Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 3 Foreign Invasions and Assimilation
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 3 Textual Questions
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 3 Multiple Choice Questions
Ancient historian Kalhan’s famous book is
(b) Surya – Alankara
Maharishi Charak, the composer of ‘Charak Samita’, extended the grace of which royal court ?
(a) Kanishka .
One of the famous Shaka rulers was:
Tripitak is related to:
Junagarh inscription gives information about:
(a) Chinese rulers
(b) Greek rulers
(c) Shaka rulers
(d) Kushan rulers
During whose period did Buddhist religion get divided ?
Which was the venue of fourth meeting council (Sangithi) of Buddhist religion ?
(b) Kundalvan (Kashmir)
With which one of the following did the Hunas clash many times ?
1. (c) 2. (a) 3.(b) 4. (a) 5.(c) 6.(d) 7.(b) 8. (c).
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 3 Very Short Answer Type Questions
What is the name of Megasthenese’s book ?
The name of Megasthenese’s book is ‘Indica’.
Who was the founder of zero ?
The founder of zero was famous scientist Nagarjuna who belonged to king Kanishka’s court.
Which place Alexander belong to ?
Alexander belonged to Macedonia.
With whom did Hindu king Porus fight?
Hindu king Porus fought with Alexander.
Whom is Milindpanha book devoted to ?
Milindpanha book is devoted to the Indo – Greek king Menander.
Which sculpture style was developed by the combination of Indo – Greek?
Gandhar sculpture style was developed by the combination of Indo – Greek.
Which Chinese caste defeated Shakas ?
U – chi caste of China defeated Shakas.
Which rank was used by this era rulers to show might and courage ?
Title Vikramaditya’ was used by the rulers of this era to show might and courage.
What was the name of the ruler who built ‘Sudarshan lake’?
“Sudarshan lake’ was built by Pushyagupta, the governor of Saurashtra Province of Chandragupta Maurya.
Which ruler encouraged Sanskrit language ?
Shaka ruler Rudradaman I encouraged Sanskrit language.
Who was the founder of Kushan dynasty ?
The founder of Kushan dynasty as Kujula Kadphises.
Which ruler ruled over the Ocksus river to the Ganga river and Middle Asia’s Kurasaan to Uttar Pradesh’s Varanasi ?
Kushan dynasty’s great ruler Kanishka ruled over the Ocksus river to Ganga river and Middle Asia’s Kurasaan to Uttar Pradesh’s Varanasi.
Into which two parts was the Buddhist religion divided ?
Buddhist religion was divided into two parts: Hinyana and Mahayana.
Which assembly did the famous Buddha scholar Vasumitra supervised ?
Scholar Vasumitra supervised the fourth Buddhist council in Kashmir at Kundalvan.
By which name was the route from China to Rome was known?
It was known by the name of “Silk route’.
Which scholar is known as “Indian Einstein’?
Famous philosopher and scientist Nagarjuna who belonged to the court of king Kanishka, is known as ‘Indian Einstein’.
Which harbour was related to in the south ?
Pataliputra was related to Tamralipti harbour in the South.
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 3 Short Answer Type Questions
Name the Indian rulers who fought with the Huna ruler Tormaan.
Indian rulers Yashovarman and Balditya fought with the Huna ruler Tormaan. The Hunas were defeated by Yashovarman but they didn’t go back to their native place Central Asia. Rather they followed Hindu religion and culture. They became a part of it and got merged into it.
Write the name of foreign invaders (dynasties) in a sequence.
With the decline of Mauryan empire, on the one hand Indian dynasties started to fight for their independent rule, on the other hand foreign dynasties invaded India constantly. During the late Mauryan period, the foreign invaders who invaded India from its North – West borderer. were the Greeks, the Shakas, the Hunas and the Kushanas.
Give brief description of the sources of information about foreign invasions.
The contemporary texts give us information about foreign invasions. These sources areCharaka Samhita, Chinese history texts, description by Chinese traveller Hiuen – Tsang description by Tibten historian Tiranath, Buddhist literature Tripitakas, Milindapanha etc. Currency (coins) of Kaushambi give us the right indication information.
Write the names of the books composed by the great poet Ashvaghosha.
Ashvaghosha was the court poet of king Kanishka, of the Kushan dynasty. He wrote Buddha-Charita, Suandarananda, Sariputra Prakarana, and Sutralankar.
Write in your words about the political condition of India during Greek invasion.
During Greek invasion, the North – West India was divided into several small kingdoms. There were 25 kingdoms in the North – West India during that time. These were Gandhar, Jhelum, Chenab, Peshawar, Taxila, western part of the river Ravi and Beas etc.
Some of these kingdoms were republic and some had monarchy system. The rulers who belonged to monarchy system opposed the republicans. They fought with one another. In such political condition, Alexander arrived in India in 327 BCE.
King Porus’ opposition was full of extraordinary valour. Make it clear.
Alexander, under his conquest campaign, decided to establish his control over Porav state. He sent an invitation to Porus (Puru), the king of Porav state, to surrender and accept his supremacy. But instead of surrendering before Alexender, Poros challenged him for battle. He bravely fought for his motherland. But due to favourable conditions, Alexander won the battle.
Alexander asked Porus, “What to another do with you ? How to behave with you ?” Porus, replied bravely, “Just like a king behaves with another king.” Seeing his valour and hearing these word, Alexander became happy and freed him and returned his kingdom to him. This shows Porus’ extraordinary valour.
After Alexander’s death, which Greek ruler started second round of invasions and what was its result?
After Alexander’s death in 323 BC, a struggle among his commanders took place for becoming the heir of Alexander. Then Antiochus III, as a heir of Selucus Nicater, the commander-in-chief of Alexander, started second round of invasions. He defeated Hindukush king Subhagsen and describe started Bactrian Greek rule in India.
Describe king Menandar in your own words.
Menander was the most prominent Indo – Greek king. He was born in Kalsi village at Sakal, 200 km away from Alasand island. According to Greek writers, He was more successful than Alexander. He won more countries than Alexander. According to Milindapanha, Menandar became the follower of Buddhism. He was a very strict follower of Buddhism as it is mentioned in Divyavadan.
It is also elucidated in Milindapanha that he lived for 500 years after parinirvana. Large number of Menander’s coins have been unearthed. His conversation with the Buddhist sage Nagasena is recorded in the important Buddhist work, the Milindapanha. He is one of the few Bactrian kings mentioned by Greek authors, among them Apollodorus of Artemita, quoted by Strabo.
Strabclaims that the Greek’s from Bactria were given greater conquerors than Alexander the great. Menander was a just ruler. His reign was long and successful. Generous findings of his coins testify to the prosperity and extension of his empire. He is described as constantly accompanied by a guard of 500 Greek (yonaka) soldiers. Two of his councellors are named Demetrius and Antiocus.
Explain the salient features of the Greek currency (coins).
Rule of Indian Bactrian rulers affected Indian currency very much. The effect was very important. Earlier coins of India were made of silver. They were less effective in comparison to the Greek coins. It was so because on Indian coins, neither names of rulers nor date was mentioned. Greek coins had names, rank and date etc. inscribed on them. Those coins were more comprehensive than Indian currency. Indo – Greek rulers used Indian currency techniques in issuing their currency.
Shaka ruler Rudradaman – I will be remembered for public welfare.’ Explain in favour of this statement.
The descendant of Shaka ruler Jaidaman’s son Rudradaman I (130-150 BC) was a prominent ruler of Ujjain. Information about Rudradaman can be obtained from the Junagarh inscription. The aspect of his personality which is described in detail in this inscription, is his public welfare activities.
His feelings of public welfare are highlighted most in it. Despite his ministers’ opposition, he spent a huge amount on renovation of Sudarshan lake from his personal fund. He never imposed any extra tax on his public. He practised high values. He was a liberal king. He made his public free from the fear of robbers, beasts etc. All his subjects were attached to him due to his concern for his public.
Hence king Rudradaman – I will always be remembered for his public welfare.
Credit for upliftment of Buddhism goes most to the Kushan ruler Kanishka, after Ashoka. Explain.
After Ashoka, credit for upliftment of Buddhism goes most to the Kushan ruler Kanishka because-
- In Buddha literature, Kanishka is described as second Ashoka because due to his efforts, Buddhism flourished far and wide.
- He patronized Buddhism and built stupas and Viharas in Kanishkapur, Mathura and Taxila.
- For propagation of Buddhism, he sent monks to Central Asia, China, Tibet, Japan etc.
- He organised fourth Buddhist council which proves that Kanishka was a follower of Buddhism and he made efforts for propagation of Mahayana branch of Buddhism.
- Kanishka declared Mahayana as ‘Rajdharma’ and nurtured this branch in Central Asia very much.
Which scholars, writers and philosophers did the Kushan ruler Kanishka patronise ?
Kanishka was one of the greatest rulers of ancient India. He was a great warrior, and patron of artists and scholars. Like Vikramaditya, his court was graced by great scholars. Different genres of literature developed a lot in his period. There were great scholars like Ashwaghosha who wrote Buddhacharita in Sanskrit.
During this period, along with Sanskrit, many important texts were written in Pali and Prakrit languages too. Propounder of relativity and zeroism, Nagarjuna was one of the great poets during his reign. Nagurjuna was a great philosopher and scientist also.
Which period can be called the period of progress of foreign trade ? and Why?
Kushan period can be called the period of progress of foreign trade because during this period, land route and river routes increased domestic (internal) trade and sea route developed its foreign trade. Land route was from Pataliputra to Burma and Srilanka while sea route was from central Asia to Western Asia. The Kushanas took control over silk route, which reached upon Roman empire.
Indian traders bought silk from China and sold it to Romans. From India, elephant tusks, black pepper, clove, spices, aromatic things, medicines, jute, silk clothes were exported to Rome in large quantity. The main centre of this trade was kerela. Including China and Rome, Burma, Java, Sumatra, Champa and South-Eastern Asia were also linked with India for trade.
Gandhara art was a new form (style) of Indian sculpture. Explain its salient features.
“Gandhara Art is also known as Greco – Roman, Greco – Buddist, Indo – Greek etc. Indians developed this form (style) of art. It was developed in Gandhar area of India, so it is called Gandhar style of art. Indian craftsmen came in contact with Asian, Greek, and Roman craftsmen as a result of which this style (form) originated.
In this style (form) Buddha’s statues were made in combination of Greek and Roman style. The salient features of this style are as follows:
- In Gandhara style, Buddha’s statues were made in Greek style which look like Greek god Apollo.
- Its subject – matter is Indian, while the craftsmanship was Greek.
- Most of the statues made in this style had Greek style make – up and jewellery. They were made of brown and grey stones, later on lime and plaster was used for making these statues.
- In this style, efforts were made to give real look of Buddha to these statues i.e., curly hair, long moustache, clothes etc.
- This is a great contribution of the era of Kushan king Kanishka.
Explain the military campaigns of king Kanishka.
King Kanishka was a prominent and liberal king among Kushan kings. He became king in 78 BC. His military campaigns (achievements) are as follows:
- Parthiya – Kanishka defeated Parthian king and made Parthiya a part of his kingdom.
- Pataliputra – Kanishka defeated the king of pataliputra and ended the rule of Satavanahas from Magadha.
- Kashmir – According to Rajatarangini, Kanishka was the king of Kashmir. He arranged the fourth Buddhist council in Kashmir.
- Ujjain – Kanishka got victory over Ujjain.
- Middle Asia-Kanishka launched his military campaign in Middle Asia in about 90 BC.
- China – According to Hieu-Tsang’s description , Kanishka sent his powerful army to China and extended his empire in China also.
- Peshawar – Kanishka won Peshawar and made it his capital.
Explain the effect of Greek invasion.
The Greek rulers had good cultural relations with India. The Greek civilization affected Indian currency, sculpture, commerce and trade very much. The Greek rulers followed some of the religious concepts and ideals as of India.
A large number of Greek people adopted Indian religions. Ultimately the Greek features mingled with Indian features and got merged into the mainstream of Indian society and culture.
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 3 Long Answer Type Questions
Explain the statement, assimilation or merger of the foreigners into the stream of Indian society ?
Period from decline of the Maurya empire to the rise of the Gupta empire is called the later Mauryan period. During this period, no big empire could establish itself but this period is important from historical point of view because during this period cultural relations developed between India and Central Asia and foreigners assimilated themselves into Indian culture.
During the later Mauryan period, no dypasty had its control all over India. Several regional and local dynasties / empires ruled over different parts of India.
The rulers who ruled India during this era were -Foreign rulers, and Indian rulers. This was the period when on the one hand Mauryans’ centralized empire was disintegrating (declining) and foreign dynasties were invading India regularly. On the other hand several Indian dynasties were struggling for their survival.
During this period, foreigners like Greek, Shakas, Hunas and Kuşhanas entered into India from its North – West side. With the passage of time these foreigners became a part of India, their cultures assimilated into Indian culture and got merged into the mainstream. Due to this cultural exchange between foreigners and Indians, the foreigners adopted Indian customs and traditions, their cultures and religions became a part of Indian culture, and they ultimately became Indian. ·
Explain the salient features of the period of Kanishka, evaluating him as a great Kushan king.
Kanishka was the greatest ruler of the Kushan dynasty. During his reign, the Kushan power reached its peak. He was a great winner, efficieint administrator and a lover of art. When he came to the power, he had just a small kingdom. But due to his valour, he extended his empire.
He was not only a great warrior and a skilled administrator but also a patron of art and literature. He propagated and nurtured Buddhism. He himself was a Buddhist but he respected other religions too and followed the policy of religious tolerance. The salient features of his reign are as follows:
- Kanishka’s administration was based on Kshatrap (or Satrap) system like that of Shakas. Every province was governed by a Kshatrap.
- Dandnayak and Mahadandnayak ranks were the important parts of Kushan administration.
- Kaniska established Kanishkapur, Purushpur, Sirmukh, Aradi nagar etc. and got many stupas and viharas constructed.
- He patronized Mahayana Buddhism and sent the monks to Central Asia, China, Tibet and Japan for propagation of Buddhism.
- He organised the fourth Buddhist council in Kashmir at Kundalvan. The council was presided over by Vasumitra. In this council, Buddhism was divided into two branches Hinayana and Mahayana.
- During his reign, domestic and foreign trade made excellent progress.
- During his reign, India traded with Greek, China, Burma, Java, Sumatra Champa etc. South – East Asian countries too were India’s trade partners.
- He issued large number of gold coins.Due to currency and trade, several cities of India developed.
- During his rule, art, literature and science made great progress.
- During his reign, three important sculpture styles developed – Mathura, Amravati and Gandhar.
- New theories were discovered in astrology.
- He started a new Samvat in 78 BC which is called Shak Samvat.
Hence Kanishka was a great king. During his rule, progress was made in all fields – art, literature, science, technology, religion etc.
Explain the achievements of Indo-Greek ruler Menander.
Menander was the most prominent Indo – Greek ruler. He was born in Kalsi village at Sakal 200 km away from Alasand island. His achievements are as follows:
- According to Greek writers, he conquered more countries than Alexander the great. He was a great conqueror.
- His coins indicate that he was the ruler of several kingdoms including western districts of Uttar Pradesh and Kathiyawad.
- Kharoshthi records indicate his control over Peshawar Pradesh and Upper Kabul Valley.
- According to Milindpanha, Menander followed Buddhism.
- Menander’s capital Sakala was the shelter place of Buddhist monks tortured by Pushyamitra Shunga.
- He was a just and loving ruler. Foreign descriptions testify this fact.
- He was a renowned philosopher too.
Describe the society, religion, trade and commerce during the Kushan period.
Society – In Kushan society, women were free and independent. They had separate rooms. Men tied turban on their heads. They loved dancing and singing. People believed in witches and magic. In this era religion, literature, sculpture etc. developed.
Religion – In Kushan era, kinship system was prevalent. The Kushan rulers compared themselves with deities. They followed the title of ‘Devaputra’. During this period, a king was considered like a deity. For social acceptance, this religions validity was essential.
Trade and Commerce From the point of view of trade and commerce, India became a prosperous country during the Kushan period. Land and river routes developed its domestic (internal) trade while sea routes developed its foreign trade. Kushan took control over ‘silk route’ from China to Greek via Central Asia.
Indian traders bought silk from China and sent it to the traders of Roman empire, it earned them huge profit. India exported ivory goods, spices, medicines, cotton clothes, silk clothes, aromatic goods etc. in large quantity to Rome. Apart from China and Rome, India had trade relations with Burma, Java, Sumatra, Champa, SouthEast Asian countries.
Shaka king Rudradaman was a great ruler. Explain.
The descendant of Shaka ruler Jaidaman’s son Rudradaman – I (130 -150 BC) was a prominent ruler of Ujjain. Information about Rudradaman cna be obtained from the Junagarh inscription. In Junagarh inscription, he is highlighted as a public welfare figure. It provides maximum details about Rudradaman’s public welfare activities. We got the following details about him.
- Despite his ministers’ opposition, he spent a huge amount for renovation of Sudarshan lake, from his personal fund.
- He never imposed any extra or unnecessary tax on his public.
- He practised high values.
- He was a liberal king.
- He made his public free from the fear of robbers, diseases, wild animals etc.
- He was such a king who vowed not to kill anybody except in case of battle.
- He was an efficient leader and a skilled warrior.
- He followed the title of ‘Mahakshatrap’.
- He was a great scholar too.
- His public had deep attachment towards him due to his deep concern for his public.
Hence, all the above mentioned points make it clear that Shaka king Rudradaman was a great ruler.
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 3 Other Important Questions
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 3 Multiple Choice Questions
Who was the last ruler of Maurya dynasty ?
(a) Pushyamitra Shunga
(c) Chandragupta Maurya
(d) None of these.
Which can not be categorized as foreign ruler ?
Who is the author of Harshcharita ?
(a) Hieun – Tsang
When did Alexander come to India ?
(a) 315 BC
(b) 327 BC
(c) 298 BC
(d) 302 BC
Who was the ruler of Taxila at the time of Alexander’s invasion ?
When did Alexander die ?
(a) 320 BC
(b) 323 BC
(c) 330 BC
(d) 332 BC
Greek rulers who were known as Indo – Greek, belonged to which branch ?
In which language is Milindapanha written ?
Which place did the Shakas originally belong to?
(c) Central Asia
Who was the most reknowned among the Shaka rulers of Ujjain
(a) Chandragupta Vikramaditya
Which was the capital of Shaka branch that ruled in Deccan ?
Name the second foreigners, who came to India after the Greeks, from central Asia ?
(d) None of these
Who followed the title of ‘Mahakshatrap’?
(a) Pushyamitra Shunga
(b) Rudradaman – I
In which inscription are the details of achievements of Shaka ruler Rudradaman mentioned ?
(b) Mehrauli pillar inscription
(c) Junagarh inscription
(d) All of these
When was Vikram Samvat started ?
(a) 56 BC
(b) 50 BC
(c) 57 BC
(d) 52 BC
Which language was encouraged by Shaka ruler Rudradaman?
Who was the Vice – president of the fourth Buddhist council ?
(d) None of these.
1.(b) 2.(d) 3. (c) 4. (b) 5. (b) 6. (b) 7. (b) 8. (b) 9.(c)
10.(c) 11.(d) 12. (b) 13. (b) 14.(c) 15.(c) 16. (b) 17.(a).
Match Column A with Column B (i) Column A
(i) 1. (b) 2.(c) 3.(d) 4. (e) 5. (a)
(ii) 1. (b) 2. (c) 3. (e) 4. (a) 5. (c)
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 3 Very Short Answer Type Questions
Who ended the Mauryan empire and when ?
In 185 BC, Pushyamitra Shunga killed Brihadratha, the last ruler of Mauryan empire and ended the Mauryan empire.
Which foreign dynasties ruled in India the later Mauryan era ?
The foreign rulers who ruled in different parts of India were—the Greek, Shaka, Kushana and Huna.
Who was Nagarjuna ?
Nagarjuna was the famous scientist and philosopher during Kushan ruler Kanishka’s reign. He propounded zeroism, and wrote Madhyamik sutra.
Which place did Alexander rule? When did he arrive in India ?
Alexander was the ruler of Macedonia. He defeated the ruler of Iran in the battle of Aabela and moved towards India in 327 BC.
Where was the kingdom of king Puru (Porus) located ?
Puru’s kingdom was located in the middle of river Jhelum and river Chenab.
Which attribute of king Porus impressed Alexander ?
King Porus’ valour impressed Alexander.
When did Alexander return from India ?
Alexander returned from India in 325 BC.
When and where did Alexander die ?
Alexander died in 323 BC in Iran.
What was the cause of Alexander’s death ?
Alexander died of high fever.
What were the two branches of Shakas ?
The Shakas’ two branches were-Parthian and Bactrian.
When did the Bactrian’ rule start in India ?
In 306 BC Selucus Nicator’s heir Antiocus III launched a military campaign towards India and he crossed Kabul valley and established his control over its fertile area. It is considered the beginning of Bactrian’s rule in India.
Who was the greatest Greek king ?
Menander was the greatest Greek king.
Which text provides important details about Menander ?
Milindpanha which is an important text written in Pali language, provides important details about Menander.
Which religion did Menander follow ?
Menander was the follower of Buddhism.
Which fields of Indian culture were specially affected by the Greek civilization ?
The fields especially affected by the Greek civilization were Indian currency, art, sculpture, trade and commerce etc.
Why is the Indo – Greek rulers’ role considered important from the point of view of the cultural relations ?
The Indo – Greek rulers made the North – Western India acquainted with Hellenistic art which later emerged as Gandhar style of art. Thus in context of cultural relations, their role is considered important.
Which styles are combined in the Gandhar style of art ?
This is a combination (mixture) of Indian and Greek styles of art.
Which place did the Shakas belong to ?
TheThe Shakas belonged to Central Asia.
Which ruler followed the title of Vikramaditya ?
As a great symbol of prestige and valour, Chandragupta – II followed the title of Vikramaditya.
Which foreign caste did Nehpana belong to ?
Nehpana belonged to Shaka caste.
Who was the greatest Shaka ruler ?
Rudradaman – I was the greatest Shaka ruler.
In which year did Vikramaditya start Vikram Samvat ?
Vikramaditya started Vikram Samvat in 57 BC.
In which year was the Junagarh inscription of Rudradaman – I written ?
Rudradaman – I’s Junagarh inscription was written in 150 century BC.
Name the states included in Rudradaman’s kingdom.
These states wereSindhu Sauvira, Malwa, Gujarat, Kathiawad, North Konkan, Western Rajasthan and States of Sindh.
Who constructed Sudarshan lake?
Pushyamitra, governor of Mauryan king Chandragupta, constructed Sudarshan lake near Girnar.
Which title did Rudradaman I followed ?
Rudradaman – I followed by title of ‘Mahakshatrap’.
What was the base of Rudradaman’s administrative and tax system ?
Rudradaman’s administrative system and tax system was based on religion.
Which caste (class) of China were the Kushanas related to ?
The Kushanas were related to Yu – chi caste (class) of China.
Who rooted up the people of Yu – chi caste from their motherland and when ?
Hunas rooted up the people of Yu – chi caste from their motherland in 165 BC.
Which was the strongest branch of all the five branches of Yu – chi caste ?
The Kushan branch was the strongest branch of the five branches of Yu – chi caste.
Name the ruler of Kushan dynasty who followed the title of Maharaja.
Vim Kadphises followed the title of Maharaja.
When was Kanishka coronated ?
Kanishka was coronated in 78 BC.
Where did Kanishka establish his capital ?
Kanishka established his capital in Purushpur (present Peshawar).
Which city was established by Kanishka in Kashmir ?
Kanishka established Kanishkapur in Kashmir.
Which Buddhist Council was organised by Kanishka ?
Kanishka organised fourth Buddhist Council.
Who were the president and the vice-president of the fourth Buddhist Council ?
Its president was Vasumitra and vice-president was Ashvaghosha.
In which two branches was Buddhism divided ?
Buddhism was divided into two branches Hinyana and Mahayana.
Which branch of Buddhism did Kanishka patronise ?
Kanishka patronised Mahayana branch of Buddhism.
Who was the author of Buddhacharita ?
Ashvaghosha was the author of Buddhacharita.
How many styles of sculpture and architecture developed during the reign of Kanishka ?
Three styles of sculpture and architecture developed during his reign – Mathura, Amravati and Gandhar style.
Name two famous Indian physicians who belonged to Kanishka’s court ?
Maharishi Charaka and Sushruta were the two famous Indian physicians who belonged to his court.
Who started Shaka Samvat and when ?
Kanishka started Shaka Samvat in 78 BC.
What was the period of Hunas in India ?
It was about 450 BC
Who was the greatest Huna ruler ?
Tormaar was the greatest Huna ruler.
Who were the Indian rulers who led to face the Hunas?
They were Gupta emperor Skandagupta, Yashovarman and Balditya etc.
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 3 Short Answer Type Questions
Which dynasties dominated India during the later Mauryan period?
No single dynasty dominated the whole India during the later Mauryan period. Several regional and local dynasties ruled in different parts of India. These rulers can be put into two categories
- Foreign rulers – Indo – Greek, Shaka, Kushanas and Hunas were the main rulers.
- Indian rulers – Shunga dynasty, Kandva dynasty, Chedi dynasty and Satvahana dynasty were the main dynasties.
What do you understand by the later Mauryan period ?
Later Mauryan period is the period which tells us the history of the period from decline of the Maurya empire to rise of the Gupta empire. This was the period when Mauryans’ centralized power was disintegrating and foreign dynasties were invading India regularly. At the same time, several Indian dynasties were struggling for their survival.
Explain various sources of information about the later Mauryan period and foreign invaders.
The sources of information about the later Mauryan period are Gargi Samhita Mauryan Patanjali’s Mahabhasya, Kalidas’s Malavikagnimitra, Banabhata’s Harshacharita, Kalhad’s famous text Rajatarangini, Buddhacharita written by Ashvaghosha (the court poet of Kanishka), Saundarananda, Suryalankar, Sariputra Prakarana, zeroism, and theory of relativity of Nagarjuna, Charaka Samhita, Hieun Tsang’s description, description of Tibten historian Taranath, Milindpanha etc. provide us information about the foreign invaders. Besides these sources, coins issued by various rulers are also good sources of information.
When and how did Alexander enter India ?
Alexander moved towards India in 327 BC. He won the battle against Afghanistan and Sistan and entered India Via Kabul valley. He crossed the Hindukush mountain. He divided his army here into two parts.
Under the leadership of his trustworthy commanders, he sent one group of his army to build bridge over the river Sindhu and led the other group of his army himself and moved towards India. Ambhi, the king of Taxila, supported Alexander which encouraged him to enter India.
Which characteristics of Menander’s capital Shakala (or Sagala) are described in Milindapanha ?
Milinda Panha is an important Buddhist text written in Pali language. This is the main source of information about Menander, an Indo – Greek ruler. Following characteristics of Shakala are described in Milindapanha
- Shakala was a very big trading centre.
- Hillocks, gardens, lakes, ponds, rivers and forests of this place increased the natural beauty of Shakala.
- Water resources were good here.
- Security of the city was good. There were high walls, unique gates etc. In the middle of the city, there was a huge palace made of while walls. It was fortified by a deep ditch.
- Streets, crossings and markets were systematic.
- There were several types of grand buildings which were high like the peaks of the Himalaya.
- Here roads are crowded with elephants, horses, vehicles, pedestrians, and with all types of people–brahmins, feudals, architects, servants etc.
- There were shops of Banarasi silk and other types of clothes.
How many branches of the Shakas were there and where did they establish their kingdom?
According to historians, Shaka was the second foreign caste which came to India from Central Asia. Five different branches of Shakas established their kingdom in India. One of their branchs was in Afghanistan whose capital was Kapisha. Second branch was in Punjab whose capital was Taxila.
Third branch got established in Mathura which ruled there for two centuries. Fourth branch ruled in Western India whose capital was Ujjain. Fifth branch established its rule in Upper Deccan whose capital was Nasik. Nasik and Ujjain branches were the most important branches.
Who reconstructed Sudarshan lake and why?
Rudradaman’s Junagarh inscription testifies that Pushyamitra the governor of Mauryan emperor Chandragupta constructed Sudarshan lake near Girnar. He constructed it for public welfare. For many centuries, this lake was an important source of irrigtion for the farmers of Saurashtra.
During the reign of Rudradaman-dam of Sudarshan lake got damaged due to heavy rainfall. Rudradaman got the dam re – constructed for the welfare of his public. Despite his secretaries, opposition, Rudradaman spent huge amount for its reconstruction from his personal fund. He didn’t levy any extra tax on his public for this construction work.
On the basis of Junagarh inscription, evaluate the personality of Rudradaman – I
The most important source of information about Rudradaman – I is Junagarh inscription which was issued by him in 150 BC. This inscription highlights various aspects of his personality. In this inscription, he is depicted as a public welfare ruler. Despite his ministers’ opposition, he spent a huge amount from his personal fund for re – construction of, dam of Sudarshan lake.
He did it for public welfare and didn’t levy any extra tax on his public. He practised high values. He was a liberal king. He made his public free from the fear of robbers, diseases, beasts. etc. He was such a king who vowed not to kill anybody except in case of battle. He was an efficient leader and a skilled warrior.
He followed the title of ‘Mahakshatrapa’. He was handsome and a great scholar too. His public had deep attachment towards him due to his deep concern for his public. Thus all the above mentioned information makes it clear that Rudradaman – I was a great ruler.
What were the reasons of invasion on Kushana empire by the ruler of Parthia. What was its result ?
There were two reasons of invasion on Kushana empire by the ruler of Parthia
- Bactria was an important place from trading point of view, so he wanted to establish his control over it.
- Ariana Pradesh was earlier under the control of Parthia but later on the Kushanas established their control over it, and the ruler of Parthia wanted to establish his control again over the Ariana Pradesh. As a result of this battle the whole Parthia Pradesh became the part of the Kushana kingdom.
On the basis of which evidences can the expansion of Kushana empire be testified ?
The Kushana dynasty was at its peak during Kanishka’s reign. He established his control over Parthia, Paatliputra, Kashmir, Ujjain, Central Asia and China and made them part of Kushana empire. Expansion of his empire can be testified on the basis of the coins and literary sources.
His Kaushambi, Sarnath, and Mathura inscriptions indicate that as a ruler he was originally related to the Eastern part and he had control over entire North India. Records obtained from Sindh and Punjab testify his control over there. Chinese sources confirm his control over Gandhar Pradesh. From some places of Madhya Pradesh, his coins
and idols of Mathura style have been found. His empire expanded from Bihar in the East and Khurasana in the West and from Pamir in the North upto Konkan in the South.
Explain the administrative system of Kanishka.
Kaniskha’s administration was based on ‘Kshatrapa’ system. He conducted his administration through regional Kshatrapas. One of the capitals was Mathura and the other was probably Kashi. In Mathura, Kharpalan was Mahakshatrap and in Kashi, Vanasper was the regional ruler. To a large extent, the form of the administrative system was military. It was not very strong. In Kushan empire ‘Dandnayaka’ and ‘Mahadandnayaka’ posts or rank were important.
What were the differences between Hinayana and Mahayana branches of Buddhism ?
In the fourth Buddhist council, Buddhism divided into two branches – Hinayana and Mahayana. The main differences between these two branches are as follows
|1. Hinayana was the old and root branch of Buddhism.||Mahayana was the new branch of Buddhism.|
|2. In Hinayana branch, Buddha was considered a (great man) only.||In Mahayana, Buddha was considered as an incarnation of God and the followers started worshipping his idol (statue).|
|3. Hinayana emphasised good deeds.||Mahayana emphasised over the worship of Buddha and Bodhisattvas.|
|4. In Hinayana, Pali language was used.||In Mahayana, Sanskrit language took the place of Pali language.|
Why did Mahayana branch of Buddhism expand rapidly during the period of Kushanas?
Mahayana was the new branch of Buddhism. Due to its emergence, Buddhism expanded rapidly because its rules were easy. These rules were so easy that even a family oriented person could follow them easily. Practice of idol worship enhanced its popularity.
Kanishka patronized Mahayana. He declared it ‘Rajdharma’. It made the development of Mahayana easy enough in his large empire in Central Asia. Due to these resons, Mahayana expanded rapidly during the period of Kushanas.
Describe in brief the development in literature during the reign of Kanishka.
In the court of Kanishka, there were renowned philosophers, scientists and litterateurs. During his reign, various genres of literature developed. During this period, for the first time articles were written in Sanskrit. Ashvaghosha, Bhasa and Shudraka were the great litterateurs of this genre.
The greatest person at Kanishka’s court was renowned poet Ashvaghosha who wrote the great epic ‘Buddcharita’ in Sanskrit. His other texts were Saundarananda Mahakavya, Sutralankar, and Sariputraprakarana.
Alongwith the development of Sanskrit language, many great texts were written in Pali and Prakrit languages too during this period. Nagarjuna, founder of zeroism and theory of relativity, was another great scholar in the court of Kanishka. He was not only a philosopher but also a great scientist. Hence literary development was remarkably high during the period of Kushanas.
Explain scientific development during the reign of Kanishka.
Kanishka was a great scholar and fond of art. His court nurtured scholars, philosophers and scientists. Charaka and Sushruta were great physicians. Nagarjuna was a great scientist of this era who propounded the theory of relativity. In this era, new principles were set up in the field of astrology and scientific reliability of astronomy increased more.
Due to contacts between Central Asia and Roman empire, technological development took place. New techniques line minting of copper coins developed in Kushan era.
What is the principle of ‘deitism’?
During later Mauryan period, the Kushan kings compared themselves with deities. They followed the title of ‘Devaputra’. Such system was prevalent in contemporary Roman, Greek, and Iranian systems which was called deitism. Foreign rulers considered ths religious validity essential for social acceptance and they followed it in their kingdoms.
How did Kushana empire decline ?
Kushana empire reached its peak during the reign of Kanishka – I. During this period, not only the rulers of India but also the rulers of Central Asia were afraid of Kushana empire.
But the successors of Kanishka could’t keep such a huge empire integrated. Indian rulers took most of their states under their control. The other causes of decline of Kushan dynasty were emergence of Sassanian dynasty, and minding of Kushanas with Indian castes.
How did Yashovarman defeat Hunas?
In 528 BC, Yashovarman, alongwith the local ruler Baladitya, fought with Hunas. In the battle, the Hunas were defeated. But the Hunas didn’t return to their native place Central Asia, rather they assimilated themselves with Hindu religion and Indian culture. Ultimately they became an essential part of it and merged themseleves in it.
Who was the greatest Huna ruler ? Explain.
King Torman was the greatest Huna ruler. Torman, after conquering Aryavart or Malwa (Madhya Pradesh), settled in India permanently. Torman and his son Mihirkul jointly invaded Mathura and Taxila, where they shed blood. They invaded Punjab and established their control over it.
RBSE Class 12 History Chapter 3 Essay Type Questions
Who organised the fourth Buddhist council ? Where was it held ? And what was its result ?
The greatest Kushan king Kanishaka organised the forth Buddhist council at Kundalvan in Kashmir. Its purpose was to settle the moot principles prevalent in Buddhism. About 500 Buddhist scholars participated in the council. Renowed Buddhist scholar Vasumitra presided over the council and Ashvaghosha was its vice – president. The council went on for six months. In this council, the Buddhist literature was examined thoroughly.
Comments were prepared on the basis of “Tripitakas”. These comments were compiled in the form of a text. This compendium was named ‘Mahavibhasa’. This is called the encyclopaedia of Buddha religion. In this Buddhist council, disputes of eighteen contemporary schools of Buddhism, were settled. Following were the results of the council
- In this council, Buddhism gat divided into two branches – Hinyana and Mahayana.
- Mahayana, its new branch came into being.
- In Mahayana, Buddha was considered as an incarnation of God and the followers started worshipping idol of Buddha. Buddha and Bodhisattvas were worshipped.
- In Mahayana, Sanskrit language was used instead of Pali.
- It was declared as “Rajadharma’, so in Central Asia Mahayana expanded rapidly.
Write an essay on ‘Gandhar Style of Art.
Gandhar Style of Art is also known as Greco – Roman, Greco-Buddhist, Indo – Greek etc. Indians developed this form of art. It was developed in Gandhar area of India so, it is called Gandhara style of art. Indian craftsmen came in contact with Asian, Greek and Roman craftsmen. Resultantly this style originated. In this style, Buddha’s statues were made in combination of Greek and Roman style. The salient features of this style are as follows
- In Gandhara style, Buddha’s statues were made in Greek style which looked like Greek god Apollo.
- Its subject matter was Indian while the craftsmanship was Greek.
- The statues made in this style, are mostly decorated with Greek style make-up and jewellery. They were made of brown and grey stones, later on lime and plaster was used for making these statues.
- In this style, efforts were made to give real look to the statues i.e., curly hair, long moustache, clothes etc.
- This is a great contribution of Kushan king Kanishka and the Kushana era.
Explain the economic development during the Kushana era.
Trade and commerce progressed a lot during Kushana period, so economically India became a prosperous country. Economic development reflected in the lives of people. Economic progress during Kushana period can be discussed as follows
1. During this period, land routes and river routes increased domestic (internal) trade, and sea route developed its foreign trade. Land route was from Patliputra to Burma and Sri Lanka while sea route was from Central Asia to Western Asia.
2. The Kushanas took control over silk route which reached upto Roman empire. Indian traders bought silk from China and sold it to the Romans and thus earned good profit.
3. Elephant tusks, black pepper, clove, spices, aromatic products, medicines, jute, silk clothes etc. were exported from India to Rome in large quantity. The main centre of this trade was Kerela.
4. China, Rome, Burma, Java, Sumatra, Champa and South – Eastern Asia were also linked with India for trade.
5. Kanishka established Kanishkpur, Sirmukh and several other cities. Purushpur or Peshawar was his first capital and Mathura was his second capital which became the symbol of prosperity of Kushan era.
Hence all the above mentioned points make it clear that India’s economic progress was excellent during Kushana period.
Foreign trade in India was excellent during the reign of Kushanas.’Explain this statement.
During the reign of Kushanas, foreign trade in India reached its advanced state. Due to the development of land routes and sea routes, trading relations of India developed with other countries. Development of land ‘routes Development of land routes strengthened India’s domestic (internal) trade. Boundaries of other countries were connected with these routes, so it was easier for India to establish trading relations with these countries.
From one route, Taxila was connected with Kabul and from other route, Kandhar was convected with Iran. Thus the routes to Central Asia and Western Asia developed Control on Silk Route The Kushanas established their control over silk route. This route was from China to Roman empire via Central Asia. This silk route was a major source of income for the Kushanas.
Thus the Indian traders got connected with the Southern Arabian sea and Red sea regions. Trade with Roman Empire
The Indian traders bought silk from China and sold it to the Roman traders and earned huge profit. Elephant tusks, black pepper, cloves, spices, aromatic products, medicines, jute, silk clothes etc. were exported from India to Rome. These articles were in great demand in Rome.
The centre of this trade was Kerela. Due to this trade, large amount of golden currency came to India from Rome. Trading relations with other countries Due to sea routes, India apart from China and Rome, encouraged trade with other countries too. India conducted trade with other countries too.
They included Burma, Java, Sumatra, Champa and South-East Asian countries. On the basis of the points mentioned above, it can be said that during Kushan era, India’s foreign trade reached an excellent condition.
Write an essay on ‘invasions of Hunas in India’.
The Huna was one of the foreign castes (classes) who invaded India. Hunas or Huna was the name given by the ancient Indians to a group of Central Asian tribes who, via the Khyber pass, entered India at the end of the 5th or early 6th century. According to historians, the Hunas were nomadic savages and a violent tribe who belonged to Central Asia. They plundered the wealth of India at a large scale.
Some historians consider them as a sub – caste of nomads and Gurjars while some accept them as ancestors of Rajputas. They invaded India in about 450 BC. They entered India from the West. They were notorious warlike tribe who were famous for their barbarism and cruelty. The Hunas entered into Indian polity during the reign of Gupta emperor Skandagupta. They attacked Skandagupta many times.
Skandagupta suppressed the Hunas. But the later Gupta emperors were not powerful enough to protect the north-eastern frontier of the Gupta empire from fresh incursions of the Hunas. Huna king Tormana, after conquering Aryavart (Malwa), resided in India permanently. After Tormana, his son Mihirkula invaded Punjab and established his control over it.
In 528 BC, local rulers Yashovarman and Baladitya together fought with Hunas. Yashovarman defeated Hunas but the Hunas didn’t return to their native place Central Asia, rather they assimilated with Hindu religion and Indian culture. They became an integral part of it and ultimately merged into it.