RBSE Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Chapter 1 Ancient Civilizations of the World are part of RBSE Solutions for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Chapter 1 Ancient Civilizations of the World.
|Chapter Name||Ancient Civilizations of the World|
|Number of Questions Solved||66|
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Chapter 1 Ancient Civilizations of the World
TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
Which archeological place of Indus-Saraswati civilization is in Pakistan?
Which scriptures are the source of Vedic civilization?
(d) All of these
In which river valley Egyptian Civilization is located?
(d) Dajila and Farat
Creator of world famous plays Iliad and Odyssey was
Proofs of tilled fields have been found at
Which civilization is famous with the name Dhulkot or Copper city (Tamravati)?
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Write names of two chief centres of Indus-Saraswati Civilization.
What is the meaning of Mohenjodaro?
A Mound of Deads. (Murdo Ka Tila)
Name all the Ashrams.
- Grahasth Ashram
- Vanaprasth Ashram
- Sanyasa Ashram
What is the meaning of Mesopotamia?
The meaning of Mesopotamia is land between two rivers.
What do you mean by fertile semi-lunar?
What is the name given to dead body kept in Pyramids?
Did Aryans came from outside India?
Aryans did not come from outside India as they were the original habitants of India.
Which is the world famous architecture of China?
The Great Wall of China.
In which civilization being a military man is considered insulted?
Name the main city states of Greek civilization.
Which civilization was located at the bank of Aahad (Bedach) river? .
Aahad civilization which was famous as (Tamravati or Dhulkot).
Name the ancient name of Ghaghar river.
Remains of which civilization are found in the foothills of Mount Abu?
Where the Balathal civilization located?
Balathal civilization is located in Vallabhnagar tehsil of district Udaipur.
To which civilization Kalibangan Civilization is related?
Short Answer Type Questions
Describe the social life of Vedic civilization.
- Varna System:
There were four varnas – Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra. It was not birth-based. It was based on Karma (deeds). Varna was decided by ability and deeds of a person.
It was a basic unit of the society. Joint family system was prevailed. The eldest person was the head of the family. He was called Grahapati. Women had been given great respect.
Purdah system was not prevailed. Marriage was not a contract but a religious ceremony. Marriages held at mature stage. Sons and daughters had equal rights of getting education. Women education had been given great respect. In vedic literature, names of such women are given who were famous for knowledge and literacy. For example, Gargi, Matraiya, Gandharvagrihita, etc. who were intellectual women belonged to this era.
- Ashram and Sanskar System:
Ashram system was there to run the society.
Ideal age of an Indian was imagined 100 years. It was divided into four Ashrams- Brahmachaiya Ashram, Grahastha Ashram, Vanaprastha Ashram, Sanyasa Ashram.
This system is a great system of management of life in the world.
There were 16 Sanskars to inculcate best qualities in human life. Among them Punsvan, Annaprashan, Mundan, Namkaran, Vidyarjan. Vivah sanskaras worked as social system.
- Food, dress and amusement:
Food – Barley, wheat, rice, pulses, milk, curd and soma drink. Dress-Clothes of cotton, silk, wool, were used; Ornaments – male and female both wear ornaments like necklace, ear rings and bangles.
Chariot race, horse race, hunting, wrestling were main means of amusement. Dance and music were loved. Prime music instruments were Veena, Bansuri (flute), Shankh and Mridung were in trend.
Describe the city life of Indus-Saraswati Civilization.
Among remains found related to Indus-Saraswati civilization, the chiefs are related to town planning. Among such remains Harappa, Mohenjodaro (now in Pakistan), Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Rakhigarhi (Haryana), Dholavira, Lothal (Gujarat) are important.
These remains are the facts that people of India who belonged to this civilization planned their town before building houses and buildings. Their architecture and civil engineering knowledge were of high level.
- Housing Planning:
Town are divided into zones and localities. The houses were both of large and small sizes. They were either one or two storey high, with rooms built around a courtyard. Generally an open courtyard was left and surrounding it, rooms were built. Separate water places, toilets and bathrooms were built;
- Street System:
System of well laid out streets and drains was an outstanding feature of Indus-Saraswati civilization. Streets were built North to South-East to West, straight and parallel which out each other at right angle where crossings were built.
The main roads were 10 m and small 5 m broad while lanes were 1-2 m broad. To dispose waste dustbins were kept to throw garbage at different places.
- Cleanliness of town, water drainage and their management:
There was a proper management of sewage and disposal of dirty water. Houses, lanes, streets and roads were well connected to drains. It all proves that people of this period not only lived a prosperous life but gave stress on facilities and their utilization. They were also aware of health.
Give the contribution of river Nile in the development of Egyptian civilization.
Egyptian civilization developed in the Nile Valley. People of Africa considered Nile river sacred like Ganges in India. River Nile was the source of their happiness and prosperity since ancient times. It was the source of irrigation. Egyptians could grow three crops in a year because of Nile and due to this, it was called the granary of the world in ancient times.
What is the contribution of Mesopotamean civilization in the field of science and knowledge?
People in Mesopotamia civilization has significant achievements in science. They were advanced in astronomy. They knew to calculate the time of rising and setting of sun and moon. They divided the day into 24 hours, minute in 60 seconds and an hour of 60 minutes. They started dividing circle of geometiy in (360°) degrees. Mehrabs (Arch) was invented by them. It was a greatest achievement of architecture as it could hold heavy weights and looked attractive.
Describe the military life of Sparta.
Life of Sparta: It had fear of attacks from neighbouring nations hence autocratic military rule was established here.
To make children strong, military education and training was compulsory for the people to face difficulties in life. Those children who were weak thrown from the Tesitus hill to die.
Sparta succeeded in preparing citizens who were blind followers, obedient and brave warriors but its contribution in the field of science, art, philosophy, literature is negligible.
Discuss the role of Peracles in Greek civilization.
He was a great democratic ruler of Greece. By his reforms he made Athens democratically strong and wide. He believed in equal justice for all. In his period art, literature, music and philosophy developed up to a great extent.
Many dramas of happiness and tragedies were played in Athens. Socrates, a world famous philosopher, gave stress on knowledge and character belonged to Greek Civilization. Plato and Aristotle belonged to Peracles era. Homer’s world famous treaties Iliad and Odyssey were composed.
Temple of goddess Athena is a marvelous piece of architecture belonged to this era. Herodotus and Thucydides were great historians. Pythagoras and Hippocrates were mathematicians.
Due to these achievements Parades era in history of Greek is called the golden period. According to Professor David, Parades era of Greek history is not only the golden period of Greek history but the history of the world.
Discuss the archeological remains found in Kalibangan.
In North Rajasthan on the bank of River Ghaghar places of Indus-Saraswati civilization were discovered. This place was located in district Hanumangarh 4500 years ago at the bank of river Saraswati (Ghaghar). In Kalibangan, two dunes are found of city planning. There is a security wall around both dunes. Evidence of tilled land found in Kalibangan is the oldest. Brick walls were joined by soil which made the walls strong and durable. Individual and public drainage system is an example of highly cleanliness system.
At present here Ghaghar river flows known as Saraswati in ancient times. Bricked drains were built for the disposal of waste water. Tools made up of copper are the example of its development. Its town planning is similar to Indus town planning. Three samadhis are found which shows the respect towards dead persons of this civilization. The reasons of decline of this civilization may be drought or change in the direction of river, etc.
Long Answer Type Questions
Discuss the social and religious life of Indus-Saraswati Civilization.
India is one of the ancient nations of the world. Its history, civilization and culture is also age-old. On the basis of excavations, approximately about 5-7 thousand years ago, people who roamed on the banks of rivers Indus-Saraswati started living there and settled. By living there they developed a prosperous culture and civilization.
The Indus river is originated from North of Kailash-Mansarovar of Tibet. While origin of Saraswati river is from Shivaliks, it enters the plains at Adibadri. It enters Nohar of Rajasthan after flowing in South-East direction draining Kurushetra from Ghagar, Hakra and Sirsi in Haiyana. Here it flows through Jaisalmer, Bikaner then Kuchchh of Gujarat and empty itself at Prabhaspatan in sea.
But now due to change in geological structure-, it has become extinct. Due to its non-physical extistence, some intellectuals consider it an imagination but pictures taken by artificial satellites prove the existence of Saraswati river and it is flowing even today. In holy books of Hindus Ramayana, Mahabharata and Vedic literature, evidence of this river is quiet sufficient for its authenticity.
In Rajasthan, remains present on banks of river Saraswati found even today. Kalibangan is one of them. Civilization developed on vast land of Indus-Saraswati and their tributaries is known as Indus-Saraswati Civilization. It was the centre of India’s ancient civilization as it was buried down under sand dunes. People do not have universal view regarding this period, its peak, prosperity and decline, because it was developed long back and it was fully developed in 3250 BC, it reached to its peak upto 2750 BC. After this started declining and by 1500 BC it became extinct.
- In 1921, Raibahadur Dayaram Sahani discovered an ancient sand dune on the left bank of river Ravi where a town was established named Harappa in Punjab at the time of undivided or unpartitioned India. Another archaeologist of India Rakhal Das Bannerjee discovered a mound named Mohanjodaro situated at East Bank of river Indus drained in Indus region of district Larkana in unpartitioned India.
Meaning of Mohanjodaro is ‘mound of the deads’ (Murdo Ka Tila). Out of this mound remains of that town indicate that this civilization nine times developed and nine times declined.
In series of excavations Aurlastine discovered 11 excavations in the diy drainage area of Saraswati River in ‘Bahavalpur State (Riyasat) now in Pakistan. It was a point of dry river Saraswati and Hara river.
- Still 1500 places are discovered related to Indus-Saraswati Civilization. Out of them 900 are in India and 600 in Pakistan. After partition of India in 1947 the big places of this civilization Harappa, Mahenjodaro and Ganeriwala, etc. went to Pakistan while Kalibangan, Rakhigarhi, Dholavira, Lothal, Rangpur, etc. are included in India.
In India historians and archaeologists started their work in a new way after Independence in 1947. In Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Gujarat many places related to Saraswati-Drishdwati river valley were discovered. In 1953, Amlanand Ghosh discovered 25 places in Bikaner of Rajasthan.
- Among them Kalibangan is main. Ropar in Punjab, Lothal, Rangpur and Rojdi in Gujarat, Bada Sandhol, Rakhigarhi, Banwali, Meetathal in Haiyana, etc. are other cities.
People were engaged in different occupations according to their ability and contributed in social management. Religious, administrative, medical, security and production were main fields of work.
People were mainly worshippers of natural forces. They worshipped earth, Peepal, Neem, Jal, Surya, Agni and considered them divine power. They believed in magic, orthodox rituals and sacrifice of animals. Yajpas and fire worship was in trend. Scent sticks were used in worship and death ceremony was done by funeral.
Describe the main characteristics of Mesopotamian Civilization.
- Mesopotamia, a word of Greek language, means land between two rivers. The modern name of this country is Iraq. This region is irrigated by two rivers, i.e., Dajla and Farat. It is also called fertile semi-lunar because of its semi-circular shape and fertility.
- In ancient time southern part of this region was called ‘Sumer’, it was the centre of civilization. North-eastern part of Sumer was called Babul (Babylon) and Akkad, while Northern upland (Citadel) was called Aseria.
- Sumerian people who came from North mountaineous region later settled in Mesopotamia and developed a very prosperous civilization. They established a Town- State government. Ur, Lagash, Erek, and Eridu were famous Town-States. In 2500 BC, Sagan I came from Akkad, won the Sumerian people and established a strong state by mixing Sumer and Akkad. But by 2100 BC, people of Akkad also lost their state and a new dynasty named Sami originated in Babylon and Babylon became the capital of this new state.
The most famous king of Hammurabi controlled the war of different states and implemented equal laws and made a vast strong nation. Babylonian civilization also based on Sumerian civilization. Later in around 1100¬612 BC, Aserian people established their administration or empire in Mesopotamia.
They established a vast empire after winning Syrea, Philistine, Phinesia, etc. Later Caldean people defeated Aserians and established a second Babylonian empire during 612 BC to 539 BC but they were also defeated by Parsis in 539 BC. In this way, civilizations of Sumerian, Babylonian, Aserian and Caldean equally known as Mesopotamian Civilization.
- Babylonian king Hamurabi formed a Code of Conduct for his subjects which is the oldest of those times. It was engraved of 8 feet high rock. His principle of punishment was based on Tit-for-Tat’ and ‘Blood against Blood’.
- King was considered the representative of God on earth. After king and his family, Purohit was the second who might be the administrator before monarchial system.
In middle class, feudals, traders and shopkeepers were included. Dasas (Slaves) held the meanest position in the society. Military got importance due to continuous war.
Write an essay on Chinese Civilization.
It was developed between the valley of Hwang-Ho and Yang-Tse-Kiang rivers. Chinese script was picture based in the later developed their own alphabets. Mongolians gave birth to this civilization and developed it. According to available historical facts and their scientific analysis, it is believed that China’s systematic, political history starts with 2852 BC with a ruler named ‘Fusi’, Among China’s dynasty chief kings were of Shang, Chou, Huan, Sui, Tang, Shung dynasties.
Features of Chinese Civilization Social Life:
Chinese society was divided into four classes:
People who joined army were either very poor, lazy and those who had different characters. According to H.A. Davis ‘China was the only nation in ancient period which was peacefully organized and being military man was an ‘insult’ in the society. Joint family system was prevailed with eldest male member as the head. Great stress was given on high morality in life. Women had no respect in the society. Pardah system and divorce system were prevailed.
Agriculture of rice, tea in large scale. Irrigation by canal system.
Rearing of sheep, pigs, cows, dogs, etc. Sericulture (making of silk cloth) was the main occupation. Handicraft, ceramics were important occupations. Export of silk, salt, raw iron, fur, fish, etc. was done to India in a large scale.
Mention the chief features of Egyptian Civilization.
Main Features of Egyptian Civilization
The kings were called ‘Pharoh’. They were despotic. People considered him representative of God. In high class feudals, priests, middle class businessmen, traders were included. In low class, farmers and dases (slaves) were included. Music, dance, aerobatics, animal fights gambling, etc. were means of entertainment. Ivory worked tables and chairs and precious curtains were parts of grandeur of feudals houses.
Agriculture and cattle rearing. Barley, onion, millet and cotton were grown. It was called the granary of the ancient world as three crops were grown in a year. Goats, sheep, pigs, dogs, donkeys, camels, etc. were reared.
Trade and Industries: It had skilled workers of metal, wood, glass, paper and cloth. People import all metals except copper. They had trade relations with Ethiopia and Arabs. Barter system prevailed.
Their chief gods were Ra (Sun), Orisis (River Nile), Sin (Moon). In the beginning they believed in many god concept but in age of Socialism, ‘Akhnatan Pharos’ gave birth to one god concept (Ekeshwarism) and started worshipping ‘Sun’.
Science and Knowledge: People made calender based on sun and stars and calculated the 360 days in a year. Solar watch (sun dial) was discovered. Discovering their own alphabets they manufactured paper using papyrus plants.
People believed that soul resides in dead body after death, so they put special oil on dead body which preserves the body for thousand years to protect it. Samadhis (tombs) were built which were called pyramids. The dead body kept in pyramids was called ‘mummy’.
Pyramid of Gizeh among Egyptian pyramids is the best example of ancient architecture in the world. It is 755 feet wide and 481 feet in height. It is built with 23 lakhs pieces of stones and weighed two and a half tonnes. It has a sculpture of ‘Narsingh’ called ‘sphinx’. These pyramids are proofs of advance knowledge in mathematics and trigonometry. Still such pyramids are present in Egypt.
Describe Ahad Civilization.
Ahad is located in Udaipur district, which was the centre of Bronze age culture of . the South-East Rajasthan. This 5000 years old civilization was developed in the valley of Bedach, Banas rivers. Due to availability of copper in this area, people living here made metallic tools which made it a copper-skilled centre.
Extension of this civilization is evidence from the near by places Gilund, Balathal, Bagaur, etc. It had relations with Navadatoli, Nagda, Eran, Kaitha till Kuchchh in.North Gujarat. Its connection was with 4000 years old civilizations. Black and red earthen pots found here have similarity in skill, size and manufacturing are evidence of it.
ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS SOLVED
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
In Egypt, the Pyramids were built for
(a) public meetings
(b) public festivals
(c) preserving mummies
(d) crowning the king
The kings in Egypt were known as
An excellent piece of Egypt architect is
(a) Gizeh pyramid
(c) huge buildings
(d) none of the above
Confucius, the great philosopher, was related with the
(a) Egyptian Civilization
(b) Chinese Civilization
(c) Greece Civilization
(d) Indus Civilization
The early Chinese script was
The Great Wall of China was built by the ruler:
(c) Chou-En Lai
The remains of a ploughed field by excavations in the Indus Valley have been found in .
It is believed that the Indus Civilization „ may have been destroyed by-
(d) All of these
The battle between Athens and Iran was fought in the field of
In Athens, the form of government was
Very Short Answer Type Questions
In which river valley did the Chinese Civilization develop?
In the Hwang-Ho and Yang-Tse-Kiang river valleys.
Who prepared a code of written laws in 621 B.C in Athens?
Which were the two main centres of Sindhu-Saraswati civilization.
Harappa and Mohenjodaro
Who discovered the archaeological locations of Harappa and Mohenjodaro and when?
Rai Bahadur Dayaram Sahni discovered Harappa in 1921 AD and Rakhal Das Banrejee discovered Mohenjodaro in 1922 AD.
Where are the cities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro located now?
They are located in Pakistan.
What was the king in Egypt known as?
He was known as Pharoh.
Why was the Great Wall of China built?
In order to keep the border safe from the Huns.
Which ruler established the political structure of Egypt in 3400 BC?
The ruler named Minis established political structure of Egypt.
Which were the musical instruments of the Early Vedic period?
These instruments were harp, flute, snail, shell, cymbals and jhanj.
What was the eldest male member of the, joint family known as in the Early Vedic period?
He was known as the Grahapati.
Who was Rajan in the Rig Vedic period?
Rajan was the chief of the Jana.
Short Answer Type Questions
What do you know about the Gizeh Pyramid?
The Gizeh Pyramid was built by Pharaoh Cheops in 3000 BC. It is built in an area of 32 acres and is 484 ft. high and 755 ft. long. It is an excellent piece of the Egyptian architecture.
Classify the history of the Egyptian civilization.
Classification of the Egyptian civilization:
- The Pyramid age
- The Feudal age
- The Imperialist age
Write about the Ashrama system in the Later Vedic Period.
Assuming the average age of man as 100 years, it was divided into four Ashramas of 25 years each.
These Ashramas were-
- Brahmachaiya Ashrama
- Grahastha Ashrama
- Vanaprastha Ashrama
- Sanyasa Ashrama
Which three classes constituted the Egyptian society?
The Egyptian society consisted of three classes namely-
- The upper class of nobles and priests.
- The middle class of merchants, landlords and artisans.
- The lower class of farmers and slaves.
What was the position of the women in the Later Vedic period?
The women enjoyed a respectable place in the society. Child marriage and Pardah Pratha were not in practice. Widow-marriage was permitted. Women education got a due recognition.
Which gods were worshipped by the Egyptians?
The Chief gods of the Egyptians were Ra (Sun), Osrim (Nile river), Sin (Moon). These people worshipped Sky and Earth.
What were the main occupations of the Aryans?
The main occupations of the Aryans were:
- Agriculture was their main occupation. They used plough to till the land. Irrigation was done by rivers, waterfalls, canals, wells, etc.
- Cattle rearing was a useful occupation. The Aryans considered the cow as sacred and it was not to be slaughtered, and was considered as the pivot of economic prosperity. Their other prominent domestic animals were elephants, horses, buffaloes, deer, sheep, goats and donkeys.
- People do wood, metal, gold, cloth and leather work.
What are the different views regarding the native place of the Aryans?
Experts have tried to locate their native place in North Pole, Europe, Central, Asia, etc. but the latest research indicates, India to be their native place. According to Dr. Sampurnanand and Dr. Avinash Chandra Das, the Aryans were the inhabitants of the land of the seven rivers. From the area of seven rivers their groups moved towards Iran in West, Central Asia, Western Asia and to different countries of Europe. They moved to other parts of India too.
Long Answer Type Questions
Write a note on Vedic civilization.
(a) Varna system:
There were four vamas- Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. The class (Varna) system was based on profession, instead of birth.
It was the basic unit of society. Joint family system was dominant in the society. The eldest male person of the family (grihapati) was considered the head of the family. In Vedic society,women were perceived with extreme honour. Marriage was a religious ceremony and not an agreement.
(c) Ashram and Sanskara system:
To maintain the social system, ashram system was in practice in the society – Brahmacharya Ashram, Grihastha Ashram, Vanaprastha Ashram and Sanyasa Ashram. There was a provision of 16 Sanskaras at that time to arouse good qualities in an ideal man life, in which, the main Sanskaras were – Pumsvan Sanskara, Annaprashna Sanskara, Vivaha Sanskara, etc.
Food, Dress and Entertainment :
The people used to have basically milk, curd, wheat, rice, urad, barley in their food. They wore silk, cotton and woollen clothes. Both men and women used to wear ornaments, in which bangles, necklace, ear rings, etc. were main. Among the prime sources of recreation were chariot race, wrestling bout, horse race, hunting, magic and dance.
Economic Life :
The people for their livelihood used to do animal husbandry, farming, cottage industries, trade and commerce. Ploughs and oxen were used in farming. The main pet animals were cows, elephants, horses, buffaloes,
deer, sheep, goats, etc. Cow was considered to be a pious animal. The people followed the profession of wood, metal, cloth, and leather. Barter system was in practice. The people had their trade with other countries through waterways and land routes. The cloth industry was veiy developed.
Family was considered the base of political life. The collective names of many families was village and of many villages was people (Jan) respectively. The leaders of Jan were known as Rakshak or Rajan. The Rajan was elected by the people which used to be supreme power of the administration. Committee, council and cabinet were there to assist him.
Religious life: The people worshipped nature. They also worshipped Indra, Sun, Fire, Air and Varun. They pleased the gods with prayers devotion and yagnas.
Discuss the main characteristics of the Kalibangan civilization.
Main characteristics of the Kalibangan:
In 1950-51 AD, first of all excavation was started here under the leader¬ship of an archaeologist named Amalananda Ghosh in 1950-51. Later on, Indian Archaeological Survey started excavating in 1961, which continued till 1965, under the control of V.K. Thapar and B.V. Lai. V.K. Thapar determined its time period as 2300 BC through radio carbon method. In this, 25 sites have been found in the north of Rajasthan and valley of the Ghaggar river. They all belong to Harappan civilization and Kalibangan is one of them. The location was full of inhabitants on the banks of Saraswati (Ghagghar) river in the Hanumangarh district, 4500 years ago. Specially two mounds of urban planning have been recovered in Kalibangan – eastern mound, where a common locality has been found and western mound, where which has a defensive rampart around it.
Black bangles have been discovered from in a huge quantity, and therefore, this place became famous with the name Kalibangan. The remains of forest, ploughed fields, roads, locality, drains and the houses of rich people have been discovered from here. The walls of the houses were built with mud bricks, which were joined with one another with mud. The houses were airy and related to roads on both sides. The breadth of the roads was 1.8 to 7.2 mt. Four main roads led from north to south and three roads led from east to west. The drains of wood and bricks have been found to carry filthy water. The remains of fire places have also been discovered the houses. During the excavation, some unique pots have also been discovered, which have paintings of flowers, leaves, dice, birds, date palms and animals drawn with chalk.
In the excavation, lead, pieces of clothes, various bangles, toys, vehicles with wheels, copper tools, weights to weigh and measure, a belt of copper, comb of ivory, and other many things have been discovered. Here, earthen stamps have also been discovered, which bear the portraits of Saindhav civilization which was their script. Archaeologists said that ploughing with a plough had began here first time in the world. There have been found three types of graves, i.e., rectangular, circular and pitcher shaped. The town planning was just as the city planning of the Indus Valley.
The civilization kept on flourishing till 1750 BC. It is believed that this civilization came to an end due to drought, change in river route or filling of the Rann of Kutchchh with sand. Because of lack of rains, this spot changes into a desert.
Why is the Pericles age known as the golden age in the world?
The famous Greek ruler, Pericles believed in equal right to justice for all the people. During his period, there was a lot of development in the field of art, music, literature and philosophy. The Iliad and the Odyssey were written in this period.
Education in mathematics, astrology and philosophy was imparted during this period. The world famous philosopher, Socrates emphasised the development of knowledge and character.
Aristotle and Plato too were famous philosophers of this time. . Herodotus and Thucydides were great historians of this period. Pythagoras and Hippocrates were famous mathematicians of this period. Due to all these achievements, the Pericles era is known as the golden age in the history of Greece. According to Prof. Davis, Pericles era was a splendid era not only in the history of Greek but in the history of the world too.
Write the main characteristics of Egyptian Pyramids.
The Egyptians believed that the soul resides in the dead body after death. So they used to embalm the dead body with a special oil. It kept the dead body preserved for thousands of years. In order to keep the dead bodies safe, tombs were built which were called pyramids. The dead bodies kept in pyramids were called Mummies. As pyramids were built in a large number during this period, so this age is called the ‘Pyramid age’.
They were built by Pharaohs (Kings). Out of all the pyramids of Egypt, the Pyramid of Gizeh is an excellent piece of architecture. It was built by Pharoah Cheops in 3000 BC. It is built in an area of 32 acres. It is 484 feet high and 755 feet long. Pyramids are an evidence of the arithmetical and geometrical knowledge of the Egyptians. Hatheshsut, the king of the Imperialist age, got many big sized stone statues and pyramids.
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