Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 9 Meaning of Government, Its forms: Dictatorship, Aristocracy and Democracy
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 9 Textual Questions
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 9 Very Short Answer Type Questions
How many types of government are there ?
There are four types of government:
Define the term Government.
An institution giving a definite shape to state is called government. By this only, the will of the state is represented, expressed and enforced.
Government is a word of which language?
It is an English language word.
What is dictatorship?
Dictatorship refers to such an administration of a person or a group of persons who impose their hegemony forcibly on the governance and they use it as per his / their whims and fancies.
Which language is the word ‘dictatorship’ derived from?
Mention any one quality of the system of ‘dictatorship’ mechanism.
In dictatorial regime, unity and strength are found in the order of the rules. Meaning of Government, its forms
Mention any one demerit of dictatorship.
In dictatorship, personal liberty is compromised.
Aristocracy is made of two words – Aristos (best) and Kratos (administration), and as such, it stands for ‘Administration of the best persons’. In modern sense, when sovereignty is vested with some persons, then it in called ‘Aristocracy’.
Which language is the word Aristocracy derived from ?
Mention one benefit of aristocracy.
Laws are all – pervasive.
Mention one demerit of aristocracy.
The biggest demerit of aristocracy is that it is not necessary that every person born in a high profile family has has the capability of administration.
What is democracy ? Explain.
Democracy is such a form of administration, wherein the ultimate power of governance lies with the people and it is used directly or indirectly by the people.
Which system of governance is working in India?
Mention one important benefit of democracy.
There develops political awareness in people.
Mention one major demerit of democracy.
The decision-making process is prolonged in a democratic set up.
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 9 Short Answer Type Questions
Define the term government and its forms.
Government is one of the four elements (factors) of a state:
A human community that inhabits a piece of land, cannot be called a state until there is an organisation in political form. The government is a must for the existence of a state. A state is invisible and so it cannot perform any task. State uses its power of sovereignty through government. A state is a formless institution.
The institution giving it a physical form, is the government. The government decides the form of a state. A government has many forms and among them, monarchy, aristocracy, dictatorship and democracy are the main ones. In legal terms, any form of the government can be adopted, but at present, democracy is considered as the best system of governance.
Give a critical explanation of Dictatorship.
Critical analysis of dictatorship:
- It is thought to be an impediment in the development and personality of a person.
- It is considered fatal to the nation.
- This mechanism is regarded to be a symbol of exploitation of the people.
- In this type of administration, spirit of social welfare comes to an end.
- In this, civic freedom is oppressed.
- In this sort of administration, as there is no control on the administrator, there is a strong possibility of the power being misused.
- This is supportive to imperialism and extreme nationalism, which is a hindrance in the cause of world peace.
- It is an unstable administration. An administration cannot be run for long on basis of violence and oppression.
Describe the characteristics of dictatorship.
Characteristics of dictatorship:
- Dictatorship is contradictory to democracy, individualism and liberalism.
- It believes in violence and conspiracy.
- In this mechanism, all powers lie with the state.
- It has a single-party.
- This supports extreme nationalism.
- This restricts activities of opposition.
- This mechanism has faith in imperialism and colonialism.
- In this type of administration, there is no place for religious freedom.
- State is supreme in this system.
- There is no distinction between the state, nation, society and administration.
Describe the characteristics of Aristocracy.
Characteristics of aristocracy:
- Aristocracy is a blend of democracy and plutocracy.
- For the formation of aristocracy, there is necessity and inclusion of three factors, i.e., birth, property and ability.
- In this system of governance, law is all pervasive.
- In this, state and government are operated on the basis of intellect, virtue and culture.
- In this, heredity and experience are emphasised.
- According to Plato, this administration is formed of intelligent persons.
- The most important factor of aristocracy is plutocracy.
- In this, more emphasis is laid on quality in comparison to quantity.
Describe positive and negative aspects of aristocracy.
Positive aspect of Aristocracy:
Aristocracy emphasizes on quality instead of number. In this mechanism, state and government are operated on the basis of intellect, quality and culture. This mechanism is positioned between monarchy and democracy. There are ample factory of permanence and control available in it. Every mechanism of governance, regardless of what form it has, has some fraction of aristocracy in it. In this type of administration, laws are found to be all-pervading.
Negative aspect of Aristocracy:
The most negative aspect of aristocracy is that it is not necessary the every person born in high family or in aristocratic class has the capability to administer well. Human society is not proficient in the art of choosing the best. Hence, in practical terms, aristocracy becomes the administration of the traditional aristocratic class. The common people cannot participate in such an administration, and hence, it remains ‘aloof from political education. This system of administration is against the modern democratic outlook.
Explain the distinction between Dictatorship and Aristocracy.
Dictatorship refers to such an administration of a person or a group of persons who forcibly take control of the governance of the state and use it in an unrestricted way. In this system of governance, the administration becomes all powerful, autocratic and free – willing. It controls other people in a psychological way and oppresses their emotions, desires and liberties. The spirit of justice, equality and freedom does not exist in it. In this system, common people are put under restrictions. Those persons, who refuse to comply with the dictate of the rules, are dealt with cruelly. It is against the democratic doctrines.
Aristocracy is such a system of administration, wherein state governance is cent-red in the hands of some high-born persons who have hobble qualities.. In Greece, the system of aristocracy was a recognised system. Plato and Aristotle have described this in detail. In this system, the citizens remain quite distant from the governing class. In aristocracy, laws are all pervasive. State and government are operated on the basis of intellect, ability and culture.
Prove that, “Democracy is the best governance system of the world.”
“Democracy is the best administration of the world” due to these reasons:
- Besides freedom, equality and justice, democracy provides to the people, economic, social, political and cultural rights in a big way.
- The core point of democracy is public welfare. In this system of administration, the government tries to perform welfare of the people by way of policies, programmes and orders.
- In democracy, different kinds of liberties are provided to the people, and there is a provision to approach judiciary for the protection of these liberties.
- In democracy, ample and equal opportunities are provided to the people to develop their abilities, capabilities and personality.
- In democracy, while opposing war, all national and international problems are resolved by peaceful negotiation, law – formation, treaties and agreements.
- Democracy is such a system, wherein there is stability. There is little possibility of revolution in it.
- Democracy establishes cultural unity between various castes, communities, classes and organizations.
- Every work is performed with public cooperation in democracy.
Describe the characteristics of Democracy.
Characteristics of Democracy:
- In Democracy, people are all powerful. They indirectly exercise control over governance.
- For active participation in the activities of governance in democracy, the citizens have the right of adult franchise.
- Citizens have freedom of expression in democracy.
- In democracy, there is political and social equality.
- Democracy provides freedom and rights to its citizens in equal form.
- In democracy, the basic institutional structure is described in the constitution.
- Representatives chosen by the people have answer-ability to them in democracy.
- Democracy has free and fair judiciary.
- Democracy has the rule of majority.
- In democracy, elections are held at a fixed time.
Perform a critical analysis of democracy.
Critical analysis of democracy:
Though at present, democratic system is regarded to be the best form of governance, and it is also a fact that in most of the countries in the world, this system is in existence, it has certain drawbacks in spite of a number of good qualities. As time rolled by, it got infused of politics of individuality in place of public politics.
In this type of administration, there is a huge spending of money and time. Many parties indulge in corruption. Practically, this mechanism of administration proves to be unanswerable to the people. It is also an allegation on democratic system of governance that it in an administration of the wealthy and powerful class.
Clarify the difference between Democracy and Aristocracy.
Democratic is people’s governance. In this, people, rule themselves directly or indirectly, that is, by electing representatives to form the government. In this, existence of the government is for fulfilling the interests of the people. Government is answerable to the people. The people have the right to change the government of the elected representatives in the next election.
In aristocracy, the political governance happens to be in the hands of such people who do not gave the qualities such as intelligence, knowledge or rationality. The factual criteria is that they are born in high class or are having the power of wealth. Though, Plato has taken the meaning of aristocracy as ‘the administration of the best persons’, but in this system, the people hate administration and administrators. There is a biased behaviour towards general public. In this type of administration, there are always chances of revolution.
Differentiate between Democracy and Dictatorship.
The following is the distinction between democracy and dictatorship :
- Fundamental basis of democracy is public welfare, whereas in dictatorship, self-interests are fulfilled in the name of public welfare.
- In democracy, different types of liberties are provided to the people, whereas all civic liberties are impounded in dictatorship. There is also a strict control over press and media.
- In democracy, equal opportunities are provided to the people for the development of their abilities, capabilities and personalities, whereas in dictatorship, people are grossly neglected. The only duty of the people is to follow the orders of the administration.
- Democratic system recommends resolution of all the problems in a peaceful manner, opposing war, whereas dictatorship believes in war for resolving all the problems.
- There is little possibility of revolution in democracy, whereas dictatorship is based on violence and terror.
- Opposition to the government is possible in democracy, whereas it is not possible in dictatorship.
Can Dictatorship be an alternative to Democracy? Express your views.
Dictatorship cannot be an alternative to democracy. Though there is a strong, stable and proficient administration in dictatorship and it is good in the context of economic
Meaning of Government, its forms:
prosperity and social reforms, but dictatorship has many drawbacks, such as – autocracy of administration, no importance to the rights and liberties of an individual, strong restrictions on free expression of thoughts etc. In this system of administration, there are only duties for an individual, but no rights. Because of these shortcomings, dictatorship cannot be an alternative to democracy.
Democracy has all the provisions for all sorts of freedoms to its citizens. There is freedom of expression. It is meant for the growth and development of an individual. This system supports peace and does not have any place for revolution. In democracy, political and social equalities are there. In this system, the people are all-powerful. Therefore, on the basis of above facts, it can be said that dictatorship is not an alliterative to democracy. However, we can further improve democracy by way of inclusion of some merits of dictatorship into it.
Describe distinction between Democracy versus Dictatorship and Aristocracy.
The following is the difference between democracy versus dictatorship and aristocracy:
Such a system of governance, as expected, where sovereignty resides in people, is called democracy. This administration is people’s administration. In this, people, directly or indirectly, through the elected representatives, run the government. In this, government is answerable to the people. This system works for public welfare. In case, it is not performing as expected, the people have the right to change it in the following election.
Such an administration, where sovereignty rests in one person, is called dictatorship. In this, governance rests with one person or a group of persons. He remains in power by virtue of his military strength. In this type of administration, the people have no voice, no rights. In this, a common person has no value. Because of being based on violence and terror, there is always a possibility of revolution. It is against the democratic process.
In aristocracy, political governance is in the hands of some persons of the society, whose base is not intellect and knowledge, but it includes persons born in high class of the society or the wealthy class. In it, heredity is more important. In this type of administration, there is immense possibility of revolution since the people hate the administrator and administration. General public is treated with bias. Aristocracy is just opposite to democratic perception.
Which system of administration is the best one in the present period of globalization? Express your thoughts in favour your view.
In this era of globalization, democratic system of governance is the best because there has developed a concept of global unity because of globalization. In such a scenario and consolidation, democracy can only be helpful because it is capable and helpful in maintaining human rights. Though there are certain drawbacks in democratic system of governance, yet still it is the best system of administration. In the present process of globalization, the entire world has been changed into a ‘Global village’, and hence, in this situation, “government of the people, by the people and for the people” is quite appropriate.
In present period, why has Aristocracy or Dictatorship become untenable systems of governance? Explain.
Reasons why – Aristocracy or dictatorship have become untenable in present time:
The present world is tending towards goodwill, fraternity and peace, and as such, the governance system in different countries should be such that the people run the administration through their elected representatives. Government should work for public welfare. There should be moral, social and political development and the spirit of people’s cooperation. There should be peace all around and no place for violence. All these conditions are not obviously possible in aristocracy or dictatorship.
In aristocracy, administration is in the hands of the weal-they or those who are born in high-class families and common people are given biased treatment. There are instances of violent revolutions in it. In the same way, the governance is autocratic in dictatorship. All the liberties of the people are curtailed. In this way, both the systems—Aristocracy and dictatorship have less merits and more demerits. Hence, at present, aristocracy and dictatorship have become untenable.
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 9 Essay Type Questions
Define government and its forms.
Government is the most important factor of a state. It is the soul of state. It means that a government is the physical manifestation of the state, but government is not sovereign, whatever power it has, these are held by it by the virtue of being the representative of the state.
Different forms of Government:
In different forms of government, the major ones are monarchy, aristocracy, dictatorship and democracy:
Monarchy is such a system of governance, wherein the supreme power of state rests in one person or a king. In historical context, monarchy is possibly the most ancient system of administration. In previous eras, this system of governance was prevalent in almost all the countries of the world.
In monarchy, qualities are less and defects are more. Monarchy, in the hands of incapable and selfish kings, turns it into a system of sheer injustice. The distorted form of monarchy is autocracy. Hence, at present, monarchy is considered as discarded system of governance.
This means, a system of governance, wherein power of governance is centralized in the hands of some persons on the basis of their birth or an elite lineage. In Greece, aristocracy was the recognized system of governance. Plato and Aristotle had supported this. In aristocracy, law is all pervading.
In this system, State and government are operated on the basis of intellect, quality and culture, but the general public is dealt with discrimination. This type of administration is an impediment to social progress. This is also against democratic concept.
In this type of system of governance, the power rests in the hands of a person or a group of persons. Dictator has monopoly on governance. In this mechanism, the ruler has unlimited powers. He gets the power through unconstitutional means and retains this by military strength. There is a centralization of powers in such an administration. Instead of being based on laws, administration is based on whims of the ruler.
In this type of administration, the administrator, while putting people under psychological control, decimates their emotions, desires and liberties. The spirit of justice, equality and freedom is rarely existent. Restrictions are imposed on citizens.
This system of administration is accepted as the best way of governance. In this mechanism, besides freedom, equality and justice, the people are provided enormous rights in economic, social, political and cultural spheres. In the backdrop of democracy there is public force. For the works of public welfare, public interest and development and also for the establishment of benevolent principles, goals, concept and objectives and their achievement, this system of administration is established. In this, people’s desire is the symbol of sovereignty. The people are all-powerful. The people have control on administration through adult franchise.
Explain main features of dictatorship.
Following are the main features of dictatorship –
1. Supreme place to state:
In dictatorship, the state is supreme. There is none over the state. The state is given a higher place than people, community, unions, organizations, institutions, religion, etc. The main motto of the state is to wage wars and fetch victory.
2. Against democratic process:
Dictatorship is regarded as the enemy of democracy. There is no place for justice, equality and freedom for its people in dictatorship.
3. Belief in power and violence:
The basis of dictatorship is power, violence, use of force. Dictators get power of governance by use of force and they remain in power with the threat of force.
4. One – party administration:
In this arrangement, there is monopoly of a single party in governance. There is no opposition to administration, and no criticism of administration. In military dictatorship, there is no permission even to organize political parties.
5. End of opposition:
If a person criticizes a state in dictatorship, he is arrested and put behind the bars. All the activities of opposition are prohibited.
6. Centralization of powers:
In dictatorship, all sorts of powers are centralized. Snatching power from lower level, the power is increased at the higher level.
7. Belief in imperialism:
Dictatorship is an imperialistic ideology. It wants expansion of its state and adopts the path of war for this purpose. In this way, there is no importance of the concept of world peace, Internationale stability and ‘global family’ in dictatorship.
8. Public Opinion neglected:
Dictatorship regards its ideology as perfect and true. It controls education, literature, press, television, etc., which are the sources of formation of public opinion, in order to propagate its ideology and to oppose the ideologies of opposition.
9. Worship of one man:
In dictatorship, only one person is the supreme leader who is regarded as the symbol of national unity.
10. Enemy to personal liberty:
In dictatorship, all sorts of civic liberties are curtailed. The dictator cannot tolerate opposition of any kind.
11. Neglect of International public opinion:
Dictatorship operates its foreign policy strictly for safety of its own national interest and development and if there arises a necessity, it can also neglect international public opinion and institutions.
Describe the merits and demerits of democracy.
Merits of Democracy:
1. Public Welfare:
Democratic system is regarded to be, a symbol of public welfare, development and convenience. In democracy, by means of policies, programmes, and orders, efforts are made to provide maximum welfare to the maximum number of people. Democratic government is run by the representatives of the people. These representatives are elected for a fixed tenure. And so, these representatives pay special attention towards their constituencies.
2. Development of morality in citizens:
In democracy,. national character and morality develops in citizens. Various traits such as devotion towards the country, sacrifice, service, tolerance, etc. work as positive factors for the citizens to join hands with the nation. Morality prevents democracy from going corrupt.
3. Cultural unity:
Democracy tries to establish cultural unity among various castes, communities, classes, organizations. Democracy extends patronage to the interests of all citizens. It thinks for the welfare of all.
4. Safety from revolution:
In dictatorship, revolution is the only means to get ‘freed’ from autocratic and brutal administrators, but in democracy, after a definite interval, elections are conducted to elect the government again. The people can throw away the corrupt government through constitutional means. Therefore, people need not revolt in democracy.
5. Public cooperation:
Democracy is the only means to develop the spirit of public cooperation in the people. In democracy, there is an expectation of public cooperation for the resolution of national problems.
6. To provide political training:
Democracy provides political training to its citizens. In it, people are given political training through local institutions. By this, political interest develops in its citizens, and they participate in government works by all possible efforts and means.
7. The most efficient administration:
Garner says, “Because of system of popular election, popular control and popular responsibility, this system of administration is more efficient in comparison to any other systems.”
Demerits of Democracy:
1. Administration of incapable persons:
Aristotle, while regarding democracy a distorted form of administration, termed it as an incompetent administration. The persons, leaders, politicians, who are included in democracy, are thought to be incapable because they do not have any political training.
In democracy, the administration is run by different parties. The ruling party appoints the persons of its choice at higher posts and this gives birth to corruption.
3. Political propaganda:
In democracy, the problems, which are put before the people, are in distorted form in order to confuse and misdirect the people. Improper allegations are made against each other. In this way, it is clear that there is a lot of false political propaganda in democracy.
4. Spending of money afraid time:
There is great expenditure of money and time. A great deal of time is wasted in the process of its management. A huge amount of money is spent in election process.
5. Party system defective:
In democracy, political parties remain in conflict with one another. They are not mutually cooperative, and remain in constant conflict.
6. Rule of the minority people:
In general, democracy is regarded as system of rule of minority over the majority. The representatives elected in the elections for administration are less in number (minority). Only professional politicians are included in administration. And obviously, they make efforts to remain in the system of administration. Sometimes, they change the party or sometimes they appear before the people with a changed election symbol. Deserving people do not get a chance to enter in political field.
Explain the merits and demerits of Aristocracy
Merits of Aristocracy
The foremost quality of aristocracy is that there is emphasis on quality in place of quantity. In this type of administration, it is accepted that all the persons are not equally proficient to carry the burden of political responsibilities, and hence, only a few are having the capability to run the administration.
Aristocracy is mainly a conservative system of administration. It is something between monarchy and democracy and it has the elements of permanence and control in abundance. In aristocracy, laws are all-pervading. State and government is operated on the basis of intellect, quality and culture. In this type of system of governance, hereditary and experience – related assessment are included. Aristotle has proposed the right to run the administration to such a king who is mature and experienced.
Demerits of Aristocracy:
The biggest defect of aristocracy is that it is not necessary that every individual born in an aristocratic family will have the proficiency to run the government. And if we leave aside the birth – related indispensability as the only qualification left to decide the best persons to establish the administration, then a question arises as to who will choose the best.
Human society is not conversant with the art of choosing the best. Hence, at last, it becomes the government of the wealthy or powerful from the aristocratic class or family. In general terms, it becomes the administration of a particular class which is against democratic ideology.
On many occasions, there erupt revolutions in aristocracy. Gradually, the aristocratic class, while being in government, becomes greedy and selfish. General public starts hating the government. General public is dealt with discrimination. In this way, aristocracy faces revolution. It can be said in conclusion, that aristocracy is quite opposite to democratic ideology. Therefore, the administration of this type has more demerits and less merits.
What is the difference between aristocratic and dictatorship governments? perform an analysis.
Difference between aristocratic and dictatorship governments:
Aristocracy is a blend of democracy and plutocracy. For its formation, three factors are quite a must-birth, ability and property. In this mechanism of administration, the government is operated on the basis of intellect, quality and culture. In this mechanism, heredity and experience is given precedence. Great scholar Aristotle has . recommended to grant the rights of governance of state to mature and experienced persons in aristocracy.
In fact, general public hates administrators in this system of governance. General people cannot distinguish between themselves and governance on the basis of quality and character. In aristocracy, general public is dealt with discrimination. A part of the administrative fold gets disgruntled because of war or otherwise and it demands for division of property. These all become a cause of revolution.
In this type of government or administration, sovereignty rests in one hand. As the sovereignty lies with one person, he enforces laws as per his free will and forces others to follow them. In this form of government, desires of the people are not respected. In dictatorial governance, the post of the administrator is gained by force and violence in place of qualification. In this system, all powers of executive, legislature and judiciary are centralized with one person only. Practically, he uses totalitarian powers.
Analysis of distinction between governments of both types of system:
While analyzing the distinction between aristocracy and dictatorship, one thing gets quite clear that aristocracy is more liberal than dictatorship in its nature and viewpoint, although there is lack of democratic values in both. In aristocratic government, the factor of plutocracy dominates, and at the same time, in dictatorial government, a free will of a specific person rules high.
While there is discriminatory treatment towards the people in aristocracy, the people are given no importance in dictatorship also, In aristocratic government, there is a decentralization of powers to an extent, but in dictatorial system of governance, all powers are centralised.
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 9 Objective Type Questions
What is the characteristic of aristocracy?
(a) Administration of general public
(b) Administration of rich persons
(c) Administration of revolutionaries
(d) None of these
(b) Administration of rich persons
Who said, “federation is a multi – rule state”?
The President is elected in:
(d) Constitutional Monarchy
“Only dictatorship is such a system of governance wherein the post (power) of an administrator is justified.” Who said this?
“Democracy is aristocracy of the wicked.” Who said this?
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 9 Other Important Questions & Answers
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 9 Objective type Questions
In which type of administration, sovereignty is centralized in the hands of an individual?
(d) All of these
Direct democracy is related to:
An example of indirect democracy is:
(d) None of these
In which country, constitutional monarchy is established ?
(c) Great Britain
(d) United States of America
(c) Great Britain
The main feature of democracy is:
(a) Adult franchise
(b) Freedom of expression of thoughts
(c) Written constitution
(d) All of the above
(d) All of the above
Defect of democracy is:
(a) Cultural unity
(b) Public cooperation
(c) Political training
Main condition for success of democracy is:
(a) Propagation and percolation of education
(b) Political awareness
(c) Economic democracy
(d) All of the above
(d) All of the above
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 9 Very Short Answer Type Questions
In which system of administration, it is the tendency of the regime to crush emotions and desires of general public?
Write the types of dictatorship.
- Dictatorship of ancient time
- Contemporary dictatorship.
Why was dictatorship established in ancient times ?
In ancient times, at the event of sudden eruption of any crisis, dictatorial system of governance was established to deal with it.
Where is autocratic dictatorship seen in the world?
In countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America.
Mention any two characteristics of dictatorship.
- Against democratic process
- Supreme place to the state
In which system of governance, there is one – party rule?
What is Aristocracy ?
When sovereignty rests with some persons, it is called aristocracy.
What is the literary meaning of aristocracy?
Administration of the best persons.
Define Aristocracy as per Aristotle.
According to Aristotle, “Aristocracy is such a system of administration, wherein there ‘ is perfect equality in the qualities of a good citizen and a good person.”
Aristocracy is a mixture of what?
Aristocracy is a mixture of democracy and plutocracy.
Which type of aristocracy has been accepted by Aristotle in his ‘Ideal State’?
Aristotle has accepted age – assessed aristocracy in his ‘Ideal State’.
What is the most strong element of aristocracy?
What is the literary meaning of democracy?
Rule of the people.
What is the intention of democracy?
Democracy is such a form of administration, wherein the power of governance is with the people and its ‘use’ is done by the people in direct or indirect form.
Which form is accepted as the best system of government?
Define democracy as per Abraham Lincoln.
According to Abraham Lincoln, “Democracy is a government of the people, by the people and for the people.”
Mention four forms of democracy in present time
- Political democracy
- Social democracy
- Economic democracy
- Religious democracy
What does democracy teach?
Democracy teaches us tolerance and sacrifice.
A present, where is direct democracy established?
At present, direct democracy is in operation in some cantons of Switzerland.
At present, which country is considered a laboratory of direct democracy?
What is Indirect Democracy?
Indirect democracy refers to the system of such government, wherein the people of the state operate the governance through their elected representatives.
In what type of democracy, people are thought to be symbol of power of real governance?
In Indirect democracy.
How many types of systems of governance are established in Indirect democracy? Name them.
In Indirect democracy, two types of systems of administration are established:
- Presidential system of governance
- Parliamentary system of governance.
What is constitutional monarchy?
Such a democratic state, where the head of the state is appointed on hereditary basis, is called constitutional monarchy.
Name any one country having constitutional monarchy.
As present, which type of democracy is established in almost all the countries?
Write two features of democracy.
- Freedom of expression
- Social and political equality
Write two merits of democracy.
- Public welfare
- Development of morality
Write two demerits of democracy.
- Excessive spending of money and time
Mention any two necessary conditions for the success of democracy.
- Propagation and percolation of education
- Dedication towards democracy
What is civic awareness in democracy?
Civic awareness in democracy means that in elections, people should use their awareness in choosing the best candidates for the governance.
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 9 Short Answer Types Questions
Mention the types of dictatorship.
The following are the main types of Dictatorship –
1. Dictatorship of Ancient period:
The establishment of this kind of dictatorship is done in the case if an administrator faces an emergent situation and it has to be dealt with. For example, in order to establish peace, law and order in Rome, special powers were provided to special officers, and therefore, by using unlimited powers, the emergent situation was dealt with.
After the end of special emergent circumstances, even the role of dictatorial officers came to an end. In this way the administrator of Sicily (Italy), Garibaldi, per formed this experiment in the year 1860. This dictatorial system of governance proves to be of public welfare, answerable and legal and beneficial for having control on the administration in emergency situations.
2. Contemporary Dictatorship:
Establishment of this type of dictatorship is done on the basis of force and violence. In this, the administrator gain power by means of conspiracies. This administrator is free from any control. In present times, this is enforced on the public for military administration, and emergency situations. In democratic countries, it is being used for the misuse of power of governance, murder of democracy and to put prohibitions on human liberties, etc.
Which works are performed under Free – will dictatorship?
The following types of works are executed under Free – will dictatorship:
- Because of this type of administration, prohibition and checks are imposed on other political parties and they are treated in a step – motherly fashion.
- By imposing Prohibition on free elections, the governance in done with free will for the misuse of powers.
- The person in power tries to maintain control on governance by use of force, threat conspiracy, etc.
- In this mechanism of governance, prohibitions are put on civil liberties, fundamental rights, press, etc.
- In this, military administration can be imposed through military revolt.
- In this, constitutional amendments are done strictly in order to retain and save the ruler’s seat of power, and he issues orders as per his whims and fancies.
Mention five defects of dictatorship.
The main defects of dictatorship are as follows:
- In this system of administration, all types of civic liberties are put to an end. People do not have freedom even for formation of union and expression of thoughts.
- This system is a symbol of public exploitation.
- In this type of governance, there is no importance of an individual. The condition of a person is like a slave whose sole work is to comply with the orders of his master.
- In dictatorship, powers of the administration get centralized. As there is no control on the administrator, there erupt chances of the power being misused.
- This spirit of social welfare gets ‘extinct’. In this system, unemployed, beggars, helpless and are left to their fate.
Which are the causes described by Aristotle for revolution in Aristocracy?
According to Aristotle, aristocracy is such a system of governance, wherein there is perfect similarity in the qualities of good citizens and good persons. Aristotle has accepted in his ‘Ideal state’, age assessed aristocracy. He has given the rights of governance in it to only those who are mature and experienced. According to Aristotle, the reasons as to why there erupts revolution in aristocracy is that there is a limited governance of administrators.
General public hates the administrators and their system of governance. The people do not regard any distinction between administrator and themselves on the basis of quality and character. The administrative class treats the people with , discrimination. A part of administrator class gets disgruntled because of war or otherwise, and this part demands for division of property. In this way, revolution is always likely to happen in aristocracy.
Clarify political democracy.
It is a main form of democracy. Against the backdrop of the establishment of democracy, the main goal was to establish political equality. Under this political system, people’s participation was there in equal form. People were provided equal rights in political field, so that political democracy is smoothly established. Under political democracy, the following rights are given to the people:
- For the establishment of political equality, freedom and justice, citizens are provided the right of shareholding in political democracy.
- All the citizens are provided the rights of adult franchise after attaining a certain age.
- Citizens are given rights to obtain ‘ membership of any political party and do its canvassing.
- Citizens have equal right to claim for any candidacy in election.
- All the citizens have the right to criticize the government.
What do you understand by social democracy.
Meaning of social democracy:
Roots of democracy are very strong in the society. If class struggle and inequalities are left to spread, then democracy cannot function properly. And therefore, it is quite necessary to develop equality, goodwill, brotherhood in the society, and then, of course, democracy can flourish. It is mandatory for the democracy to preserve the rights of minorities in the society, and hence, to provide social security.
There should be a ‘pledge’ to end social discrimination on the basic of caste, religion, colour, gender, etc. Democracy makes a great deal of efforts to provide security, to the interests of women in the society so that they can have equality similar to that of males. This is called social democracy.
Clarify the concept of economic democracy.
Economic Democracy : Under economic democracy, efforts are made to end the gulf between the rich and the poor. People are given economic freedom. Equal opportunities are provided for employment to both, men and women. Besides, efforts are made to resolve the problems of exploitation, bonded labour and child labour etc. In Economic Democracy, sources of personal / individual in come and national income are increased in order to achieve a high standard of living.
In it, effort is made to establish balance between big industries and small industries. Priority is given to the welfare of backward class and minority class. For obtaining economic democracy, socialist economy is adopted. For the establishment of political democracy, economic democracy is a must. Hence, in the present period, efforts are being made at national level to establish economic democracy.
Clarify the distinction between Direct and Indirect democracy.
The following are the differences between direct and Indirect democracy:
In direct democracy, the people manage and control the governance directly. They have complete control on those who operate administration. At present, direct democracy is in force in some cantons of Switzerland and two states of United States of America. In ancient times, direct democracy was confined to cities and states, wherein entire populace used to participate in governance works.
In this type of democracy, people elect their representatives through secret ballot process to run the administration for a definite period of time. In indirect democracy, people are the symbol of real power of governance. The elected representatives run the government through legislatures and executives and they also elect members of the judiciary. At present, most of the countries have indirect democracy.
How many types of government systems are there in indirect democracy? Describe.
In indirect democracy, the people elect their representatives and these representatives run the administration. At present, most of the countries have indirect democracy. Two types of system are established in indirect democracy:
1. Presidential form of government:
In this form of government, the Head of executive (President) uses all powers on his own in real terms. He is not responsible to the Parliament of representatives elected by the people. Like the President of United States of America. Here, the President himself uses the powers of executive. He is not responsible to the Congress (legislature).
2. Parliamentary system of administration:
In this form of system of governance, the real powers of the Head of executive are used by the ‘cabinet’ under the leadership of Prime Minister. The president is a nominal head only. The executive is responsible to the legislature.
The powers of the President of the executive in India are used by the ‘council of ministers’ under the leadership of the Prime Minister.
Clarify the difference between constitutional monarchy and republican democracy.
Distinction between Constitutional Monarchy and Republican Democracy : Constitutional Monarchy: It is a type of democracy. In this, the state head is appointed on hereditary basis. In it, in principle, monarchy exists, but in practical form, Indirect democracy is found to be working.
The powers of state head, appointed on hereditary basis, are used by the ‘council of ministers’ under the leadership of Prime Minister. The king only reigns, and does not administer. The king does not have any answer-ability towards the acts performed, but some other persons are answerable for the king’s works. Example : Britain, here even today, constitutional monarchy exists.
This is also a sort of democracy, wherein President of the state is elected on the basis of proportional representation system. The chosen state President is accepted by the people in the form of elected President. This is a symbol of republican system. For example : United States of America. Here, this republican system has been adopted.
Mention any three defects of democracy.
Three main defects (demerits) of democracy are as follows:
1. Corrupt system of administration: In practical context, democracy is dominated by lies, fraud, dishonesty and corruption. For obtaining powers, political parties prepare farcical and deceptive manifesto. They make false promises to the people and adopt improper and immoral means to please their supporters. After winning the election, they provide different types of favor to them.
2. Administration of unqualified persons:
In democracy, unqualified persons get entry into administration on the basis of money and muscle power. They do not have any inclusive training of polities. By merely a simple qualification, of being a senior member of the victorious party, they reach the pinnacle of system of governance.
3. Lack of social equality:
In practical terms, social equality is not established in democracy. The main cause of this continuity is high-low, the rich and the poor, class struggle and economic inequalities. These inequalities are the main hindrances in the path of social equality in democratic countries.
“Democracy is an administration of unqualified persons.” Explain.
Democracy, administration of unqualified persons:
Administration is an art, for which perfection, qualification and experience are mandatory required. Democracy is an administration of majority and the governance is run by those, who have no knowledge of governance. The knowledge of administration, training and experience are not found in all the persons.
Merely on the basis of simple knowledge, they enter into the system of administration, which is a denotation of ineligibility. Unqualified persons get entry into politics in democracy on the basis of money and muscle, and because of this, crowd of unqualified persons is found in democracy. In democracy, quantity carries more value than quality.
Because of ignorance, a voter casts his vote to such a person who is not at all deserving. Leakey, the political thinker, writes correctly that, “The administration happens in the hands of ignorant, uneducated and unqualified persons in democracy. It is an administration of crowd.”
RBSE Class 11 Political Science Chapter 9 Essay Type Questions
Describe the necessary conditions for the success of democracy.
For the success of democracy, what circumstances should necessarily be there ? Explain.
The following conditions are necessary for the success of democracy:
1. Spread of education:
For the success of democracy, spread of education is a must. Through education only, citizens can have knowledge of their rights and duties. By education, a spirit of loyalty and belief develops towards democracy. By acquiring education, values, ideals and beliefs are changed. This tries to unite people above the considerations of caste, religion, community. Therefore, for the success of democracy, education should be spread by means of an effective national education policy.
2. Political Awareness:
For the success of democracy, citizens should have political awareness. Country’s citizens should understand his role in politics and administration. They should take judicious decision in elections to elect the best candidates for administration. They should shun passivity. People should have control on behaviour and corruption of leaders and should teach them to follow morality in public life.
3. Political code of conduct:
It is generally seen in democratic system of administration, that political parties and politicians do not comply with political code of conduct. For the success of democracy, it should be necessarily followed. Leaders should be honest and of high character. Special attention should be paid to morality, political traditions and dignity. These should not be violated in the greed of post and money. Leaders should have the real desire to work for their party and administration.
4. Dedication towards democracy:
For the success of democracy, it is necessary that besides the spirit of dedication towards the country, every class, caste and community of the society should have the spirit of dedication towards democratic values, ideals and conventions.
5. Economic democracy:
In the lack of economic democracy, political democracy is thought to be incomplete. It is necessary for economic democracy that there should be economic equality, and ample availability of opportunities for employment. Democracy cannot succeed amidst economic disparities.
6. National Unity:
It is regarded quite necessary for the success of democracy that all citizens have the spirit of unity. The people should be taught unity by way of remaining organised in national activities, interests and in congregations. In the event of lack of unity, the country becomes internally weak.
Why is democracy regarded better then dictatorship? Explain in detail.
Compare dictatorship and democracy.
The following are the main reasons because of which democracy is understand to be better than dictatorship:
1. With reference to public welfare:
The fundamental basis of democracy is public welfare, as democratic government is operated by the representatives elected by the people, who are answerable to the people. If they shy away from the responsibility of public welfare, the people will not elect them in the sun next election. On the other hand, there are only farcical claims of public welfare in dictatorship. Dictator consolidates power in the name of public welfare and fulfills selfish self his interests in place of pubic interest.
2. With the view of civic liberties:
With reference to civic liberties and their uses, democracy is better than dictatorship. In democratic system of governance, different types of liberties are given to the people and there is a provision to move judiciary for their protection. On the other hand, all sorts of civic freedoms are crushed in dictatorship.
3. With the view to establishment of peace:
In the context of international peace arrangement, democracy is better than dictatorship. While democracy, objecting to war – path, wants to solve all problems through peaceful means, formation of laws and pacts, at the same time, dictatorship thinks that the resolution of all problems is war because it is imperialistic.
4. With regards to development of the individual:
In democracy, all individuals equal get opportunities for the development of their abilities, growth, etc., whereas there is no importance of a person in dictatorship.
5. In respect of stability of administration:
Democracy is such a system of governance, wherein possibilities of revolution are little. Election process works as a peaceful form of revolution. In dictatorship, the rule depends on violence and terror.
6. With reference to self governance:
There is decentralization of power in democracy. In democracy, local self governing institutions are established, by which general public can take part in governance work through these bodies. In dictatorship, there is centralization of powers. There cannot be any development of awareness in citizens in a dictatorship form of government.
7. In terms of work proficiency:
Democracy sustains work efficiency of administration because it is answerable to the people. Because of partnership of people in administration, the policies of administration get public cooperation. On the other hand, due to centralization of powers in dictatorship, there is more efficiency of administration in it in the beginning in compassion to democracy, and the nation under goes development, but soon after, the development of the nation stops because of internal corruption and lack of public cooperation.
8. In context off fear and revolution:
In democracy, the general public and administrator class are not mutually in fearful mode nor is there any possibility or necessity of revolution. If the government does not care for public opinion, the people throw them out of power in the next election. In dictatorship, general public remains in the grip of fear of the administrator’s powers. On the basis of the above analysis, it can be conclusively said that democracy, in definite terms, is a better system of administration than dictatorship.