Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 World: Population Structure
RBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Text Book Questions
RBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Multiple Choice Questions
The old age population includes population above which age?
(a) 60 years
(b) 62 years
(c) 68 years
(d) 65 years
(d) 65 years
In which country there is highest percentage of old persons?
(d) South Africa
The highest age group population in the world is:
(a) More than 65 years
(b) 0 – 14 years
(c) 25 to 54 years
(d) All of these
(c) 25 to 54 years
The country having cent-per cent literacy is:
Highest urban population is found in which country?
RBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Very Short Answer Type Questions
According to age-group, in which group highest population is found?
The population of age group 25 – 54 is found to be the highest in the world.
In the structure of population, which of the group is known as child group?
0 – 14 age group is considered the child group.
Explain the importance of literacy.
Literacy is the qualitative characteristic of population. It represents the social-economic development of society. It also effects the birth rate, death rate, progress and economic activities of the population. So it has a great value for the society.
With what type of economic activity is related to agriculture?
Agriculture is related to primary economic activity.
Which continent has the highest urban population?
The highest urban population in the world is found in the continent of North America (77%).
RBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Short Answer Type Questions
What is meant by population structure or composition?
Population composition describes the statistical make – up of a group of people. Common elements of population composition include age, sex and ethnicity. But this data is often compared over time using population pyramids,
What is the sex-ratio?
The ratio between the population of females and that of males in any region is called the sex ratio. To obtain the sex ratio of a country, following formula is used
Why is rate of urbanisation increasing rapidly in the developing countries?
The main cause of increasing urbanisation in developing countries is the process of rapid development in these countries. To obtain higher education, medical care and facilities etc, people from rural areas migrate to to the cities. After crossing the stage of demographic transition, these countries have proceeded towards the secondary and tertiary stages in urbanisation rapidly. Hence, a rapid increase of population in these countries is natural and obvious.
What is the importance of age structure?
Age structure shows the number of population in different age groups. It represents the dependent population, productive capacity and the employed conditions of a region or country. It helps to estimate the number of population in the future. The development of a country can be calculated with its help. It also helps in finding out the reasons of the backwardness of a country. Age structure also describes the economic condition of a country.
RBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Essay Type Questions
Describe the rural – urban composition of population.
Rural-Urban Composition of Population:
Normally, rural regions are such residential areas in which population is related to primary economic activities such as farming, ranching, etc. and on the other hand, the regions where population is related to secondary or tertiary economic activities are called urban regions.
There is a high percentage of urban population in the world’s developed countries while the percentage of rural population is very low there. On the other hand, in developing countries, percentage of urban population is low but percentage of rural population is high. The ratio of rural population to urban population is 62 : 38. In the continents, like Europe and North America, the percentage of rural population is only 25.
More than 50% of total population of the world belongs to cities. Approximately 600 crore people are increasing in the form of urban population in the world every year. In 1800, only 2.5% of world population lived in cities, which became 50% in 1960. In developing countries, urban population is increasing rapidly. In the year 2000, 290 crore people of world lived in cities. In 2004, percentage of world urban and rural population was 48% and 52% respectively. According to an estimate, there will be 61% urban population in the world by 2025.
The structure of rural and urban population can be expressed through the table and diagram given below :
World Rural And Urban Population (in million):
Census department, United Nations Magazine, 2004
World Rural and Urban Population:
Describe the characteristics of world population represented by sex – structure.
The characteristics of world population represented by sex structure are:
- Sex – structure represents the population of females and males separately.
- Sex – structure represents the changes in low, medium and higher age groups.
- If there is an inequality in different age groups, it is a symbol of imbalance in society.
- The birth rate can be found out through the sex-structure.
- Sex – structure also defines the type of country whether it is developed or developing.
- The excess of female in higher age groups indicates a higher life expectancy.
- Sex – structure plays an important role in the form of migration, as in the patriarchal society, migration is seen to be varying.
- At the time of birth, baby boy is given preference to a baby girl.
- The sex structure shows social, economic and cultural values of a society.
- Sex structure shows equality and inequality between the males and females in different periods of time.
Express the data of world-sex ratio through a pyramid-diagram.
Table: World – Sex – Ratio data:
|World and Continents||Sex-Ratio (No. of Women per 1000 Men)|
Census department UNO, 2004
World Sex – Ratio, 2004
The question given in the text – book is wrong. In the pyramid diagram the data of sex ratio is not shown, but the population at the basic of age group is expressed. So the bar – diagram should be read instead of pyramid diagram in the question.
RBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Additional Questions with Answers
RBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Multiple Choice Questions
Which continents has the highest old – population?
(d) South America
Which continent has the highest population per cent in youth age – group?
(a) North America
(d) South America
What is the average sex-ratio of the world?
Which of the following continents has the highest sex – ratio?
By how much is the urban population in the world increasing every year?
(a) 2 crore
(b) 6 crore
(c) 10 crore
(d) 16 crore
(b) 6 crore
How much of world population will be urbanised by the year 2025?
(a) 34 per cent
(b) 50 per cent
(c) 61 per cent
(d) 75 per cent
(c) 61 per cent
What is the world literacy per centage?
(a) 64 per cent
(b) 68 per cent
(c) 72 per cent
(d) 77 per cent
(d) 77 per cent
The age group of working population is:
(a) 0 – 14 years
(b) 15 – 59 years
(c) more than 60 years
(d) All of these
(b) 15 – 59 years
Match the Columns
Match the options given in column A with correct options given in column B.
|Column A (Continents)||Column B (Sex Ratio)|
|(i) Asia||(a) 1027|
|(ii) Africa||(b) 1072|
|(iii) Europe||(c) 1018|
|(iv) North America||(d) 957|
|(v) South America||(e) 990|
|(vi) Oceania||(f) 1002|
(i) (f), (ii) (d), (iii) (b), (iv) (a), (v) (c), (vi) (e).
|Column A (Position)||Column B (Relation)|
|(i) Age group of population (0 – 14)||(a) Working population|
|(ii) Age group of population (15 – 64)||(b) Higher urban population|
|(iii) Urbanised more than 60 per cent||(c) Medium urban population|
|(iv) 40 – 60 per cent urbanised||(d) Low urban population|
|(v) Urbanised less than 40 per cent||(e) Dependent population|
(i) (e), (ii) (a), (iii) (b), (iv) (c), (v) (d).
RBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Very Short Answer Type Questions
What aspects are studied under the population structure?
Under population structure, aspects like age – group, sex – ratio, occupation, rural and urban population, literacy, religion, language, etc. are studied.
What is meant by age structure?
The population of any country is classified into three age groups:
0 – 14, 15 – 64 and above 65 years. The division of the population on the basis of their age is called age structure.
Explain the term dependent population. In what age groups is it found?
The population of age groups 0 – 14 years and above 65 years are considered the dependent population in the world as the population of these groups depends on the working population (15 – 64) for survival.
Explain the world population or the basis of age structure.
In the world population, 25.44 per cent is of age group 0 – 14, 16.16 per cent of 15 – 24 age group, 41.12 per cent of 25 – 54 age group, 8.60 per cent of 55 – 64 age group and 8.68 per cent of population is of age above 65 years.
Why young population is most important?
The young population is productive, creative, dynamic and capable to face the difficulties. The development of a country depends on this age group of population. That is why the young population is most important for a country.
Explain the sex ratio with reference to India.
In India, the number of women per 1000 men is called the sex ratio. It is calculated with the help of formula:
What is unfavourable sex – ratio?
The unfavourable sex ratio is the condition in which number of females in a region becomes less than that of males.
What are the causes responsible for unfavourable sex – ratio?
Practices such as female foeticide and female infanticide as well domestic abuse, etc. are root causes of unfavourable sex ratio in a region.
Why is unfavourable sex ratio found in developing countries?
Females are considered inferior to men in developing countries so there is high death rate of female infants in the comparison of boy infants. This tendency increases the unfavourable sex ratio.
Why is there less number of male population in some of the European countries?
- In Europe, women have better social and economic status.
- In the past, a large number of males migrated from this region.
Into how many groups can the world be divided on the basis of difference of sex ratio?
On the basis of difference of sex ratio, world is divided into four groups:
- The countries having large surplus of female population than males.
- The countries having more number of females than males.
- The countries having large surplus of male population than females.
- The countries having more number of males than females.
Why is there low sex-ratio in India?
Why is number of female population less than male population in India?
In India, the sex – ratio is unfavourable due to female foeticide, infanticide, domestic abuse and the inferior position of women in the country.
What is urban population?
The population that lives in the cities and is attached to non – agricultural economic activities is called urban population.
What is meant by rural population?
The population living in villages and attached to agricultural and related acitivities is called rural population.
Into how many parts is the world divided on the basis of urbanisation?
The world is divided into three groups on the basis of urbanisation: higher urban regions, middle urban regions and low urban regions.
What do you understand by the term higher urban regions?
The world’s regions where more than 60% of population lives in cities and is attached to non – agricultural activities are called higher urban regions.
What is the meant by the term middle urban regions?
The countries in which 40 – 60 per cent of population lives in cities are called middle urban regions.
Explain the term low – urban regions?
The parts of the world in which less than 40 per cent of population lives in cities, are called low – urban regions.
What is literacy?
Literacy is the ability, confidence and willingness to engage with language to acquire, construct and communicate meaning in all aspects of daily living.
What is literacy rate?
The percentage of literate people out of total population in a country is called the literacy rate.
Name the factors that affect the literacy rate.
The factors that affect the literacy rate are: economic development, urbanisation, living standard, social – position of women, facilities provided by the government and its policies.
What is occupational structure?
The occupational structure of a country refers to the division of its workforce engaged in different economic activities.
Name chief occupational activities.
Chief occupational activities are: hunting, agriculture, forestry, fisheries, herding animals, mining, manufacturing and services, commerce, transportation, storage and , communications etc.
Why is the population engaged to quartiary economic-activities the most important?
The population engaged in these activities earns surplus income. They give the mobility to the society by their ideas, deeds and research. This is why this type of population has a great importance.
RBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Short Answer Type Questions (SA-I)
Age structure is an important indicator of population composition, why?
Age structure is an important indicator of population composition because a large share of age group of 15 – 64 shows the working population. A large ratio of age above 65 years shows the old population which needs a large amount of money for it’s health-related facilities. The surplus population in the lower-age group indicates the high birth rate as well the economic backwardness in the society. All these conditions are shown by the age structure.
Developing countries have more youth population while developed countries have more aged and old population, why?
The developing countries are passing through the secondary or tertiary stage of demographic transition, that is why there is a high birth rate in these countries. This factor has increased the youth population. On the other hand, all the developed countries are in the last stage of demographic transposition and they have passed the secondary and tertiary stages long ago. The birth rates in these countries are very low. Hence, there is more old population in these countries.
Describe the characteristics of world population composition briefly.
The main characteristics of world population composition are:
- Generally, more youth population is found in developing countries but there is more old population in developed countries.
- Unbalanced age structure impacts the economy of a country inversely.
- There is more child population in the countries in which population is increasing rapidly.
What factors are responsible for unfavourable sex – ratio in a country?
Describe the factors responsible for less women than men in a region?
The ratio between the number of women and men in the population is called the sex – ratio. There is a great imbalance in sex ratio in developed and developing countries.
- It is due to gender discrimination.
- Sex ratio is unfavourable where female foeticide, female infanticide and domestic violence against women is prevalent.
- Lower socio – economic status of women.
- Death of women during child birth.
Women have natural gifts and social harms more than that of men. Explain.
The women have more natural resistance capacity than men. This is why they are more tolerant, forbearing and have higher life expectancy than those of men, but this natural – gift ends due to distinction, social abuses and domestic violence against them.
“Sex ratio is an important indicator of the condition of women in a country.” Explain this statement.
Sex ratio is an important indicator of the condition of women. Those regions and countries, where sex ratio is unbalanced, the sex ratio there is definitely in the disfavour of women. In such regions, practices such as female foeticide, female infanticide and domestic violence towards women is prevalent and the main reason for this is the inferior socio – economic status of women in these regions.
Describe the position of Asian and European continents with reference to the sex – ratio.
Normally, the sex – ratio in Asian continent is low among which countries like China, India, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Afghanistan have the lowest level of sex – ratio. On the other hand, in a large part of European continent, men are in minority. Less number of men are found in several parts of Europe because females are in better position and a large number of males migrated to other parts in the past.
“Literacy is an index of socio – economic development of a country”. Explain the statement.
Write a short note on literacy in the world.
Literacy is considered an index of socio – economic development of a country. The major factors which are affected by the rate of literacy are : level of economic development, urbanisation, standard of living, social status of women, availability of educational facilities and the policies of the government.
Level of development is both a cause and a consequence of literacy. There is a wide variation over the world in the literacy rates. In India, the per centage of people aged 7 and above can read, write and perform simple arithmetical calculations is about 70%.
RBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Short Answer Type Questions (SA-II)
Describe the age groups of world population.
Describe the different age-groups of population along with their characteristics.
The world population has been classified into three age groups:
- 0 – 14 years
- 15 – 64 years
- 65 years and above.
1. 0 – 14 years age groups:
35 per cent of world population is included in this age group. There are differences in this age group in different regions of the world. In developed countries, 18.3 per cent of total population is included in this group, while in developing countries, this per centage rises up by 32.2. In countries where birth rate is high, the population of this age group is in surplus. Generally, population of this group is dependent.
2. 15 – 64 years age group:
The young or the adult population is included in this group. This population is more than any other group. This population is more productive, creative and dynamic. Development of a country depends upon this group. This is the working population.
3. 65 years and above:
Population related to this group is called the elderly group. Old population is found in those types of countries where all demographic transition stages had been completed much earlier.
Describe the unbalanced sex ratio in the world.
At present, in Asian continent, the sex ratio is 1002, in South America it is 1018, North America it is 1027 and in Oceania it is found 990. The different sex ratios are seen at regional basis in the world. There are 139 countries in which sex ratio is favourable while in 72 countries it is unfavourable for the women. The sex ratio is different in different continents.
On one hand, in European continent, there is highest sex ratio of 1072, and on the other hand, in African continent, lowest sex ratio of 95 7 is found: An average sex ratio at the world level is 985. But on the basis of different decades, it is different in different regions. In 1980, there were 993 women per 1000 men in the world i.e. number of female-population was less then that of men by 7.
But in the year of 2004, it reduced and this number came down to 985, i.e., number of women was less than number of men by 15. This variation can be seen even on regional basis. There are many countries where more women are found than men in total population and in many countries the situation is just opposite.
Classify the world on the basis of sex ratio.
Name the parts of the world as classified on the basis of sex ratio.
On the basis variation found in the distribution of sex ratio, the world is divided into four categories:
- The countries with surplus female population.
- The countries which have female population more than males.
- The countries which have more number of males than that of females.
- The countries with surplus male population.
1. The countries with surplus female population:
In this group, those countries are included where more than 1050 sex ratio is found. In which western European, countries, United States of America, Canada, Southern part of South America, female population is in large surplus in comparison to the males.
2. Countries with more female population than males:
In this category, those countries are included where sex ratio from 1000 to 1050 is found. Poland, Mongolia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Ukraine,Thailand, Cambodia, Myanmar and Southern African countries are included in this group of countries.
3. Countries which have more male population than females:
In this group, countries where sex ratio is in between 950-1000. The countries like Australia, New Zealand, China, Korea, Mexico, Brazil, Iran and Cuba are included in this category. Males are here more than females.
4. Countries with surplus male population:
The sex ratio in the countries of this group is less than even 950. India represents the countires of such group. The falling sex ratio is a matter of serious concern here.
Calssify the world on the basis of urban population.
Into how many groups is the world divided on the basis of urban population?
On the basis of urban population distribution, world is divided into the following categories:
- High urban population
- Medium urban population and
- Low urban population.
1. High Urban Population:
The countries where the per centage of urban populate is more than 60 are included in this group. United States of America, Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Singapore, Argentina and m countries of European continent are of this group.
2. Medium Urban Population:
Those countries of the world are counted in this group where urban population is 40 to 60 per cent. China, Indonesia, South Africa, Egypt, Venezuela, Cuba, Jamaica and Haiti, etc. have medium urban population.
3. Low Urban Population:
The countries with less than 40 per cent of urban population are included in this group. India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Southern-Eastern Asia and most of the African countries have low urban population.
“The ratio of working population is the index of economic development of a country.” Explain.
The working population (15 – 64 years) takes part in various occupations such as agriculture, forestry, manufacturing, construction, transport, services etc. Average production per head and average income per head both depend on this working population which raise the index of development. These are grouped into primary, secondary, tertiary, quarternary and the fifth pentanary activities of occupations.
These differ in different countries due to level of economic development. People engaged in activities of above mentioned occupations make a nation more prosperous in economic point of view. Developed economy with industries and infrastructure have more people engaged in secondary and tertiary activities. If it is a primitive economy, the ratio of working population in primary activities will be greater as these need more population for the utilisation of natural resources.
RBSE Class 12 Geography Chapter 4 Essay Type Questions
Describe the factors responsible for the difference in age – sex ratio in the different parts of the world.
Age – sex structure means the ratio of females on males in different age groups of population. To express age – sex structure, population pyramids are used. Following factors are responsible for imbalance in age – sex structure.
1. Different birth rates:
In the countries where high birth rate is found, the percentage of child age group (0 – 14 year) is always high, while the percentage of old age group (over 60 year) remains very low. On the other hand, in the developed countries of the world, due to low birth rate, the percentage of child group is low, but that of old group is high. Normally, more males take birth than of females in the world, this is why in the countries with high birth rate have more male children and so there is unfavourable sex ratio.
2. Difference between female and male birth rate:
Due to lack of medical facilities in the developing countries, high infant death rate and high maternity death rate is found there. So in these regions, in age groups of 0 – 14 and 15 – 24, number of males is larger than the number of females. In the age group of above 65 years, female death rate is always less than the male death rate. Therefore, every country of the world has larger number of female population in this age group.
Generally, adults of the age group 15 – 59 always migrate for their living. In the regions from which the males migrate, number of females is always higher than male, but in the regions to where males go, the number of males is larger than number of females.
On the other hand, in developed countries of the world, female population migrating towards the cities from rural areas is found to be more. So, in the rural areas of developed countries, number of males is more than that of females.
What is population composition? Describe any four of its elements.
What are the major components of population composition? Explain.
Population composition means all the characteristics of population by which population is separated from one another, i.e. age, sex, settlement, occupation, education, and life expectancy.
Components of Population Composition:
The major components of population composition are age, sex, literacy, settlement, etc. These elements play important roles in deciding the plans of future development.
1. Sex – Composition:
An important demographic specialty of a country is the number of males and females living in that region. The ratio of females on males in the population is called the sex – ratio. Sex – ratio is an important index of the position of women in that country as well of the economic status.
In the countries, where discrimination against women is seen, there is unfavourable sex ratio against females. Besides female foeticide and female infanticide, domestic voilence against female is also seen in these regions. The main cause of these abuses is the very low socio – economic status of women in these countries.
The literacy – ratio of population in any country is index of the socio – economic development and progress in that region. The literacy ratio of population shows living standard, socio – economic position of females, availability of educational facilities and the policies adopted by the local government. Literacy ratio also decides the standard of economic human development.
3. Occupational Composition:
The working population engaged in different services and manufacturing sector is called the occupational composition. The working population of a country is divided into 5 sectors:
- Primary sector : Agriculture, forestry, fishing mining, etc.
- Secondary sector : Manufacturing and industries.
- Tertiary sector : Commerce and business, transportation, communication, etc.
- Quarternary sector : Works related to inventions and discoveries.
- Pentinary sector : Specialists, advisors, policy-makers, etc.
Population engaged in all above sectors is a very good index of the economic development in a country. In the countries with primitive economy, most of the population is engaged in primary sector, but in a developed economy, most of population is engaged in secondary, tertiary, quarternary and pentinary sectors.
4. Age composition:
The population in a country is also divided on the basis of age. Age composition is an important factor of population. It shows the number of population in different age-groups. There are mainly 3 age groups of population. Child age group (0-14 years). Adult age group (15-64 years) and Old age group (above 65 years).
If the number of children in a country is in surplus, than the ratio n dependent population increases. If the number of population in the age – group 15 – 16 is high, then the ratio of working population increases. If more people of age – group above 65 years are found, then the expenditure on health-related facilities increased.
What is occupational composition? Describe its nature.
Explain the occupational composition of population.
Meaning of occupational composition:
The distribution of the population according to different types of occupations is referred to as the occupational structure. It is also expressed in form of the population engaged in a certain economic activity.
There are several occupational groups in the world. All economic activities done by the active population are included in these groups. According to United Nations Organisation (UNO), there are several economic classes, i.e., agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing, animals rearing, mining, manufacturing, industries, production, electricity, gas, water and health facilities and many other un – classified occupations.
This classification is used for international comparison, but every country classifies its population into different groups according to its needs. The working population (15 – 64 age group both males and females) are divided into following groups.
1. Primary Activities:
These activities are found in those countries where in developing economy is seen. Primary activities include gathering, hunting, fishing, lumbering, mining, cattle rearing, and agriculture.
2. Secondary Activities:
These type of activities are seen in the developing and developed countries. Secondary activities include manufacturing, dairy – farming commercial fishing and other industrial activities.
3. Tertiary Activities:
All the services in the developed and developing countries are included in tertiary activities. In highly developed countries, 40 to 50 per cent of working population is engaged in tertiary economic activities. In the United States of America and other European countries, percentage of working population engaged in these activities is upto 60 – 70.
4. Quaternary Activities:
The percentage of working population engaged in quaternary activities is relatively very low. But the income earned from it is very high. The population engaged in these activities gives a mobility by its ideas, planning and research.
5. Pentinary Activities:
The specialists, advisors, policy – makers, decision takers, etc. are included in these activities.