RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science Chapter 18 Harsha Period and India after Harsha are part of RBSE Solutions for Class 7 Social Science. Here we have given Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 7 Social Science Chapter 18 Harsha Period and India after Harsha.
|Chapter Name||Harsha Period and India after Harsha|
|Number of Questions Solved||44|
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 7 Social Science Chapter 18 Harsha Period and India after Harsha
Exercise From Textbook
Write the answers to the following questions in the brackets:
1. The composition of Jaidev is
(c) Geet Govind
(c) Geet Govind
2. The royal dynasty of south India is:
Which city did Harsha make his capital?
Who adopted the title of Gangekond? Answer: Ruler of Chola Dynasty, Rajendra first. Q5. Write the names of Harsha’s compositions.
Write the names of major compositions of Banabhatta?
Write a note on the areas of influence of Harsha.
In 606 CE, after becoming the ruler of Thaneshwar, Harsha embarked upon an extensive military campaign. In his campaign, wars of Bengal, Punjab, Chalukya and Vallabhi are main. Harsha was successful in spreading his influence in Sind, Nepal, Odisha, etc. Ultimately, he took entire north India under his control.
Harsha was a writer and patron of scholars? Explain.
It has been proved from historical facts and evidences, that Harsha was a patron of writers and scholars. He gave protection to writers and scholars like Banbhatt, Jaidev and Haridutt. Composition of Geet Govindam by Jaidev, Harshcharit and Kadambari by Banbhatt are priceless compositions of Indian history.
Write a note on the University of Nalanda.
Nalanda University was established in 5 th century. There were approx. 8 colleges under this university. There were 3 big libraries. These libraries were known as Ratnasagar, Ratnadahi and Ratnaranjak. There were more than 10000 students who used to study in this university. And there were more than 1500 teachers who used to teach in this university. Students from foreign countries also used to come to study in this university. Main subjects to study in this university were Vedas, Science of Logic, Medicine,Science, Mathematics, etc.
Which were the major dynasties of South India? Explain.
Main dynasties of South India were as mentioned below:
1. Rashtrakuta dynasty : In the southern states, Rashtrakuta dynasty was the most important dynasty to establish their rules. They established their empire in the south of river Narmada; present day state of Maharashtra. The brave rulers of this dynasty have been Krishna III, Dhruv, Govind Amoghvarsh, etc.
2. Chalukya dynasty : The rule of this dynasty spread from the south of river Narmada to river Krishna. The brave ruler of this dynasty was Pulakesin second, who had defeated emperor Harshavardana too. Vikramaditya second was also a powerful king of this dynasty.
3. Pallava Dynasty : It was ancient royal dynasty of South India.The ruler of this dynasty Narisingha Varman took over kingdom of Chalukyas. The struggle between Pallavas and Chalukyas continuedfor long.
4. Chola Dynasty : Chola’s state was between rivers Krishna ana ICaveri at the sea coast. The most powerful king of this dynasty was Rajendra first. He established his rule in entire south india and attacked north India. After winning Kalinga and Bengal, he reached the coast of Ganga and took the title of ” Gange Kond”.
Mention the progress of Literature and Art in South India.
In South India both Tamil and Sanskrit languges flourished. Kings loved literature. In the times of Rashtrakutas, universities of Vallabhi and Kanheri were famous. Kanchi was a great centre of learning.” Kamban Ramayana” written in Tamil is very popular in south. Many Jain and Buddhist scriptures were 482 written. The kings of south India were fond of getting temples and idols built. Idols were made of stone or bronze.
The Chalukya kings got temples of Hindu deities built , amongst which Vatapi’s, Virupaksh temple is famous. Out of these famous temples of Mahabalipuram, Kailash temple of Ellora, and Hosbal temples were built during this period. Wall frescoes of Ajanta and Devchitras of Brihadeshwar temples are beautiful examples of the art of idol making. Beautiful idols of Vishnu, Ram-Sita etc were built by Chola rulers. The rulers of south, especially the Cholas contributed a lot in the preservation of Indian civilization and culture.
Which were the major royal dynasties of North India? Explain.
Below mentioned are the major royal dynasties of North India.
(a) Pratihar Dynasty : This was an important dynasty of North India. The Pratihar rulers had stopped the foreign powers from coming across the Indus for a long time and did not let them penetrate in North India. India progressed culturally during their rule. King Mihir Bhoj was the most powerful ruler of this dynasty.
(b) Gahadwal Dynasty : The founder of this dynasty was Chandra Dev. He defeated the Pratiharas and took Kannauj under his rule. The last ruler of Gahadwal dynasty was Jaichand. The ruler of Ghor dynasty, Mohammad Ghori, attacked Jaichand, and established his rule over Kannauj and put an end to the rule of Ghahadwal dynasty.
(c) Chouhan Dynasty : State of this dynasty was spread over the area of Ajmer- Sarribhar. The first powerful ruler of Chouhan dynasty was Vigrah Raj. Prithvi Raj Chouhan third was considered the most powerful ruler.
(d) Guhil Dynasty : Later, this dynasty was called Sisodia dynasty too. Brave ruler of Guhil dynasty was Bappa Rawal. Bappa Rawal prepared a group of rulers and freed Sindh from Arabian Invaders.
Describe the major events in the history of India from. 8th to 12th CE.
Following are the major events in the history of India from 8th to 12 th CE :
Time period from 8th to 12th CE, was a period of many ups and downs for India. South India and North India were ruled by many different dynasties. Major dynasties in South India were Rashtrakuta dynasty, Chalukya dynasty, Pallava dynasty, and Chola dynasty, whereas, in North India, main dynasties were named Pratihar dynasty, Gahadwal dynasty, Chouhan dynasty and Guhil dynasty. Where, India progressed culturally during ‘rule of these dynasties, at the same time also tolerated destructive activities of foreign rulers like Mohammad Ghori and Mahmud Gaznavi.
Though India made a lot of progress in the field of literature during this time. Scriptures on various subjects were written in Sanskrit, Geet Govind of Jaidev, Kadambari by Banbhatt, Kiratarjuniyam of Bhairavi, Rajtaringini of Kalhan, etc. are some major works. Remarkable progress also happened in the field of Architecture and Sculpture. Wall frescoes of Ajanta, The Sun temple of Konark, Jagannath temple of Puri, etc are some major achievements of this period.
To conclude, we can say, period of dynasties of South and North India was a period of heroic legends. Despite political instability during this period, there was a great progress in the field of Indian art, literature, and culture, which is an inspiration today.
Activities From Textbook
Collect Information about other ancient Indian universities.
Main Ancient Universities of India were as mentioned below:
(a) Nalanda University : This university is situated in present Bihar. This was founded by Gupta ruler Kumargupt. In ancient time students from Korea, Japan, China, Tibet, Indonesia, France, Turkey, etc., used to come here to gain education.
(b) Takshila University : This university at in present day in Pakistan had become famous in 7th century BC. Chanakya and Panini also got their education from this university. In ancient times, about. 10,500 students studied there. In 1980, it was declared as a world heritage site by UNESCO.
(c) Vikramshila University : This university is situated in Bhagalpur of Bihar. This was founded by the ruler Dharampal of Pal dynasty. This university was famous for Tantra Vidya (Yantra, Mantra and Tantra). Mantram denotes the chant, or “Knowledge”, Tantra denotes the philosophy or rituals, actions and yantra are instruments to invoke higher qualities often associated with specific Hindu deties such as Shiva, Shakti or Kali.
(d) Vallabhi University : It is situated in Gujarat. This was a famous centre for education.
(e) Udantpuri University : It was founded by Pal rulers, about 12,000 students used to study here.
(f) Sompur University : This university was founded by Pal rulers and was the main centre to impart education on Buddhism.
(g) Pushpgiri University : It is situated in Odisha. It was founded by kings of Kalinga.
Collect information about some more dynasties of South India and in which regions they ruled?
From 8th to 12th century, main ruling dynasties in North India were Rashtrakutas, Chalukya, Pallav and Choi. Apart from these there were other dynasties in power, at different places, which are as mentioned below.
(a) Chera Dynasty : Cher dynasty used to rule in Malabaar, Coimbatore and Salem. First ruler of this dynasty was Udiyanjeral (in 130 CE). Capital of Chera rulers was Vengi. Their emblem was a bow.
(b) Pandya Dynasty : This dynasty ruled from 560CE to 1300CE, in Tamil regions of south east coast. First ruler of this dynasty was Nediyon. Their capital was Madurai.
(c) Kadamb Dynasty : It was a huge dynasty of South India. It was founded by ruler Mayur Sharman. He established his state in Konkan region.
Collect pictures of temples which have been mentioned in the lesson and also collect information about these.
(i) Virupaksh Temple of Vatapi : This temple was constructed by Chalukya rulers. This temple comes in the list of world heritage sites.
(ii) Temple of Mahabalipuram : This temple was made in 8th century and is situated in Kanchipuram. This temple is an excellent example of Dravidian architecture.
(iii) Kailash Temple of Ellora : This temple is made by cutting a square cave which is 83 metres in length, 46 metre wide and 32 metres deep.
(iv) Brihadeshwar Temple : This temple is situated in Tanjore. 65 metre wide, its top is made in a shape of an aircraft pyramid. 6 sculptures are standing at entrance gate of this temple, for its protection.
(v) Lingraj Temple : This temple is situated in Bhubneshwar. It was constructed by rulers of Ganga dynasty.
(vi) The Sun Temple of Konark : This temple was constructed by Narsingh Devi.
(vii) Jain Temples of Dilwara : This was constructed by Vastupal Tejpal. It is made of a white marble on Abu mountain of Rajasthan
(viii) Idol of Natraj : Of all the bronze sculptures made by Chola rulers, idol of Natraj is outstanding. Manufacture of stone scupltures by Chola sculptors is a blessing to the art of South India.
Point to Note :
Students are advised to collect pictures of some temples mentioned in your chapter. Look at last one page. For more take help from your subject teacher and you can take help from Internet also.
Collect Information about major royal dynasties of North India and collect their pictures.
Main dynasties of India :
(a) Royal dynasty of Punjab : Royal dynasty of punjab settled their reign in Western India. Main rulers of this dynasty were Jaipal and Anandpal.
(b) Kalchuri dynasty of Tripuri: Founded by kokkal in Tripuri, this dynasty was eastablished in 10th century. Main rulers of this dynasty were Kokkal, Yuvraj first, Gangey and Kam.
(c) Parmar dynasty of Malwa : This dynasty was founded by Upendra or Krishanraj. Other rulers of this dynasty were Harsh, Munj, Bhoj, Jaisingh, Udyatiya, etc.
(d) Charidel dynasty of Bundelkhand : This dynasty used to rule on Bundelkhand and was founded by Yashovarman. Later his throne was taken over by his son Dhang, who constructed Khajuraho temples.
(e) Chalukya dynasty of Gujarat : Moolraj first established Chalukya dynasty. This dynasty was further driven forward by Bheem first, Sidhraj, Kumarpal, Ajaypal, etc.
(f) Pal dynasty of Bengal : At the end of 8th century, Gopal laid the foundation of this dynasty in Bengal. His successor Dharampal did the expansion of this empire.
(g) Sen dynasty : After Pal dynasty, Bengal was ruled by Sen dynasty. This was established by Samant Sen. Main rulers of this dynasty were Vijay Sen, Ballal Sen, Lakshman Sen etc. Point to Note : Students should themselves do compilation of pictures on their own with the help of their teachers concerned.
Collect pictures of south Indian temples and compare these with tempes around you.
Architectural art of temples of South India is very different from the temples in North India. In temples of North India, upper part of temple is made in the shape of a dome, in front of which is an open courtyard. There is a way defined on all the four sides of the idols and there is a summit on upper side. Whereas in yards of temples of South India, there are semi circular courtyards, on which there are flat domes instead of high peaks.
Point to Note :
Students should themselve do compilation of pictures on their own with the help of their teachers concerned.
With the help of map, collect information about Harsha’s area of influence.
Influenced areas of Emperor Harsha were spread in Jalandhar, Thaneshwar, Shravasti, Gwalior, Ujjaini etc.
Other Important Questions
(A) Multiple Choice Questions
Harshavardhna became the ruler of
(a) In 606 CE
(b) In 607 CE
(c) In 608 CE
(d) In 609 CE
(a) In 606 CE
Before he became a Buddhist, Harsha was a worshipper of:
(a) Lord Sun and Shiva
(b) Lord Shiv and Ganesha
(c) Lord Ganesha and Rama
(d) Lord Rama and Lakshmana
(a) Lord Sun and Shiva
Where did Harshavardhana organize a large religious conference?
(a) In Bengal
(b) In Kannauj
(c) In Punjab
(d) None of these
(b) In Kannauj
When did Harshavardhana organize his sixth assembly?
(a) In 648 CE
(b) In 644 CE
(c) In 645 CE
(d) In 646 CE
(a) In 648 CE
Who composed the Harsha- charita?
What did Harshavardhana donate for financial help of Nalanda University?
(a) More than 50 villages
(b) More than 100 villages
(c) More than 200 villages
(d) More than 300 villages
(b) More than 100 villages
Who is the creator of Rajtaringini?
(B) Fill in the Blanks
Establishment of new dynasty in Thaneshwar was done by …………
King Mihir Bhoj was the powerful ruler of ……….
First war of Tarain happened in ……..
Later Guhil dynasty came to be known as ……… dynasty.
1. Prabhakar Vardhan
2. Pratihar dynasty
(C) Very Short Answer Type Questions
From which places students used to come to study in Nalanda University?
Students from Korea, Mangolia, Japan, China, Tibet, Sri Lanka, greater India and other different parts of India, used to come to study in Nalanda University.
Who defeated king Harshavardhana?
Chalukya dynasty-Pulakesin-II defeated king Harshavardhona.
Who made Kalyani their capital in South India.
Chalukyas made Kalyani their capital in South India.
Who prepared a Naval force and won over Bay of Bengal and Burma?
Ruler of Chola dynasty Rajendra First prepared a Naval force and won over Bay of Bengal and Burma.
In Rashtrakuta rule, which universities were famous as big centres of learning and education?
Vallabhi and Kanheri Universities.
King Mihir Bhoj was the powerful ruler of which dynasty?
Creater of Geet Govind, Jaidev, was the courtier of which dynasty?
He was the courtier of rulers of Sen dynasty.
(D) Short Answer Type Questions
How did Harsha become the ruler of Thaneswar? Briefly analyze his personality.
Harshavardhan’s elder brother Prabhakar Vardhan established a new dynasty in Thaneswar. In 606 CE after the death of his elder brother, Harshvardhana became the ruler of Thaneswar. Harsha was a generous and responsible ruler.
In donation and in any other welfare work he did not discriminate on the basis of religion. Harsha was himself a scholar and also patronized scholars. Harsha spent his entire time in the welfare of the people. His views towards education can be understood by the fact that he donated more than 100 villages to fund the “Nalanda University” which had become a major center of education in that time.
Highlight religious policy and policy of charity of Harsha.
The religious policy of Harsha was inspired by liberalism. He was worshipper of Surya and Shiva in the beginning; later he became a Buddhist but was liberal towards all religions. In his kingdom Shaiva, Vaishnava, Jainism and Buddhist religion were independently popular. Though Harsha was a Buddhist but he appointed Non-Buddhists’ at the top position in his kingdom. He organized a grand religious conference of 23 days in Kannauj where many kings and scholars participated.
As far as the charity policy of Harsha is concerned, he used to organize a meeting in the duration of every five years in Prayag where he used to donate his accumulated wealth of five years. He even used to donate the clothes he used to wear at that time.
What do you think of the Moksha Council? Clarify in short
“Moksha Council” was a meeting organized by Harshvardhana at Prayag. Harshvardhana used to organize this meeting in the duration of every five years in which he used to donate his accumulated wealth of five years. He also used to donate the clothes he used to wear at that time and then used to ask clothes to wear from his sister. The above meeting is known as the ‘Moksha Council’.
What is the importance of Harsha period’s coins and seals?
Coins of gold of Harsha’s period have been found on which Harshadev is printed and a picture of a horse rider is also there. In the scriptures and ‘Harsha-Charita’ of Bhatta, Harsha has been mentioned as “Harshadev”. Other seals of Harsha also have found. On the head of Sonepat seal, the form of bull is there. There is a script in Nalanda Seal in which Harsha has been mentioned as Maharajadhiraj.
Briefly summarize all the works of Harsha.
Harsha was a brave soldier and a great conqueror. In order to increase his influence, he organized many successful military campaigns and succeeded in them. His reign extended over the whole of North India. In generosity and charity, Harsha’s policy was unique. Harsha himself was a scholar and he also patronized scholars. Actually, Harsha was an ideal ruler. He was very hard working and did not care about his comfort while doing welfore work.
Highlight the political position of India, after the death of Emperor Harsh.
When Harsh took over the throne; India was divided into small states. He gathered these states with great diligence and established his vast empire. After tne death of Harsha, India was again divided into small states. These states of north and south established their independent power. These small states ruled from the eighth to the twelfth centuries. The important fact is that these small states kept fighting for the expan-sion of their territory, but they never let any foreign ruler to move towards the Indus River.
(E) Long Answer Type Questions
Review the administration of Emperor Harsh in detail.
Harsha was himself the center of administration. He was of the opinion that for administrative efficiency, the ruler should always remain alert. He had divided his day into three parts, out of which one part was devoted to the administrative work. He used to travel to cities and villages to meet people. It is right that the administration of Harsha was without any restriction in principle. People had a lot of self rule in their regions. Most of the work was in the hands of village communities.
There was enough cooperation between central government and village communities. It is believed that Harsha’s administration had lot of freedom and was mixture of democratic elements. Harsha’s empire was divided into states, divisions and districts. The smallest unit was village. To run the administration three types of taxes were mentioned- ‘Part’ or ‘Bhag’ was land tax, ‘Hiranaya’ was cash tax and ‘Bali’ was additional tax. Penal code was not very strict in Harsha’s time. Physical punishment was not given, accused were not tortured to accept that they had committed crime. There was practice of investigating crime through examination.
Describe the progress made in the field of literature and art in North India during 8th to 12th century.
During eighth to the twelfth century, there was a lot of political turmoil in north India. Though the rule of various dynasties kept on changing yet, there was considerable progress in the field of literature and art. During this period, scriptures on various subjects were written in Sanskrit language out of which Shishupal Vadh of Magh, Kirtarjuniyam of Bharavi, Rajtrangini of Kalhan and Geet Govind of Jaidev are major works.
During this period, the ruler of independent royal dynasties got beautiful buildings and temple built, Lingaraja temple of Bhuvaneshwar, Sun temple of Konark, Jagannath temple of Puri and Forts of Gwalior, Chittor, Ranthambore, Jain temples of marble in Delvara at Abu Mountains of Rajasthan were built. There was lot of progress in the art of sculpture. Beautiful drawings of animals, birds, trees and creepers were drawn on the walls. In fact, during this period there was a lot of progress in the field of Indian literature and art, which is still a source of inspiration for us.
Write a comment on the following :
(a) The governance features in South India during 8th to 12th century.
(b) The governance features of various dynasties in North India during 8th to 12th century.
(a) The governance features in South India during 8th to 12th century : In the administration of major royal dynasties of south India, King was considered the topmost official. King used to appoint and kept control over ministers’ administration. Pallavas divided state into Rastra, Kottam and Grams. Cholas divided it into Mandals and Nadus.
It is because of these Nadus of Tamil state that the present name Tamil Nadu was given to the state. At that time local self government bodies used to work. Village panchayats held important position, The village panchayat apart from general administration used to see arrangements of justice, law and donation.
(b) The governance features of various dynasties in North India during 8th to 12th century : The administration of north India independent royal dynasties was liberal, but rulers used to take advice from their ministers also. Feudal system was prevalent, who worked independently under the king. There were village Panchayats which were free from state interference.
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