RBSE Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Chapter 14 Climate of India are part of RBSE Solutions for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Chapter 14 Climate of India.
|Chapter Name||Climate of India|
|Number of Questions Solved||55|
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Chapter 14 Climate of India
TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
The word Monsoon is derived from
(d) All of these
The ‘Mavath’ rainfall occurs in
(a) spring rainfall
(b) winter rainfall.
(c) summer rainfall
(d) normal rainfall
The number of seasons according to the Indian culture is:
Very Short Answer Type Questions
The word Mausim is derived from which language?
The word ‘Mausim’ comes from the Arabian language.
Where is the high pressure when sun shines vertically on the Tropic of Cancer?
High pressure is formed in the areas close to the Indian Ocean, Australia and in the south of Japan in Pacific Ocean.
Where is low pressure formed when the sun shines vertically to the Tropic of Capricorn?
Low pressure is formed on sea shore (Indian Ocean) when the sun shines parallel to the Tropic of Capricorn.
Where do the ‘Jet Streams’ flow?
Jet streams flow over the western and the central Asia.
Where is the low pressure area formed in Rajasthan during summer season?
Low pressure area is formed over the Western Rajasthan during summer season.
Short Answer Type Questions
Give causes that influence climate of India.
India’s climate is controlled by various factors i.e., direction of monsoon winds, altitude (height from sea level), distance of sea, latitude (distance from equator), location of mountains and excessive atmospheric pressure.
Write the names of seasons of Winter and Summer Monsoon time with period.
Seasons of Winter Monsoon:
- Winter season: December to February
- Summer season March to mid-June
Seasons of Summer Monsoon:
- Rainy season: mid-June to mid-September
- Autumn season: mid-September to mid-December
Explain about the Arabian Sea Monsoon.
The Arabian Sea Monsoon branch strikes the Western Ghat and sheds about 250 to 300 cm of rainfall. As they fall in rain shadow area, they receive very low rainfall. Its Nagpur branch moving through Narmada-Tapti valley joins the Bay of Bengal. Another sub-branch reaches directly the Western Himalayas, passing through Gujarat, Rajasthan, etc. Rajasthan receives very little rainfall because of its location parallel to the Aravalli ranges.
Explain ‘Jet Stream’ concept in the origin of monsoon.
Jet Stream view explains the pattern of development of periodical storm in troposphere. A westerly fast air current flows over the Western and Central Asia north of the Himalayas, with steady velocity. It flows over the narrow zone of the upper atmosphere and is called Jet Stream. The Tibetan highlands act as a barrier for the Westerly Jet Streams and it gets bifurcated. On the basis of the area the Jet Streams are known as Tropical Eastern Jet and Semi-Tropical Western Jet. Low pressure region over land and the Eastern Jet stream steer in the tropical depressions into India. These depressions help in distributing the monsoon rainfall over the entire India.
Explain the relationship of rainfall in Rajasthan with Aravalli range?
The Aravalli range divides Rajasthan on the basis of rainfall, because more rainfall occurs in its eastern part, while less rainfall occurs in its western part. But because of its less height, it does not play any role in getting rainfall. Due to its parallel of Aravallis, the branch of the Arabian Sea proceeds by its sides towards the north. With no obstruction, precipitation is minimal through this branch.
Long Answer Type Questions
Describe the temperature, atmospheric pressure, direction of winds and rainfall during the South-West Monsoon.
With increase in the Monsoon rainfall, the temperature falls and it starts rising in September. In Rajasthan it touches, 38°C in the month of September.
- Atmosphere Pressure:
Low pressure areas are densely centralised over the Thar Desert of Rajasthan and Punjab and high pressure area develops over the Indian Ocean in South.
- Direction of Winds:
The winds move from the South-West ocean towards the North East-Plains and are called the South-West or the Monsoon winds.
The Indian Peninsula divides the South-West monsoon into two branches, i. e. (a) the Arabian Sea and (b) the Bay of Bengal branch.
(a) The Arabian Sea is stronger than the Bay of Bengal. It strikes the Western Ghat and sheds about 250 to 300 cm of rainfall. Its velocity here is reduced to the minimum. Therefore, the inner plateau receives very low rainfall from Arabian Sea. Its Nagpur branch moving between the Narmada- Tapti Valley, merges with the Bay of Bengal. Another sub-branch reaches directly the Western Himalayas, moving through Rajasthan which receives very little rainfall because of its location parallel to the Aravalli range.
(b) The Bay of Bengal is a sub-branch which moves towards Arunachal Pradesh and Assam. After striking the Garo hills this sub-branch brings heavy rainfall in this area. Mawsynram of Cherapunji receives maximum rainfall from it.
Another sub-branch moves ahead along with Tarai of Himalayas. Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Uttarakhand receive rainfall from it. The amount of rainfall decreases as it moves towards West. The Western Punjab and Rajasthan receive very little rainfall from it.
Write about the distribution of rainfall in India.
The distribution of rainfall in India is not even. It varies from season to season as well from place two place. Two factors have great influence in the distribution of rainfall. They are direction of monsoonal winds and relief features.
However, rainfall in India can be divided into four parts on the basis of areas:
- Areas of Heavy Rainfall:
The areas of heavy rainfall receive more than 200 ems rainfall. Due to heavy rainfall the tropical evergreen forests are found. These areas are Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Nagaland, Mizoram, West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Coast plains and Western slopes of Western Ghat.
- Areas of Moderate Rainfall:
These areas which receive rainfall between 100 to 200 cm and have monsoon forests. These areas are north-eastern slopes of Western Ghat, South-West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, South-Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Tarai area of the Himalayas, Eastern Tamil Nadu, etc.
- Areas of Scanty Rainfall:
These areas are Southern Peninsula, Madhya Pradesh, Eastern Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Southern Uttar Pradesh, North and South Andhra Pradesh, Middle East Maharashtra, etc. These areas receive rainfall between 50 to 100 cm.
- Areas of Inadequate Rainfall:
Here rainfall is less than 50 cm. These areas are Rayalseema area of Andhra Pradesh, Kuchchh, Western Rajasthan, Western Punjab, etc.
Explain the climatic conditions of Rajasthan.
On the basis of the Monsoon period, the climate of Rajasthan is divided into:
(a) Winter Monsoon Period
- Winter Season: From December to February
- Summer Season: From March to mid-June
(b) Summer Monsoon Period
- Rainy Season: From mid-June to mid-September
- Autumn Season: From mid-September to December
Winter Monsoon Period
1. Winter Season (from Dec. to Feb.):
Temperature falls gradually, sometimes the minimum temperature falls below the freezing point in some places. It rains very low in Sikar, Churn, Degana, Phalodi and Mt. Abu. In the Northern parts it remains less than 12°C and in the southern parts more that 16°C. The low pressure is created over the Indian Ocean. Because of which the winds start to blow from surface towards the sea. But sometimes, these winds along with Mediterranean cyclones cause rainfall, which are known as ‘Mavath’ in local language.
2. Summer Season (from March to mid-June):
The temperature starts rising gradually in March. In June it reaches the highest. The average temperature of the state exceeds 38°C. A low pressure area develops over Western Rajasthan. The hot, dusty and dry winds blow, which are called ‘Loo’. The dust storms blow during this season which bring a little rainfall at some places.
3. Rainy Season (from mid-June to mid-September.):
Temperature varies from 18°C to 30°C due to rainfall. Atmospheric pressure decreases in western Rajasthan due to which monsoon winds start blowing which divide into two branches – Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal, and cause rainfall. Monsoon comes to Rajasthan in end of June. Rajasthan gets 95% of its rainfall from these winds. Due to parallel position of Aravalli, distribution of rainfall in found to be more in east and less in the western part of Rajasthan.
4. Autumn Season (mid-September to December):
As the sky remains clear after the rainy season the temperature increases up to 38°C, but, as the sun moves towards the south, the temperature starts decreasing. Winds are calm at this time, but due to uncertain course of winds and atmospheric pressure, rainfall does not occur.
On an outline map of India locate the south-west Monsoon Winds.
Locate the annual railfall on an outline map of Rajasthan.
ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS SOLVED
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
The winds have a tendency to blow from:
(a) Low pressure area to high pressure area.
(b) High pressure area to low pressure area.
(c) Dry areas to Wet areas.
(d) Wet areas to dry areas.
The Himalayas protect our country from the cold winds coming from
The type of forests found in the Delta region are
(b) Dry and thorny
(c) Monsoon type
The Monsoon forests are also called
(a) Tidal forests
(b) Deciduous forests
(c) Umbrella forests
(d) Tidal forests
The areas with desert forests receive rainfall between
(a) 150 to 200 cm
(b) 180 to 200 cm
(c) 200 to 220 cm
(d) 10 to 50 cm
It does not influence the climate of India:
(a) Altitude (height above the sea-level)
(b) Latitude (distance from Equator)
(c) Distance from the Capital of India
(d) Distance from the Sea coast
‘Mavath’ is the result of
(a) South-west winds
(b) North-east winds
(c) Winds from the Arabian Sea
(d) Winds from the Bay of Bengal
The rainy season period in India is
(a) March to mid-June
(b) Mid-June to September
(c) September to November
(d) December to February
The South-West winds are full of moisture because of their direction from:
(a) Sea to land
(b) Land to sea
(c) Land to land
(d) Sea to sea
As the Tropic of Cancer passes through the middle part of India, its climate is
The winds which bring maximum rainfall to Tamil Nadu are
The hot dusty dry winds are called:
(a) Sand dunes
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Which place in India records the highest rainfall in the world?
Mawsynran in Cheerapunji records the highest rainfall in the world.
What are the Jet Streams?
The fast blowing winds of a steady velocity, moving in a narrow zone of the upper atmosphere, are called the Jet Streams.
Name the branches of the South-West monsoons.
(a) The Bay of Bengal monsoons
(b) The Arabian Sea monsoons
What does ‘Monsoon’ mean?
Monsoon has been derived from the Arabic word ‘Mausim’. It means seasonal reversal in the direction of the winds throughout the year.
What is Loo?
Loo is the local language used for the hot and diy winds blowing all over the North India during the hot summer season.
Name the four months during which India receives the maximum of rainfall.
India receives maximum of rainfall during the months of June, July, August and September.
Name the four factors responsible for influencing the climate.
Four factors which influence the climate are:
- Altitude (Height above sea-level)
- Latitude (Distance from equator)
- Distance from the sea
- Direction of winds
Name the Jet Streams on the basis of area.
On the basis of area the Jet Streams are named as:
- Tropical Eastern Jet
- Semi-Tropical Western Jet.
Which are the three types of climatic conditions of India?
(a) Pre-monsoon conditions
(b) Advancing monsoon conditions
(c) Retreating monsoon conditions
What is another name for the Summer Monsoon?
Another name for the summer monsoon is South-West Monsoon
Short Answer Type Questions
Name the six seasons as recognised in India.
- Spring Season: Chaitra-Baisakh
- Summer Season: Jaishth-Aashadh
- Rainy Season: Sahravan-Bhadrapad
- Autumn Season: Aashwin Kartik
- Winter Season: Margshirsh-Paush
- Cold Season: Magh-Falgun
Write about the pre-monsoon climatic conditions in India.
The country becomes extreme hot. The fast storms and hot winds blow in several places. The direction of winds changes, i.e. the winds blow rapidly from sea to land.
Why are the variations found in the climate of India?
India has monsoon type of climate with variations mainly due to the geographical diversities and the vast extent of our country.
Maintain the two concepts regarding the origin and development of the monsoons.
- The traditional view related to the parallel rays of the sun on the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn.
- The latest view is related with the development of periodical storms in troposphere.
What are Mango Showers?
Mango Showers help in the early ripening of the mangoes. They are, in fact the pre-shower monsoons which shed rainfall in Kerala and Karnataka towards the close of the summer. As they help in the early ripening of the mangoes, the local people call them the Mango Showers.
What is meant by retreating of the monsoon?
The low pressure area becomes weak and is gradually replaced by High pressure. The monsoon becomes unsustainable and it starts withdrawing gradually. This phenomenon is called ‘Retreating of Monsoon’.
Why are the winter monsoons usually dry?
During the winter season, low pressure area is formed over the sea surface. In such conditions winds blow from land towards sea. These winds are usjually dry due to their origin
from land. These are also called diy winds.
Mention the factors which influence the climate of Rajasthan.
The climate of Rajasthan is mainly the part of the Monsoon type of climate. But there are several spatial variations. The maximum part of Rajasthan lies in the temperate climate zone. The factors which influence the climate of Rajasthan are latitudinal location, altitude i.e. height above sea-level, direction of mountains, direction of winds, type of soil and vegetation.
Why is the North India marked by extreme heat (high temperature) during the summer season?
- Parallel sun rays in the Northern Hemisphere
- Distance from sea
- Increase in temperature due to anti-cyclonic effect
Explain the origin and development of the phenomenon of the summer monsoon in India.
When the sun rays fall direct along the Tropic of Cancer the Northern Hemisphere especially India becomes very hot and due to intense heat the low pressure area is formed around Multan in Pakistan and at the same time high pressure areas are formed in the Indian Ocean, Australia and in the South of Japan in the Pacific Ocean. The winds laden with moisture start blowing from high pressure areas to the low-pressure areas. These south-western winds as coming from the south of the Indian Ocean towards India, are full of vapours, they shed rainfall in India due to obstruction of the Himalayas. These summer monsoons are also called south-west monsoons.
Describe the temperature in India during the winter season.
Temperature during the winter falls below freezing point in several places in the Northern India. The average temperature during this season is less than 21°C but more in the South because of nearness to the equator and maritime influence. The temperature decreases from South to North. While the mean temperature is between 24°C and 25°C in Chennai, it is between 10°C and 15°C in the northern plains.
Monsoons in India are known for their variations and uncertainties. Explain.
Monsoons in India are known for their variations and uncertainties because of the alternation of dry and wet spells in their intensity, frequency and durations. While they cause heavy floods in one part, they may be responsible for drought in the others. They are often found irregular and unpunctual in their arrival as well as in retreat. Thus, they disturb the entire farming schedule and sometimes affect, adversely, millions of farmers in the whole country.
Why does western Rajasthan receive comparatively less rainfall?
Less Rainfall in Rajasthan: One sub¬branch of the Bay of Bengal moves along the Ganga plains westwards to reach Western Punjab and Western Rajasthan. The intensity of moisture in these winds gets exhausted as they reach Western Rajasthan. Therefore, there is less of rainfall in Rajasthan. The Arabian Sea is obstructed by the Aravalli ranges. That is another reason due to which the Western Rajasthan, i.e. Bikaner, Jaisalmer, etc. get less rainfall.
Write about the extent of annual rainfall of Rajasthan.
As Rajasthan is located in the interior part of India, here the average annual rainfall is not higher and even the distribution of rainfall in uneven.
(a) More than 100 cm rainfall:
In these regions, the average of annual rainfall is found to be more than 100 cm, in which Mount Abu of Sirohi, western part of Udaipur, southern Rajsamand, south-western Bhilwara, etc. are included.
(b) 50 to 100 cm rainfall:
In these regions, the average of annual rainfall is found between 50 to 100 cm in which Sirohi, Kota, Banswara, Pali, Jaipur, Bharatpur, Alwar, etc, are included.
(c) Region of less than 50 cm rainfall:
In these areas, Jhunjhunu, Sikar, Ajmer, Sriganganagar, Hanumangarh, Bikaner, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Barmer are included.
The Western desert receives the minimum rainfall, Le. less than 25 cm average annual rainfall. In the east upto the Aravallis the average annual rainfall is 25 to 50 cm. 95% of the total rainfall in the state is received from the Arabian sea and the Bay of Bengal monsoons. Very little rainfall is received from ‘Mavath’ in winter.
Long Answer Type Questions
Discuss the North-East Monsoon period regarding temperature, air pressure and wind and rainfall.
The North-East Monsoon period:
- Winter Season- December to February
- Summer Season- March to mid-June
1. Winter Season
Temperature: In the North-India temperature remains low and the winters are severe because of distance from equator and ocean as well as height above the sea-level. Temperature in the southern India remains high because of nearness to Equator and maritime influence. In the winters temperature in the Northern India falls, sometimes, below freezing point. Usually, the average temperature is, usually, less than 21 °C but it is more in the south.
Air Pressure and Winds: High pressure areas are formed over the central Asia and low pressure over the Indian Ocean area. Hence, winds blow from the high-pressure area of the central Asia to the Oceanic low pressure area. Winds blowing towards the Sea, along with Mediterranean cyclones cause rainfall, which are called ‘Mavath’.
Rainfall: The North-Western part of India receives rainfall from cyclones of the Mediterranean sea and the Southern part from the retreating monsoons. Jammu-Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh receive rainfall from the Mediterranean sea cyclones whereas Tamilnadu in south receives rainfall from the Retreating monsoons.
2. Summer Season
Temperature: There is immense heat and appreciable rise in temperature from March to mid-June, in the Northern India due to parallel rays of the sun in the Northern Hemisphere, distance from sea and anti-cyclonic effect. Very often temperature touches 50°C in the Northern India. In the Southern India temperature is, relatively, low because of the influence of sea.
Air Pressure and Winds: Due to rise in temperature low pressure area is formed over the Northern India. An intense low-pressure area develops over the ‘Maru’ area of Rajasthan and Punjab. On the contrary high pressure area develops over the Indian Ocean. During this season very hot winds blow in the Northern India, called ‘Loo’ in the local dialect. Sometimes hailstorms are accompanied by light showers.
Rainfall: The amount of rainfall received is less in this season. It is called Kal Baisakhi in West Bengal, Mango Showers in Malabar Coast, Chprry Blossom in coffee-producing areas.
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