Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 1 The Glorious Past of India
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 1 Textual Questions
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 1 Multiple Choice Questions
In which Veda, has the Earth been called as mother ?
Who was the writer of ‘Midas of gold?
(b) D. D. Kaushambi
When did Vikram Samvat begin ?
(a) 78 B.C.
(b) 57 B.C.
(c) 78 A.D.
(d) 130 A.D.
Which of the following is not a Vedanga?
In ancient India, the book written on navigation Yukti Kalptaru’was written by
(a) Raja Bhoj
(b) Gautamiputra Satkarni
The Aryans of the Rigveda occupied and lived in the area
(c) Doab – Pradesh
During the Sindhu – Saraswati civilization the remains of a huge stadium were found at
During the Mahajanpada period, the place where the sabha was held was called
1. (a), 2. (c), 3. (b), 4. (d), 5. (a), 6. (d), 7. (c), 8. (d).
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 1 Very Short Answer Type Questions
Which archaeologist started the research campaign of the vanished Saraswati river ?
Archaeologist Dr. V. S. Vakankar started the research campaign of the vanished Saraswati river.
In which south – east Asian countries did the Indian culture spread ?
The Indian culture extended from Afghanistan to the whole of south – east Asia. The present Java, Sumatra, Malaya, Combodia, Siam, Champa, Burma and Sri Lanka etc. were an integral part of cultural India.
Where are the epitomes of Angkorwat situated ?
The epitomes of Angkorwat are situated in Combodia.
Describe the special features of Neolithic age.
The man of Neolithic age started cattle breeding and agriculure. He began to make tools.
Which metal were the people of Sindu – Saraswati familiar with ?
The people of Sindu – Saraswati were familiar with copper.
Where do we find the writings of the Saraswati civilization written on ?
Most of the writings of the Saraswati civilization are written on stamps.
Which subjects have been treated in the Aranyaka granthas?
The Aranyaka granthas deal with the subjects of philosophy.
What do you understand by Tripitak ?
The pitakas contain the principles and conduct of Buddhism. These are three in number-Sutta pitak, Vinay pitak and Abhidhamma pitak, so these are called tripitakas.
Between whom was the Dusraj (dasarajna) battle was fought?
The battle of Dusraj’ (battle of ten kings) was fought between the Trtsu – Bharata king Sudas and kings of ten Jans. King Sudas won the battle.
Which ‘Jans’ were included in ‘Panch Jan’?
Panchajana included – Anu, Yasstu, Turvas Puru and Duhe.
Name any three Brahmin granthas.
Three Brahmin granthas (texts) are – Aitereya, Kaushitaki and Shatpath.
Name two scholars who made contribution to the knowledge of mathematics in ancient India.
Which system did rishi kanad invent in the field of physics ?
Maharishi Kanad propounded the theory of matter and its constituent elements on the basis of atoms.
Name sixteen sanskaras.
Sixteen sanskars are –
- Antyeshti (last rites).
What are four Purusharths ?
- Dharma (conduct and character),
- Wealth (worldly properties and other possessions),
- Kam (enjoyment of facilities),
- Moksh (freedom from the bondage of life and death).
What is Ashrama system?
Life has been divided into four Ashramas
- Brahmacharya Ashram,
- Grihastha Ashrama,
- Vanaprastha Ashrama
- Sanyasa Ashrama.
Where is the iron – pillar situated at Delhi ?
It is situated at Mehrauli in Delhi.
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 1 Short Answer Type Questions
What do you know about rock art ?
During the pre – historical time, the places where the human beings lived, were called rock – dwellings. Human beings decorated these dwelling with their handy geometrical drawings. These drawings were called rock – art graphics. Different aspects of life have been expressed through these rock graphics.
Explain the tri – indebtedness in religion in ancient India.
In ancient India, the concept of tri-indebtedness was very important. These three debts were–
- Debt to parents – By maintaining the continuity of human race through production of progeny, we can clear this debt.
- Debt to rishis – This debt can be cleared by enriching and developing the knowledge and the tradition that we have inherited from the rishis.
- Debt to gods – Our duties to the gods and goddesses which can be clear by performing the yajna and by the prayer and worship to them.
Salvation is possible only when one is free from these three debts.
What is meant by ‘Mahajanpadas’ ? Name the sixteen Mahajanpadas.
In the post – vedic period, the Jans (people) began to settle down so they began to be called Janapadas. The weaker states (Jans) began to be merged with stronger states and the Janapada took the shape of Mahajanapada.
Sixteen Mahajanapadas were –
What were Sabha and Samiti ?
Sabha – The sabha was a smaller body as compared to the samiti. In sabha, only the senior persons or very important persons took part. These people co-operated with the king in matters of justice and other consultations.
Samiti – This body discussed considered over the political and social issues. The king took part in the meetings of samitis.
Which subjects have been treated in Upanishads ?
The Upanishad is one of the four parts of every Veda. The Upanishads tell us about deeper subjects and the moral values of life. The Upanishads have dominated Indian philosophy, religion and life ever since their appearance.
Describe the contribution made to the Indian history by the foreign literature.
From ancient times, the cultural and economic achievements of India have been the objects of attraction for the foreign writers. They have written a lot about India. Megasthenes’ famous book ‘Indica’ gives a vivid knowledge about the administration of Chandragupta Maurya.
Heiun – Tsang’s book “Tsuyuki describes the contemporary history of India. ITsing travelled India from 672 and 688 and from the description of his travels, we know a lot about the Nalanda University and Vikramshila university of India. Among the Tibetans’ description of India, ‘Kangyur’ and ‘Tengyur’ are regarded as the most useful books.
What is the significance of the coins in knowing the history of India ?
The coins are significaint because they provide us the information—the names of the rulers, dates, their faces, dynastic traditions, religion, their glorious deeds, daily life, art, their likes and dislikes, religious belief, economic and trade status, boundary of the kingdom etc.
Explain Vedang literature.
Vedang literature came into existance to understand the vedic literature. It has six parts
Describe the special features of Sindhu architecture art
Well – planned cities was the most important and special feature of Sindu architecture. The other special features are
- Proper drainage system in the houses.
- Baked bricked and covered drainage systemat at both sides of every road and street.
- Remains of a great bath at Mohanjodero have been found. From the excavation of Dhaulaveera, 16 big and small water reservoirs have been found. Remains of a dockyard from Lothal have been found. Its size was 214 m x 36 m, and : 3.3 m deep. In the North of the yard, there was a 12 m wide entrance for the ships.
What is Aryanak literature ?
Aryanaks are a parts of Vedic literature. Aryanakas are written by the rishis. These books deal with the subject of philosophy.
Describe the main industries of the Sindhu Saraswati civilization.
During this civilization, both the national and international trade were prevalent. These people were familiar with various crafts and industries. The main industries during this civilization were jewellary making, cloth making, spinning and weaving, carpentry, pottery making etc. Beads jewellery was very popular. Both men and women were fond of jewellery. Beads were made of gold, copper, silver, clay, sea-shells etc. Trade was very developed during this time.
Describe the stamp making art during the Sindhu Saraswati civilization.
In the excavation more than 2000 stamps have been discovered. These stamps are made of soapstone, terracotta and copper. The stamps give us useful information about the civilization of indus valley.
Some stamps have human or animal figures on them. Most of the stamps have the figures of real animals while a few bear the figures of mythical animals. The stamps are rectangular, circular or even cylindrical in shape.
Which subjects did Kautilya include in Indian history?
Kautilya included in Indian history puranic ideas and ideals, their explanations, examples, science of religion and economics.
Name the ‘Mirid Palia’ cultures.
These are –
- Ochre Coloured Pottery (OCP) Culture.
- Black and Red Ware (BRW) Culture.
- Grey Painted Ware (GPW) Culture. Painted Grey Ware (PGW) Culture.
- North Black Painted Ware (NBPW) Culture.
What do you understand by the voyages and the navigation in ancient India ?
Five or six thousand years ago, there were fully developed ports in India. Sea routes, ports, ships etc. have were been very important from trading point of view. The major ports were Chole, Dabhol, Rajpur, Malvan, Goa, Kotayam, Konark, Machhalipattam and Kaveripattamm.
Navigation – There is a vivid description of building boats and their types by the Indian sailors in the book Yukti Kalpataru’ written by King Bhoj, the ruler of Dhar anagari.
Some Arab passengers have mentioned the use of iron – fish instrument by the Indian sailors in finding out the direction. Megasthenese has written about nine fleet of ships. When a fleet was out to sail on the sea, the head of the fleet was regarded as the chief naval officer of the fleet.
What is Vanshawali’?
Vanshawali is the most dependable source for a person to know about his / her traditions, culture, original residence, development, family, family – religion, the family customs, gotra and the names of his ancestors. In the ancient history of India and in our holy puranas, Vanshawali have played an important role in writing the history of that period. We find the records of many historical events in such Vanshawalies.
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 1 Long Answer Type Questions
Describe the role played by the archaeological sources in providing knowledge about ancient Indian history.
The archaeological sources are the most certain and dependable source to know about ancient India. Archaeology means the study of the remains excavated from a place and to find out the activities performed by human beings in the period. Archaeological sources can be divided in the following ways :
(1) Archaeological remains obtained through excavation : (Clay-pots, tools and instruments). The knowledge about the Sindhu and Saraswati civilization is based on the remains found during excavation.
(2) The records: On account of being dated and written (documentation), they are very dependable source. We get the order of dates and the achievements of a particular ruler from these records.
(3) Coins and currency: Coins, currency and stamps are very significant to tell us about the ancient history of India. We get from them the knowledge about names of the rulers, dates, their faces, dynastic traditions religion, their glorious deeds, daily life, their likes and dislikes etc.
(4) Epitomes and buildings : The archaeological sources of hisotry include all the remains of on-ground and under-ground structures likes stupas, chaityas, ashrams, mathas, temples, palaces, forts and tombs. From all such remains, we know about the art, architecture, culture and political life of that period.
(5) Idols, sculpture and other arts : During excavation, variey of idols and the designs of terracota has been found, which tell us about the social, religious and cultural life of those days. Besides this, drawing and painting is the natural means of expression of human beings. For example, different aspects of life have been expressed through the medium of rock-art.
Describe the role played by Vedic literature in providing knowledge about the glorious past of India.
The Vedas are the oldest books of the religious literature. We get full knowledge about Aryan civilization and culture from the Vedas. The Vedas plentiful storehouse of wisdom. The Vedas are four in number – the Rigveda, the Samveda, the Yajurveda and the Atharvaveda.
The Rigveda is the oledest of the four Vedas: The Rigveda has 10 mandals and 1028 suktas. Every Veda has been divided into four parts – Samhita, Brahmin, Aranyaka, and Upanishad. The Rigveda is written in verses. The Rigveda is a collection of prayers. The Samveda provides information about the hymns, prayer and other religious songs sung by the Aryans.
The Atharvaveda is written by Atharva rishi. It contains miscellaneous subjects. It includes knowledge of Brahma, religion, social prestige, use of medicine, suppression of the enemy, remedy of disease and enchantment etc. After this, the literature based on Yajna and rituals came to be known as Brahmin literature.
The books written by the rishis came to known as Aryanakas books deal with the subject of philosophy, while the upnishads tell us about deeper subjects and the moral values of life. Vedanga literature came into existence to understand the Vedic literature. The Vedanga literature has six parts – shiksha, kalpa, yakarana, nirukta, chhanda, jyotisha.
Ayurveda, Dhanurveda, Gandharva veda and Shilp veda are the four upvedas (subvedas) which provide knowledge about medicine, music, military science architecture, etc. Thus it is clear that the Vedas are the very rich storehouse of knowledge and they provide us the complete picture of ancient India.
Write an essay on the proficiency of ancient India in the fields of science and art.
The culture of ancient India has been superb in the field of science and art. The achievements of India in the field of science and art have not only benefited India but also the entire world. We can describe the proficiency of ancient India in the field of science and art as follows
Proficiency in the field of Science : In the Vedas, we find vivid description of Ayurveda and medical science. Ayurvedic treatment is very ancient in India. Charak, Sushrut and Dhanwantri were the chief scholars in this field. In the field of numerology, the Indians were far ahead of other global mathematicians.
The Indian scholars were familiar with zero and its use much earlier than the other scholars of the world. The Yajurveda contains many numbers as 1012. This indicates that the Indians could write such big numbers. After the Vikram Samvat, the Indians knew how to write 1053 The Indian astrologers gained knowledge of the stars and planets in the space.
From the Indian calendar system (Panchang), it appears that the shape of the earth and its movements, the solar eclipse, the lunar eclipse, the planets and the sub-planets, the motion of the stars etc., all knowledge about them was as accurate as it is today.
Proficiency in the field of Art: During the Vedic period, Indians were capable of melting the metal and could hammer this molten metal into different shapes. The Making of gold jewellery is mentioned in Rigveda. Ear ornaments, nose-rings, gold coins and coins of various values were made. The Vedic Aryans were familiar with weaving cloth, spinning the cotton etc.
The Buddha caves at Colvi, the stupas at Sanchi and Amravati, the Chaityas and Viharas at Kanheri (Mumbai), at Karle bhaja (in the midst of Mumbai and Pune) are the best examples of the art of Buddha’s age.
Describe the special features of the political system and democratic administrative system in ancient India.
The political system and democratic administrative system in ancient India existed in different forms in different periods. It can be described as follows : Political System during Sindhu Civilization – No clear information of the political system of this civilization is available.
On the basis of the remains found in the excavation it can be said that the life of the people and the rule was peaceful. Due to their peaceful life they had trading relations with other countries. The Vedic Period – During the Vedic age, there was well – ordered political system.
We find the record of Sabha and Samiti both in the Rigveda and the Atharva Veda. These political organistions in those days put a check on the absolute powers of the king. Samiti was a body of the representatives of the people. Sabha was the body of experienced, senior and prestigious people.
The Epic Age-During this period, the political system had grown very strong. The post of the king was dynastic but the Vedic principles too had a say in determining the king. The king was bound to religion, duty and to the cause of the people. During the age of Mahabharata, there were 18 departments in the council of ministers. Each department was called a “Tirth”
The Mahajanapada Age – The greatest political achievement of this age was the strong development of both monarchy and democracy. During the Rigveda period the ‘Jan’ had no permanent geographical base. In the post vedic period, the Jans began to settle down so they began to be called Janapadas.
By the Buddha period, the Janapadas had begun to be fully developed. The weaker states began to be merged with stronger states and the Janapada took the shape of Mahajanapadas.
Describe the expansion of Indian cultural colonization in the world during the ancient period.
In ancient times, Indian culture and civilization had a global propagation. This was not achieved by military invasions but by love and modesty. Indian history has been glorious from the beginning. On the basis of the remains found during excavation, it can be asserted that Indian culture pervaded the globe. Some of its examples are as follows
1. Even today, on the northern gate of the Great Wall of China, there is an inscription in Sanskrit which says, “May God send Yakshas to defend us.”
2. Western historians and scientists have expressed their feelings about the superiority of Indian culture and history. Sir Walter Raleigh has written, “The first man on the earth was born on Indian soil.” Mayour, Colonel Ulkott, Voltair, Max – Muller etc. have expressed their views about ancient culture of India.
3. In Agnipurana India has been called as Jamboo – dweep. The Indian colonies across the sea were called Deepantar. They consisted of nine islands. The present Java, Sumatra, Malaya, Combodia, Siam, Champa, Burma and Srilanka etc. were on integral part of cultural India.
The European scholar Silven Levy has mentioned the word’Bhartiya group of Islands’. The Arabian geography scholar Masoodi has written that ancient India spread both on the land and the sea. Its boundary embraced Sumatra and Java. Thus, the then cultural India extended from Afghanistan toʻthe whole of South – East Asia.
The Indians reached Burma (Braham Desh), Siam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Australia, Borneo, Philippines, Japan and as far as Korea and eastablished their political and cultural colonies. Such other Indian navigators and tourists reached from the pacific ocean to Mexico in Central America, Handuras, Peru, Bolivia, Chile and various other parts of South America and settled there.
The Aryans reached the vairous parts of the world by land and sea routes. There they preached the teachings of their religion and the principles of their culture.
In ancient period, India was called a golden bird. In the light of this statement, describe the economic glory of ancient India.
Because of its prosperity, India was called ‘ a golden bird’ in the past. Ancient India was very developed in agricutlure and minerals, which was the base of its prosperity. These people were involved in various activities. These activities were :
1. Agriculture and cattle breeding – India has been basically an agricultural country. Agriculture and cattle breeding have been the backbone of Indian economy. The cow was not meant to be killed. In the Rigveda, ploughing, sowing and harvesting and pulling the plough by the bulls and production of food grain is mentioned. Canals are also mentioned there. This indicates that people had well organised irrigation system.
2. Industry – There is a record that thousands of years ago, leather industry, wood industry and stone industry flourished very well.
3. Trade – Trade in those days was highly developed. During the epic age, trade was done both on national and international level. In the Rigveda, there is mention of a boat having 100 oars. In the Taittiriya Upanishad, it is written that during that time food grains was grown in plenty.
During the post – Vedic period, new techniques were developed in agricuture. The system of commercial chambers had also come in vogue. The words ‘Shresthi’ Gan and Ganpati have been used in their connection.
4. Tax System – In ancient texts, it is mentioned that one-sixth or one-tenth part
Write an essay on the “religious glory of ancient India.
India was regarded as Vishwaguru (Teacher of the World) due to its cultural / religious qualities. All the gods and goddess, being huge in number, have been classified under in three classes
- Gods dwelling in heaven – Varun, Sun, Savitri, Aditi, Usha, Mitra, Vishnu and Ashwin.
- Earthly Gods – Earth, Agni, Som, Brihaspati, Saraswati etc.
- Atmospheric Gods – Varun, Vayu, Indra, Rudra, Parjanaya and Marut.
Yajna – The gods and goddesses were worshipped by offering prayers and performing the yajna. The divine power has performed the work of creation and people worship in different forms. It is said in the Rigveda, ‘Ekam sat get viprah bahudha vadanti’ (truth and god are one).
In Upanishads, he has been called by the name of ‘Param Brahma’and our soul is a part of that Param Brahma. Brahma and soul are one and the same. According the philosophy of the Upanishads, the whole universe has been created by Brahma and this universe again get unified with Brahma.
Worship of Nature – People worshipped nature in different forms. Inspite of worshipping multiple divine powers of nature, stress has been laid on the absolute oneness of God.
Describe the significance of Vanshawalies’ as suurce of Indian history.
Vanshawali is the most dependable source for a person to know about his / her traditions, culture, original residence, development, family, family – religion, family customs, gotra and the names of his ancestors etc. In the ancient history of India and in our holy Puranas, Vanshawalis have played a very important role in writing the history of that period. We find the records of many historical events in such Vanshawalis.
Vanshawalies are significant source of Indian history. These Vanshawalis provide information about the caste and social history of every family. They have told about he ideal persons livng in the society. The Indian Sagar and Samiti started the documentation of family to maintain a well ordered society in a harmonious way which has continued for thousands of years.
We come to know about many historical great persons from these Vanshawalies. They also provide the records of economic development and profession of the family. The Vanshawali writers stayed with the family for a particular time period and prepared the record. So the records (Vanshawalis) are true and realistic.
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 1 Other Important Questions
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 1 Multiple Choice Questions
How many Vedas are there?
The literature based on Yajna and rituals is known as
Mention the number of Puranas
In which language is the Jain literature is written?
Which of the texts is written by Kautilya ?
(b) Kumarpal Charita
(d) None of these.
In which Purana India is called as “Jamboo – dweep’?
(b) Bhagwat Purana
(c) Garun Purana .
(d) Matsya Purana.
Which is the oldest Veda ?
Which is the largest building of Mohenjodero civilization ?
(a) Great bath
(b) Royal palace.
(d) None of these.
Who conducted the excavation of Harappa valley ?
(a) Rakhaldas Banerje.
(b) Dayaram Sahani
(c) John Marshal
(d) Dr V. S. Vakankar.
How many excavated cities of Sindhu – Saraswati civilization are there in India ?
Who is the writer of the book ‘History of Sanskrit Literature?
(a) Mac Donald
(b) Max Muller
(c) C. Ulkoll
(d) none of these
The Vedas have also been named as
(d) none of these
Which was the smallest unit of society during Sindhu Civilization ?
(d) none of these
Where was Agni Kund found ?
(d) a and b
Number of up – puranas is
1. (b) 2. (a) 3. (d) 4. (b) 5. (c) 6. (a) 7. (a) 8. (a) 9. (b)
10. (b) 11. (a) 12.(c) 13.(c) 14. (b) 15. (b) 16. (c)
Match Column A with Column B:
1. (e), 2. (a), 3. (b), 4. (c), 5. (d)
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 1 Very Short Answer Type Questions
What is the purpose of historians ?
Their purpose is to import knowledge about the events and incidents that took place in the past.
How many Vedas are there ? Name them.
There are four VedasThe Rigveda, The Samveda, The Atharvaveda, The Yajurveda.
What do we mean by historical evidences or proofs ?
The ways and means that the historians use to know about the past activities, are called evidences/proofs.
In how many parts can the literary sources of ancient Indian history be divided ?
These sources can be divided into two parts : 1. Literary sources 2. Archaeology and Archives
Which is the oldest veda ?
The Rigveda is the oldest veda.
Which Veda provides information about the religious songs (hymns / prayers) sung by the Aryans ?
The Samveda provides information about the religious songs sung by the Aryans.
How many vedangas are there ? Name them.
The Vedang literature has six parts: shiksha, kalpa, vyakarna, nirukta, chhanda jyotisha.
What is the number of the Puranas ? Name the oldest Purana.
There are 18 Puranas. The oldest Purana is Matsya Purana.
What are the chief subjects of the Puranas ?
The chief subjects of the puranas are : Sarg, Pratisarg, manvantar, vansh, vanshanucharit.
Who is considered the writer of the Puranas?
Rishi Lomharsha and his son Ugarashrava are considered the writer of the Puranas.
Name the chinese travellers who travelled in ancient India.
They were : Heiun Tsang, Fi-Hien, Sungyun, and Itsing.
In which script are Ashoka’s inscriptions written ?
Ashoka’s inscriptions are written in Brahmi and Kharoshthi script.
What was the ancient name of the Arabian Sea ?
The ancient name of the Arabian sea was Ratnakar.
What was the ancient name of the Bay of Bengal ?
Ancient name of the Bay of Bengal was Mahodadhi.
In which book is the description of making boats found ?
The description of making boats is found in the book ‘Yukti Kalptaru’ written by king Bhoj.
In how many parts is the stone age divided ?
The stone age is divided into three parts :
- Paleolithic age
- Mesolithic age
- Neolithic age.
When did man start cattle breeding and agriculture ?
Man started cattle breeding and agriculture in the neolithic age.
What is rock-art ?
Handmade geometrical drawings made to decorate are rock dwellings called rock-art or rock graphics.
When and under whom was Indian Archaeological Survey established ?
Indian Archaeological survey was established in 1861 under the direction of Alexander Cunnigham.
Who discovered Mohenjodaro ?
Rakhaldas Banerjee discovered Mohenjodaro. He discovered in 1922.
Which river was the life – line of the people during the vedic age ?
The river Saraswati was the life-line of the people during the vedic age.
Where have the remains of skull been found in the Sindhu-Saraswati Civilization ?
The remains of skull have been found in Kalibangan and Lothal.
Where have the evidences of making beads been found ?
Evidences of factories of making beads have been found in Lothal and Chanhudaro.
Which is the last veda ? Who wrote it ?
The Atharvaveda is the last Veda. It was written by Atharva rishi.
In which book the types of boats are mentioned ?
The types of boats are mentioned in the book ‘Yukti Kalptaru’ by king Bhoj.
How many Mandals and Suktas are there in the Rigveda?
The Rigveda has 10 Mandals and 1028 Suktas.
What was the smallest unit of political life in the Vedic age ?
Kul was the smallest unit of political life in the Vedic age.
Name the four most powerful Mahajanpadas ?
The most powerful Mahajanpadas were–Kosal, Magadh, Vats and Avanti.
Where were the decimal system and zero formula discovered ?
Decimal system and zero formula were discovered in India.
In which Veda are four varnas of people mentioned ?
The four varnas of people the Brahmin, the Khatriya, the Vaishya, the Shudras are mentioned in the Rigveda.
Who is the writer of the book ‘Mudrarakshasha’?
Vishakha Dutt is the writer of Mudrarakshasha
Who has written ‘Panchtantra’?
Vishnu Sharma has written Panchtantra.
Question 33. Who is the writer of ‘Rajtarangini?
Kalhan is the writer of Rajtarangini.
Who has written ‘Maha bhashya’?
Patanjali has written Maha bhashya.
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 1 Short Answer Type Questions
What is History and what are the subjects included in history?
History is the record of the events which took place in the past. It includes the complete past of human beings. All the activities done in the field of science, economics, society, politics, religion and philosophy come under history. The activities which we can certify on the basis of facts, may be treated as a study material of history.
What are the Puranas?
Our Puranas are the historical books of ancient India. They are 18 in number. The main puranas among them are the Markanday Purana, Brahma Purana, Vayu Purana, Vishnu Purana, Bhagwat Purana, and Matsya Purana. Matsya is the oldest of all. Matsya Purana provides the largest part of knowledge about the cultural history of India.
Describe the script of Ashoka’s inscriptions.
The script of Ashoka’s inscriptions is Kharosthi and Brahmi. These are in the form of rock inscriptions, pillar inscriptions, and cave inscriptions. These are the great examples of art. These scripts are carved on high rocks and tall pillars on artistic and beautifully designed pillars.
From these writings, we get a lot of knowledge about the concerned rulers. These are called idol-writings. From such writings, we get knowledge about the important incidents and events which took place during the reign of those rulers.
Coins, Currency and stamps are the important source to know the history of ancient India. Comment on it.
Coins, currency and stamps are significant enough to tell us about the ancient history of India. We get from them the knowledge about names of the rulers, dates, their faces, dynastic traditions, religion, their glorious deeds, daily life, art and their likes and dislikes etc. Samudragupta’s coins carry the imprint of Veena and the lion, which tell us about his love for music and heroic deeds.
Name the western historians and scientists who have expressed their feeling about the superiority of Indian culture and history?
- Historian Mayour has written, “Nothing in the world can equal the glory of natural beauty, its variety and the growth of Indian vegetation.”
- Sir Walter Raleigh has written, “The first man on the.earth was born on Indian soi.”
- Colonel Ulkott opines that, “India is the spring source of human culture.”
- When The French philosopher Voltair was presented a copy of Rigveda, he expressed his feelings, “This offering is so priceless that the Western nations shall always be indebtr to the East.”
Name the 16 Mahajanpadas and their capitals as mention’ed in the Buddhaist scripture Anguttara Nikaya.
|5. Vajji Sangh||Vaishali|
Describe the Ashram system in ancient Indian society.
In the ‘Dharm Sutra‘literature and the Smiriti granthas, we read about the Ashram system. Human life, in an ideal perimeter has been divided into four Ashrams – Brahmcharya Ashram, Grihastha Ashram, Vanprastha Ashram and Sanyas Ashram. It was expected of man that after passing through these four stages, he would attain “moksh”the highest aim of his life. Human service and the ideals of the Ashrams are related to each other.
Explain life under all the four Ashrams.
In the Brahmcharya stage, man gets familiar with religious worships of the creator as he gets education. At the Grihasth stage, he follows the activities related to economy and growth of his family while keeping the principles of religion. At the Vanprastha stage, he devotes all his time to the service of the society, and at the Sanyas stage, he passes his time in prayer to attain ‘moksha’.
Into how many varnas was the society divided ? What was the objective of Varana system and Ashram system?
There were four varanas – the Brahmin, the Kshatriya, the Vaishya and the Shudra. The objective of the varna – system was to make people useful to the society on the basis of their virtues, nature and deeds; while the purpose of the Ashram system was the co-ordination of physical, social, divine and moral values of life.
How many types of debts are described in the Indian culture ?
The Indian sages described three types of debts
- Debt to Parents – By maintaining the continuity of human race through production of progeny, we can clear the debt to parents.
- Debt to Rishis – We can clear the debt to rishis by enriching and developing the knowledge and the traditions which we have inherited from the rishis.
- Debt to gods – Our duties to the gods and goddesses can be cleared by performing the yajna and by prayers and worship to them. These yajnas re – unite man with the original creation. Salvation is possible only when one is free from these three debts.
What are the essential five mahayajnas mentioned in Indian culture ?
These essential five mahayajnas are
- Brahma or rishi yajna – To indulge in self – study and to ponder over the ideas and follow the idea imparted by the rishis.
- Deo yajna – To worship the gods and goddesses by offering them yajna and prayers.
- Parents yajna -To serve the parents and to offer proper regard to the gurus, teachers and the elderly persons.
- Ghost yajna -To satisfy the hunger of cattle viz cows, buffaloes and other animals, birds, cows, dogs ants etc. and to serve the guests.
- Nrip (nrap) yajna – To work for the benefit of all human beings.
Throw light on the condition of women in the ancient times.
In the vedic age, families were dominated by father but sons and daughters had equal social and religious rights. Both had right to upanayan sanskar, education and performing the yajna. In ancient days, the mother and the wife had high prestige in the family and the society. It was mentioned that the gods dwell where the women are worshipped. Ghosha, Apala, Lopamudra and Vishvavara were some of them who performed the great yajnas with great confidence.
How were the stone tools in ancient time ?
The stone tools belonging to Paleolithic age were made by man 20 lakh years ago. They were big and thick in shape and were not well – cut. This age was divided into three periods – lower, middle and upper. During the Mesolithic age, the shape of the stone became smaller. They were called micro – lithic tools. The excavation done in Gujarat, Rajasthan, UP, MP, Orrisa and Kerala tell us that these tools are thousand years old.
Describe the importance of the Jain literature as a source of ancient Indian history,
The Jain literature is a very important source of Indian history. The most important Jain scripture is the Aagam. It includes 11 Angas, 12 Upangas, 10 Prakranas, 6 Cheda Sutras, 1 Nandi sutra, 1 Anuyogadvara and 4 Mula sutras. It was composed in the sixth century BC by various Jain religious groups and individuals. The Jain literature has been written in Prakrit language.
The mang Jain scriptures are The Katha Kosh, Parishist Parvan, Bhadra Bahucharita, Kalp sutra, Bhagvati Sutra etc. in which we can find the historical information. In Bhadra Bahucharita, we get a lot of knowledge about the last days of Chandra Gupta Maurya, besides the life events of Muni Bhadrabahu.
Explain the importance of epitomes and buildings as the archaeological source of history.
The archaeological sources of history include all the remains of on ground and under ground structures like stupas, chaityas, ashramas, mathas, temples, palaces, forts and tombs. From all such remains, we learn about the art, architecture, culture and political life of that period.
From these remains we came to know about the civilization and culture of Harappa and Mohenjodaro. From the remains of Deogarh and the temple inside the village, we learn about the religion and cultural states of the place. From these epitomes, we know the expansion of Indian culture to the South – East Asia.
Why is the Sindhu – Saraswati Civilization called so ?
The origional cities of this civilization were in the whereabouts of the Indus river, so in the beginning, it was called the Indus valley civilization. But according to the latest knowledge, this civilization belongs to the vanished river Saraswati in Punjab, Haryana,
Write a note on agriculture during the epic age.
During the epic age, there were two chief produces
- Vanay, which was a weed,
- Wheat, barley, paddy, úrad, gram, sesame etc.
One – sixth or one – tenth part of the crop had to be given as tax to the government. From the record of the cattle specialists, we come to know that cattle-breeding technique was highly developed during that period.
What is Sangam literature ? What is its importance ?
Ancient Tamil literature is called Sangam literature. This literature provides us very important information about the Chola and Pallava rulers. The forerunner of this literature was rishi Agastha. The Teulgu book Krishnadeorai Vijayam written by Dhurjati provides information about the achievements of Krishnadeo Rai the ruler of Vijaynagar.
Explain the expansion of Sindhu – Saraswati civilization and its major sites.
From the dimensional point of view (area coverage), there are 917 excavation cities of this civilization in India, 481 cities in Pakistan and 02 in Afghanistan. It spreads over 1600 km from the West to the East, 1400 km from the North to the South.
It extends to Afghanistan (Shotarg, Mundigak),Baluchistan (Sutkagaindoor, Sutkakhoh, Balakot), Sindh (Mohenjodaro), Choohardari Kotdiji, Judirajodara, Punjab (Pakistan), Harappa, Ganeriwal, Rehman Dheri, Sarai Khola, Jalilpur, East Punjab, Ropar, Saghol, Haryana (Banawali, Meelathal, Rakhigarhi), Rajasthan (Kalibangan), Peelibangan, Uttar Pradesh (Alamgirpur, Hulas), Gujarat (Rangpur, Dholaveera, Prabhas Ballan), Bay of Khambat and Maharashtra (Daimabad), which were the major cities of Sindhu – Saraswati civilization.
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 1 Long Answer Type Questions (Essay Type Questions)
Name the Himalayan mountain region of the North of India. Or Describe Bharatvarsha as mentioned in Vishnu Purana.
According to Vishnu Purana, the country lying to the North of Indian Ocean and to the South of the Tundras is called Bharatvarsha. The biggest part of the country spreads within the tropical climatic region.
To the North, there is the Himalayan reigon which includes Balakh, Badkhaķa, Jammu and Kashmir, Kanga, Tehri, Garhwal, Kumaun, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and the mountain peaks of Assam and the Himalayan range.
To the west, there is the mountain range of the Hindukush, the white mountain, Turkman and Kirthar mountain ranges extending from the North to the South which separate it from the Western land.
Describe the role of literary sources to get the knowledge of ancient Indian history.
The historians use various means to know the past human activities. These means are called sources, evidences and proofs. Historians use the following literary sources to get the knowledge of ancient Indian history
(a) Religious literature Brahmin literature Buddhist literaure and Jain literature.
(b) Literature besides religion Historical books Buddhist literature Pure literary books Jain literature Regional literature Foreigners narratives
(c) Dynastie’s narratives
(a) Religious literature – The literature related to religion is called the religious literature such as Brahmin literature, Buddhist literaure and Jain literature.
Brahmin literature – This describes different types of yajnas and the rules pertaining to them.
Buddhist literature – Buddhist literature has played an imporant role in the formation of ancient history of India.
The oldest scripture are the Tripitaks – Sutta pitak, Abhidhamma pitak and Vinay pitak. They contain the principles and conduct of Buddhism. The other important contribution of the Buddhisth literature are the Jatak Granthas.
Jain literature – The most important Jain scripture is Aagam. It includes 11 Angas, 12 Upangas, 10 Prakrana, 6 Cheda sutras, 1 Nandi sutra, 1 Anuyogadvara, and 4 Mula sutras. It was composed in the sixth century BC by various Jain religious groups and individuals.
(b) Non religious literature – This covers the literature written on subjects other than the religion. It includes subjects as history, semi – history, purely literary books, plays, stories, and poetry.
Historical books – Some of the important history books which provide us knowledge about ancient India are—Kalhan’s Rajataragini, Chanakya’s (Kautilya) Arthshastra, Banabhatta’s Harshcharita, Vakpati’s Gaudvaho etc.
Pure literary books – Panini’s Ashtadhyayai, Patanjali’s Mahabhashya, Kalidas Malvikagnimitra, Vishakha dutt’s Mudrarakshasha, Shudrak’s Mrichhkatikam etc. are very important from historical point of view.
Regional literature – Regarding the books of regional languages, there is plentiful material in history. It includes Sangam literature (Tamil literature), The Telugu book Krishnadeorai Vijyayam written by Dhurjati.
In Rajasthani language there are – Prithviraj Raso by Chand Bardai, Kanhude Prabandh by Padamnam, Rao Jatriro Chhand by Meethu Sooja, Vansh Bhaskar by Suryamal etc.
Foreigners Narrative Literature based on foreigners, opinion about IndiaChief among the Greek writters are – Tessius, Nerodotus, Niryakus, Aristobulus, Aryna, Skuylax etc. The most important book is INDICA written by Magasthenes. Among the Chinese travellers are – Heiun – Tsang, I – Tsing, Fa – hien etc. Among the Tibetans’ description of India, the two books –
- Kangyur, and
- Tengyur are regarded as the most useful books.
(c) Dynasties’s narratives – In the ancient history of India and in our holy Puranas, Vanshawalis have played an important role in writing the history of that period. We find the records of many historical events in such Vanshawalis.
What do you understand by ‘Purusharthas’ ? Explain.
‘Purushartha means the ideals to be followed by man. These ideals have been classified into four parts
(1) Dharma (Conduct and character) – Dharma includes conduct, duties and requirement of virtues.
(2) Artha (Wealth) – (Wordly properties and other possessions)Wealth which man needs in enjoying the physical and material needs of life.
(3) Kama (Enjoyment of facilities) – The word Kama means re – production of progeny and the consumption of money in enjoying the material and physical things which are provided to man for consumption and as enjoyment.
(4) Moksha (Freedom from the cycle of life and death) – Moksha means to be free from the wordly life. The first three purusharthas are connected with the wordly life of man and the fourth purusharth is related to divinity. In Indian culture, the philosophy of life is related to the whole life. The complete view of life includes all the departments of world life and the life hereafter or divinity.
What is ‘Stone Age’ ? Into how many parts it can be divided ?
Tools of the pre – historic human beings were made of stone. So we call these human beings as stone – age – man. The time when stone tools and instruments were used is 19 known as ‘Stone Age’. The stone age can be divided into three parts on the basis of the excavated stone Tools.
1. Paleolithic Age – The stone Tools belonging to Paleolithic age were made by man two million years’ ago. They were big and thick in shape and were not well – cut. This age has been divided into three periods
(2) Mesolithic Age – During the Mesolithic Age, the shape of the stone became smaller, they were called micro-lithic tools. The excavations done in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orrisa and Kerala tell us that those tools are twelve thousand years old.
The man belonging to this age had learnt hunting and storing of food for future and started cattle rearing. Man started living in round huts made of straw and dried grass on the banks of the rivers and the lakes. He began to use clay – pots and had started baking and cooking food.
3. Neolithic Age – The man of Neolithic age started cattle-rearing and agriculture. In this age, man began to make tools which were found useful in agriculture and cattle rearing. the axe, basolla, boring wheel, the hammer, silloces, okhali etc. were the main instruments of this age.
These tools were made of hard stone like basalt which were smoothened by grinding. Agriculture forced man to settle at one place. Side by side with this, a new age of economic and cultural development came into existance.
Explain the chief features of political system in the Vedic Age.
In the Vedic Age, well organised political system came into practice. Family was the smallest unit of this political system. Nation was the biggest unit of this system. Rashtra (nation)Jan – Vish – gram (village) and kul (family) were the organisations of the political system in descending order. There were many jans in one nation.
The head of the ‘kuľ was called Kulup and the head of village was called gramine. The official of the vish was called Vishpati. The head of Jan was called Gop. The country / state was called Rashtra and the king was its head. The office of the king was dynastic. There are records in the Rigveda that on some occasions, the king was elected from the loyal family.
We see Public welfare state in those days. The king while ascending the throne, had to take oath of the people’s cause. The people paid taxes to the king and the taxes were called Baliharat. In the Rigveda, we find the mention of Panchjana at many places. There used to be five jans. They were-Anu, Yasstu, Turvas, Puru and Duhe.
Describe the main features of Sindhu – Saraswati civilization.
Sindhu – Saraswati civilization was the oldest civilization of the world. This civilization and culture was pure Indian. On the basis of the remains found in the excavation, its features can be mentioned as follows
1. Planning of the Cities – The cities of this civilization were well – organised and were solidly built out of baked bricks and stone. Their drainage systems, wells and water storage system were the most sophisticated in the ancient world.
The main streets and roads were broad and were set in a line, sometimes running straight for a mile and were varying in width form 4 meters to 10 meters. The main streets intersected at right angles, dividing the city into squares or rectangular blocks each of which was divided lengthwise and cross – wise by lanes. The
houses had a well, a bathroom, and a covered drain connected to the big drain in the street. The buildings were made of baked bricks. One of the largest buildings in Mohanjodaro was the Great Bath measuring 180 feet by 108 feet. Another large building in Harappa was the great granary which was made about 45 meters long and 15 metres wide. It was meant to store foodgrains.
2. Social Life – There were rulers (ruling class), important authorities, common people (general class), labour class, and farming class in the society. Family was the smallest unit of the society. The remains of clay – idols of mother goddess have been found which indicate that the importance of women in the society, and the evidences of mother dominated families have been found. Both men and women wore ornaments made of gold, silver, copper and other metals.
3. Religious life -The people of this civilization were religious. They worshipped mother goddess and lord Shiva. Besides this they worshipped trees and animals including mythical animals too.
4. Economic life – Agriculture was the main occupation of the people of this civilization. Crops such as wheat, barley, peas, rice, pulses, sesame, millet etc. were produced. Evidences of ploughed fields have been found in Kalibanga. These people had trading relations with many countries in the west – Asia.
They used sea – routes for trade with other countries. These people were involved in industries also. Industries like making from metal and clay, jewellery making, tools / instruments making etc. were in developed condition. They used 16 and its multiples : 64, 160 and 320, in measurement and weight.
5. Political life – No clear information of the political system of this civilization is available. From the administrative point of view, there must have been four major centres – Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Lothal and Kalibangan.
Evidences of well planned cities, cleanliness, water conservation etc. show the skilled, controlled and good administration. Non-availability of weapons and armoury in a large number indicates that the life of the peple was peaceful.
6. Script – The people of this civilization also developed script. The script was pictorial or graphic. In this script, they used signs.
7. Art – The people of this civilization were very advanced in the field of art. The pots and stamps found in excavation are the proof of their drawings. Jewellery making, idol making, pots making, stamp making etc. reveal their love for art.
What were the features of planning of cities in Sindhu-Saraswati civilization ? Explain.
The most important and wonderful feature of this civilization was its planning of cities. The archaeologists are astonished to see the planning of cities of this civilization. The main features are as follows:
1. Well planned roads and streets – The main streets and roads are broad and were set in a line, sometimes running straight for a mile and were varying in width with from 4 metres to 10 metres. The main streets intersected at right angles, dividing the city into squares or rectangular blocks each of which was divided lengthwise and cross – wise by lanes.
2. Well planned drainage system – The drainage system of this civilization was very well planned. The houses had a covered drain connected to the big drain in the street. Through the drainage systems dirty water was drained out of the city.
Big drains were covered with slabs. The street drains had manholes at regular gaps so that they could be cleaned. This far advanced drainage system shows that those people were aware of health and sanitation..
3. Houses – In this civilization, houses were also constructed in a planned manner. The houses were of different sizes varying from a palatial building to one with two small rooms. The houses had a well, a bathroom, and a covered drain connected to the big drain in the street.
The buildings were made of baked bricks. The special feature of the houses was that rooms were built around an open courtyard. Toilets, doors and windows etc. were properly built.
4. Great Bath – This is one of the largest buildings in Mohenjodaro measuring 180 feet by 108 feet. The bathing pool is 39 feet long, 28 feet wide and 8 feet deep. It was in the centre of the quadrangle, surrounded with varandahs, rooms and galleries. A flight of steps led to the pool. It had side entrances.
5. Great Granary – Another large building in the city was the Great Granary. This was made about 45 metre long and 15 metre wide. It was meant to store foodgrains. The granary also had smaller halls and corridors
6. Huge water reservoir and stadium – From the excavation of Dholaveera, 16 big and small water reserviors have been found. It proves that those people had knowledge of water conservation. Remains of a huge stadium have also been found.
All the above mentioned features show that the people of Sindhu – Saraswati civilization led a systematic life. They had all the necessary facilities.
Describe the main cities of Sindhu – Saraswati civilization.
The civilization spreads over 1600 km from the west to east, and 1400 km from the North to South. It main cities were as follows
1. Mohenjodaro – Mohanjodaro is the oldest planned city of the world. This is located west of the Indus river in Larkana District, Sindh, Pakistan, in a central position between the Indus river and the Ghaggar-Hakra river. Remains of the Great Bath have been found here which is an important feature of the planned city. In 1922 archaeologist Mr. Rakhal Das Banerjee found the city.
2. Harappa – Harappa is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about 24 km west of Sahiwal. Archaeologist Mr. Dayaram Sahni found it in 1921. Roads in the city were broad. Houses were made of baked bricks. The city was developed in a planned way. Due to the name of the city ‘Harappa’, Sindhu-Saraswati civilization is also called Harappa civilization or Harappa culture.
3. Lothal – Lothal is one of the most important cities of the ancient Sindhu – Saraswati civilization. According to the archaeologists, Lothal was a main port at the western coast of India. Evidences of surgery, metal industry, beads industry, stamp making etc. have been found here.
4. Chanhudaro – Chanhudaro is an archaeological site located 130 km south of Mohenjodaro in Sindh in Pakistan. This was the main centre for arts and crafts stamps and weights were made here and sent to the big cities.
5. Kalibangan – This is the one of the most important sites of Sindhu-Saraswati civilization. It is located in Hanumangarh District of Rajasthan. Evidences of the planned city have been found here also. Evidences of ploughed fields have been found here. The roads were 1.8, 3:6, 5:4, and 7.2 meter wide. The roads were made of proportionate bricks.
The people were religious. The remains of agnikund and agnivedi have been found here which show that they performed yajna stamps and yoga. Other centres / places Besides the above mentioned sites, other important sites are Dholeevara, Banawali in Haryana, Surkotada etc.
Explain the religious life of the people of Sindhu-Saraswati civilization.
About Sindhu – Saraswati civilization, it is difficult to name the religion with certainity. It’s because, no evidences of any temple or any other apparent religious thing has been found in the excavation of Harappa and Mohenjodaro. With the help of the remains (stamps, idols, agnivedikas), the archaeologists have assumed the following things
1. Worship of Mother Goddess The people of the Sindhu valley worshipped Mother Goddess. At several places in Harappa, the idols of Mother Goddess have been found. Their life was deeply influenced by Mother Goddess. She is the source of all creation or Shakti.
2. Worship of Pashupati or Lord Shiva – The Pashupati stamp shows the three faced male god seated in a Yogic posture. He is surrounded by a rhino and a buffalo on the right, and an elephant and a tiger on the left. According to the archaeologists, it all these indicate that the people of this civilization worshipped lord Shiva who is the lord of the beast (Pashupati) and the male principle of creation.
3. Worship of trees – The people of Sindhu Valley worshipped trees also. The worship of trees was widespread. The Pipal tree was considered the most sacred. One of the stamps shows a god standing between the branches of a pipal tree, and being worshipped by a devotee on his knees.
4. Worship of Animals – Those people also worshipped animals such as bull, buffalo and tiger. The worship of mythical animals is evident from the existence of a human figure with a bull’s horns, hoofs and a tail.
5. Worship of nature – Besides animals, those people worshipped nature too. They worshipped the sun, the fire and the water etc.
Explain the development of astronomy, astrology, physics and chemistry in ancient India.
Ancient India was very developed in the field of astronomy, astrology, physics and chemistry. In support of it, we can present the following facts : Astronomy and astrology -The Indian astronomers, by their observation, gained knowledge of the stars and planets in the space.
From the Indian Panchang (Calendar) system, it appears that the shape of the earth and its movement, the solar eclipse, the lunar eclipse, the planets, and the sub-planets, twenty seven nebulac etc. were all known as accurately as it is today.
When the world did not know about the shape of the earth, Aryabhatta formulated the theory of the earth’s motion. The mention about the motion of the stars and the planets was available in the Brahmin scriptures. According to the old astronomers, the movement of the moon round the earth and the motion of the earth on its supposed axis, twelve sun – signs, and 27 constellations, 30 days lunar month, 12 months’ year, Purushottam month (leap year) etc.
were introduced and are followed even today. Physics and chemistry – Kanad rishi was the writer of Vaisheshik Darshana’. He postulated the theory of matter and its constituent elements on the basis of atoms. He propounded the concept of molecules and their composition. This ancient Indian rishi and a scholar gave out the idea of matter, power, motion and velocity to the knowledge of physics.
During the 14th century, the principles of physics presented in Europe find their mention in the book ‘Padarth Dharm Sangrah’ written by Prashastapad and in the book Vayom Vati’ written by Vayom Shivacharya during the 5th century. In ancient India, scholars knew about the alloy (chemical mixture). Its best example is the iron-pillar at Mehrauli, which has not got rusted even till today.
Describe the Greek literature, the Tibetans description and the Chinese narrative, as a reliable source of history.
The description of the Greek literature, the Tibetans description and the Chinese narrative is as follows
The Greek Literature – Chief among the Greek writers are – Tessuis, Nerodotus, Niryakus, Aristobulus, Aryan, Skylax etc. The most important book is ‘INDICA’ written by Magasthenes, the Greek ambassador in the court of Chandragupta.
We get a vivid knowledge about the administration of Chandragupta Maurya, about the society and economic condition, from this Greek narrative. In the Greek literature geography of ptolemy, ‘Natural History by Pilnida Elder, ‘History of the War’ by Astrobulus, Geography by Shebou etc. are worth recording. In the book “Periplus of the Erytheraean Sea’, we find plentiful information about the ports and the trade by sea.
The Tibetans Description – Among the Tibetans description of India, the two books,
- Tengyur, are regarded as the most useful books. The Arabian travellers and geography scholars have given a lot of information about India. Masoodi in his famous book ‘Midas of Gold’, has given a lot of knowledge about India.
He had written that India had its kingdom both on land and sea. Among the Arabian writers, Albaruni’s book Tareekh – e – Hind’ is the most useful. He learnt sanskrit language and after studying the original books, he wrote about India in this famous book. In this book, he has written about the Indian society and culture.
The Chinese Narrative – Among the chinese travellers, the narratives by Fa – Hien, Heiun – Tsang, I – Tsing, and Sung – Yun are important. Fa – Hien came to India during the reign of Chandragupta II (399-414). Heiun -Tsang is known as the prince among chinese travellers. He was educated in the university of Nalanda.
He came to India during the reign of Harshvardhana (629 – 644). In his book, “Tsuyuki” he has described the contemporary history of India. I – Tsing travelled India from 672 to 688. From the description of his travels, we know a lot about the Nalanda university and the Vikramshila university of India.
Besides this, his descriptions tell us a lot about Indian society and its culture. Hence the Greek literature, the Chinese narrative and the Tibetans’ descriptions are very important and reliable source of history.