liberalism. In modern liberalism, there was a condition of freedom for the welfare of an individual, especially the weak and poor section of the society.
Unlike traditional liberalism, modern liberalism believes that a state should render a positive role in controlling and balancing mutual relations of its people. The supporters of modern liberalism do not accept a state as a necessary evil. They accept a state as a positive and welfare institution for the development and safety of the interest of people. The main modern liberals are John Stuart Mill, T.H. Green, L.T. Hobhouse, H.J. Laski and R.M. Maclver.
Perform a critical evaluation of liberalism.
Evaluation of Liberalism:
Liberalism is an important and progressive line of thought of modern period. Its by word is personal freedom. It establishes such a social system that an individual should not go for his livelihood or choice of lifestyle under the subordination of any dominant impact.
The following are the main principles of liberalism:
- Liberalism has faith in the rationality of an individual, hence it supports free contemplation.
- Liberals think that a society should be formed on the basis of logic and new ideals should be formed by eliminating old system based on ancient history or traditions.
- According to liberals, an individual is naturally free and complete perse.
- Liberalism believes that an individual is an accomplishment and a society or a state is means.
- Liberals believe that society or state are artificial institutions.
- Liberals believe in natural rights of an individual.
- According to liberals, a state should not interfere in the religious matters of its citizens. In state’s points of view, all religions are similar.
- Liberalism believes in human equality and the rule of law.
- It believes in democratic government system and has faith in a welfare state.
- Liberalism supports the principle of national self-determination.
- Liberalism has flexible outlook in relation to duties and objectives of a state.
- Liberalism supports the freedom of individual in absolute form.
Criticism of Liberalism:
The following are main points of criticism of liberalism:
- State is not a necessary evil. The formation of a state has been done for fulfilling the necessities of human life. It is a human welfare institution.
- State does not decimate freedom, instead it protects the freedom of an individual through rules and laws.
- Open competition is detrimental to weaker class.
- It is a philosophy of capitalist class. It grants rights to the state for intervention into economic matters only to make the economy favour line of capitalist trend.
- It is the concept of liberalism that by gradual development, it is quite possible to bring about social changes, whereas, in fact, social changes in the class – divisioned society can be made only by to class-struggle and revolution.
- This school of thought negates historical traditions.
- This doctrine regards a state as an artificial institution, whereas a state is the result of gradual development.
In view of the above analysis, it becomes quite clear that liberalism enjoys a special place in the history of political philosophy. In political field, liberalism supports a democratic government system based on freedom and equality. In economic field, liberalism emphases on the policy of non-interference. In religious field, liberalism stresses on religious freedom and intolerance. Liberalism has raised objections against the prevalent blind faith, orthodoxy, farces, illiteracy, starvation, and useless rituals etc. in the society and it has made endeavors to make the life of an individual happy.
Perform a critical evaluation of the state principle of Marx.
Evaluation off the state principle of Marx : Karl Marx says that a state, by its nature, is a class-based institution. As per his concept, a state is an artificial institution whose formation was done by the exploiting class for their interests, and it is a means of oppression and torture of the exploited class by the exploiting class. State-related thoughts of Marx are as follows:
1. According to Marx, in primitive state of communism, all people worked together in harmony and there was no existence of a state. Because of gradual development of society, there emerged private wealth and the entire society got divided into:
- Wealthy class
- Wealth – less class. Marx termed this status of society as ‘Slave period’. According to him, a state came into existence as a result of class struggle in this period.
2. According to Marx, a state, by its nature, is a class-based institution. Its formation was done by the exploiting class for preservation of their own interests. The law and judicial system of a state is also there to protect and promote the interests of exploiting class only.
3. According to Marx, the objective of a state is to develop and project the interests of high class which has the right of governance.
4. According to Marx, a state system found in any period of history is related to social system of that time.
5. According to Marx, state is not a permanent institution. First of all, private wealth will vanish, society will become classless, there will be no class struggle. As there will be no classes, hence a class – based institution of state will not be required and the state will become extinct. This situation shall be the communist system of the society.
Criticism of State Principle of Marx:
State – related principles of Marx are criticised on the basis of the following points:
- State is not a classified institution. This is an organization for the welfare of and service to the public.
- A state is not an institution for torture and oppression of the exploited class by the exploiting class. Instead, it is a welfare institution. It protects the interests of all the classes, and not of a specific class.
- In present time, the development being made by capitalist states has proved the concept of state – related Marxist thoughts to be incorrect. Now, capitalist states are emerging to perform welfare of the labourers, instead of being a source of cruelty to this class.
- Marx thought of a quality change in the character of an individual in society, but this has proved ‘wrong’.
- Marx’s concept of formation of stateless society was a mere imagination, and it cannot be transformed into reality.
Importance of State Principle of Marx:
Though the principle of origin of a state by Marx is radical and biased, yet, it has its importance. Marx, through his socialist thoughts, has challenged liberalism. He paved the way of a struggle against the exploiting capitalist class by the poor exploited class.
The poor or labour class got a ray of inspiration to fight for their rights. Besides, Marx presented the factual state of the society through his principle. In this way, Marxism as not merely a line of thought, but as a movement which was able to leave behind its lasting effect.
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