RBSE Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Chapter 2 Main Philosophies of the World are part of RBSE Solutions for Class 10 Social Science. Here we have given Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Chapter 2 Main Philosophies of the World.
|Chapter Name||Main Philosophies of the World|
|Number of Questions Solved||64|
Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 9 Social Science Chapter 2 Main Philosophies of the World
TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
When did Mahavir Swami bom?
(a) 699 BC
(b) 570 BC
(c) 675 BC
(d) 599 BC
Where Mahatma Buddha gave his first Sermon?
(a) Kapil Vastu
(d) Bodh Gaya
When did Hijari Samwat start?
(a) 622 BC
(b) 632 BC
(c) 570 BC
(d) 566 BC
Which is the holy book of Christian religion?
Very Short Answer Type Questions
How many Purusharthas are there? Name them.
There are four Purusharthas:
In which philosophy it is said “Vasudhev Kutumbkam”?
In Vedic philosophy.
Who is the creator, saviour and destroyer of world according to Vedic philosophy?
One God (Ishwar)
Name the 1 st and 24th Tirthankaras of Jain religion.
1st – Rishabh Dev; 24th – Mahavir Swami.
Name five Mahavratas.
- Ahimsa (Non-violence)
- Truthfulness (Satya)
- Non-stealing (Asatya),
- Celibacy (Brahmacharya),
- Non-convetious (Aprigrah).
Discuss the non-violence (Ahimsa) given in Jainism.
Non-violence (Ahimsa) is the soul of Mahavir’s teachings. Ahimsa means feeling of kindness, equality and service to others.
The real Ahimsa is not having the feeling of badness for others from Mana, Karma * and Vachna.
What was the childhood name of Mahatma Buddha?
Siddhartha was the childhood name of Mahatma Buddha.
What is the cause of suffering according to Mahatma Buddha?
Trishna and Vaasna are the causes of suffering according to Mahatma Buddha.
In how many sects Buddha religion was divided?
Into two sects
(a) Mahayana who believed in worshipping Buddha’s idols.
(b) Hinyana who believed in religious scriptures.
What is the name of the event which marks the migration of Mohammad Sahab from Mecca to Medina?
The event which marks the migration of Mohammad Sahab from Mecca to Medina is called Hazrat in Islam.
Where was Hazrat Mohammad bom?
Hajrat Mohammad was born in Mecca.
Who were the main disciples of Jesus Christ?
Saint Paul and Saint Peter were the main disciples of Jesus Christ.
Name the people who follow the old principles of Bible?
Who was the founder of Parsi religion?
Who is the symbol of dettes in Parsi religion?
Short Answer Type Questions
Explain the message of tolerance in Vedic philosophy?
According to Upanishadas, the all pervasive brahma in the world and the soul in man are one and the same. The objective of man is to feel this Ekatma. Due to feeling of this, Ekatma (person) gets permanent bliss or happiness (Sachidananda). This philosophy has given the message of tolerance (Sahishnuta) to all mankind.
Explain the concept of three Jewels (Tri-ratna) in Jain philosophy.
The ultimate motive of this religion is to achieve Moksha. To achieve this, three measures were given by Mahavir Swami which later called as Tri-ratna.
- Right Knowledge (to complete and true knowledge): According to Vardhaman Mahavir, man should study and follow the preachings of Trithankaras to attain complete and true knowledge.
- Right Perception: (to have complete faith in Tirthankaras): Everybody should have complete faith and reverence in Tirthankaras to achieve true knowledge.
- Right Conduct: It means that true salvation can be achieved after winning over the five senses (desires). So man should control over his senses or desires.
Who are the main Tirthankaras of Jain religion?
There are 24 Tirthankaras in Jain religion among them Rishbh Dev or Adinath was first, Parshvanath 23rd and Mahavir Swami the 24th.
Describe the concept of four noble truths of Buddha philosophy.
The essence of Buddhism lies in the four noble truths, i.e., sufferings, cause of sufferings, eradication of sufferings and path to eradicate sufferings.
Buddha believed that this world is full of misery and sorrow. The cause of misery and sorrows is desire. He said that the result of our Karmas (actions) whether good or bad affect us both in this life and the next.
Explain the concept of Animism of Buddha philosophy.
Buddha philosophy did not believe in immortality of soul. According to Buddha, soul was a matter of suspense, so he did not say soul is present, or not.
What was the impact of Mohammad Saheb’s teaching on Arab people?
Mohammad Saheb’s idea gradually spread in the whole Arab. Arabian society organized and his caliphs founded a vast empire after his death in 632 AD.
Describe the forces of deities and demons illustrated in Parsi religion.
In world two types of forces are there:
- Deities: Ahuramazada (A symbol of God): He is a great deity who created earth, man and heaven. Ahuramazada say- “Hey! Man don’t think evil, don’t leave the right path (truth), don’t do sin.”
- Demons: Ahirman (the representative of demons): He makes the people shaitan and take them towards hell. There is always a fight between deities and demons but ultimately Ahuramazada wins.
Long Answer Type Questions
Describe the main features of Vedic philosophy.
Main features of Vedic philosophy are:
- In Vedic period, people worship many natural forces. Among them Indra, Mitra, Varuna, Agni, Yama are main. To please them anushthans were done. The creator, preserver and destroyer is one God (Ishwar), Multi-gods and goddesses described in Vedas are living forms of natural forces.
Some gods in Vedas are considered as feelings (Bhavas). Feeling of Shradha, Krodha (Devotion, anger) in man are considered as god and goddesses in Vedas. The basis of Vedic philosophy is, there was no form of gods and goddesses (Nirakar) as these were natural forces.
- The first mandai of the Rig Veda says that (Ishwar or ultimate truth) is one but intellectuals call it with different names.
- According to Upnishadas: The all pervasive Brahma in the world and the soul in man are one and the same. The objective of man is to feel this Ekatma. Due to feeling of this Ekatma, person gets permanent bliss or happiness (Sachidananda). This philosophy has given the message of tolerance (Sahishnuta) to all mankind. A system of four Purusharthas is given in Vedic philosophy to elevate man’s spritual and physical life. They are (t) Dharma (it) Artha (Hi) Kama (iv) Moksha.
- Dharma: Fulfillment of duty and good behaviour
- Artha: Achieving material prosperity
- Kama: Achievement of physical pleasure
- Moksha: To achieve salvation or Mukti by following the path of Karma (deeds), Gyana (knowledge), Bhakti (devotion). The development of man and society is possible by appropriate co-ordination of four Purusharthas.
- According to Vedic philosophy, rebirth occurs on the basis of Karma (deeds). Hence, by doing good deeds man can make his life best.
In Vedic Darshan, Vasudhev Kutumbkam is illustrated. By this a man make free himself from the chains of narrowness and consider whole earth as his family.
- In Vedic philosophy, inspiration is given to keep the elements of nature like Agni, Jal, Prithvi, Vayu, Aakash pure through Stuti and Yajanas (Yagya).
- In Upnishadas, thought of balanced or disciplined consumption is illustrated. By following this a person follow his duties keeping him away from greed and attachment. Service of others is Dharma and giving others grief is sin is said in Vedic Darshan. In this way, Vedic philosophy gives inspiration of love, brotherhood, good behaviour, co-operation and co-ordination to whole world.
What are the main teachings of Jain religion.
The ultimate motive of this religion is to achieve moksha. To achieve this, three measures were given by Mahavir Swami which later called as Tri-ratna.
Jain religion’s philosophical thought starts from here:
- Right Knowledge (Samyak Gyan): True knowledge should achieve by the study of thoughts of tirthankaras.
- Right Perception (Samyak Darshan): To keep full faith in Tirthankaras.
- Right Character (Samyak Charitra): Man can achieve true knowledge by controlling his sense organs.
Five teachings of Jain philosophy are:
- Non-violence: It is the soul of Mahavir’s teachings. Ahimsa means feeling of
kindness, equality and sendee to others. .
- Truthfulness (Satya): One should speak truth in any condition.
- Non-stealing (Asteya): Theft is a wrong deed.
- Non-covetiousness (Aprigrah): No large possessions. Keep according to needs. It keeps away from greed and attachment.
- Celibacy (Brahamcharya): Mahavir joined 5th Mahavrata in four measures of Tirathankar Parshvnath as four mahavratas cannot be kept without 5th. According to Mahavir, cause of world’s happiness and grief is ‘mana’. If one can control Mana or Soul, He can get Moksha or salvation.
Tapasya and Upasna: To control mana and keep five Mahavratas, he stressed on Tapa and Upasana.
Tapsya is of two types:
By external Tapa, a person gets capability of internal tapa.
Upvas: It makes soul and body pure and way to get moksha is cleared. Mahavir believed in soul and its immortality. He believed in theoiy of Karma Le. transmigration of soul occurs due to Karma and rebirth takes place. He was against untouchability and casteism. He gave respect to women. He opposed violence and social evils.
Principle of Syadvad or Anekantvad: It is the main mantra of tolerance and co-ordination. Not giving respect to others is the cause of tension today in the world. Jain philosophy gives the inspiration of purity of soul.
Illustrate the teaching of Buddha philosophy.
The basis of his philosophical thought is four noble truths:
- Cause of suffering
- Eradication of sufferings
- Path to eradicate sufferings.
- Sufferings: World is full of sufferings – birth-death, Sanyog-Viyog, profit-loss, etc. all are sufferings.
- Cause of suffering: Trishna (Laalsa) is the cause of all sufferings.
- Eradication of sufferings: Eradication of greed, attachment, Vaasna can bring happiness.
- Path to eradicate sufferings: Ashtangik Marg (eight-fold path). It is also called medium path.
- Right belief (Samyak Drishti): Differentiation among Satya, Asatya, Papa, Punya develops faith in four noble truths.
- Right thought: Have firm-determination to keep away from Trishna.
- Right speech: Speak truth everyday in sweet voice.
- Right action: Always do right deeds .
- Right means of livelihood: Earn your livelihood in a honest way.
- Right efforts: Do hardwork for indulging your body in right work.
- Right remembrance: Always keep your mistakes in mind while doing work, next time, do it wisely and carefully.
- Right meditation: Do meditation for concentration and controlling Mana.
Buddha gave stress on character and morality/ He asked his disciples to remain pure by mind, body and soul. For this he asked to follow ten characters.
These can be called 10 rules of good character:
- Follow Ahimsa (Ahimsa)
- Sacrifice of lie (Truth)
- Do not steal (Asteya)
- Not doing collection of things (Aparigriha)
- Keep away from Kama (Brahmachaiya)
- Sacrifice of music and dance
- Sacrifice of scented things
- Not taking food untimely
- Sacrifice of soft matress and
- Sacrifice of beautiful things (Kamini Ranchan).
The first five rules should be followed by all Grihasthas and Sanyasis.
By following these five rules one can go ahead on the path of Moksha without leaving physical world, but the man who want to be an Ascetic or Bhikshu has to follow all ten rules.
By throwing light on Muhammad Saheb’s life describe the teaching of Islam.
Founder of Islam Hazrat Muhammad born in 570 AD in Mecca. His father’s name was Abdulla and mother’s name Amina. His father died before his birth and mother died in his childhood. He was raised by his nurse Halima Dai. Muhammad Saheb got married at the age of 20 with a widow lady Khadija 40 years old. She was very much impressed of his honesty. After marriage Muhammad Saheb indulge himself in thinking. Before Islam people of Arab believed in many gods and idol worshipping. In such conditions Muhammad Saheb gave his message to Arabians “No one except Allah should be worshipped and I am his messenger.” He was tortured to leave Mecca and thus he went Medina for opposing worship of 360 gods kept in Kaba. This important event is called Hijrah in Islam. From this event in 622 AD Hijari Samwat of Islam begins.
The people who welcomed Mohammad Saheb when he reached Medina, were called Ansars (helpers). From here he started propagating Islam. People of Mecca also slowly accepted his thinking. In 632 AD after his death, his caliphs (Khalifas) founded the vast empire of Islam. Abubakar, Siddiqui, Hazrat Umar Farooq, Hazrat Usman Gani, Hazrat Ali etc. were some caliphs who also propagated Islam. In this way, Islam gradually spread in the whole Arab.
The collection of teaching of Islam are preserved in Quran, the holy book of Islam.
There are five main teachings of Islam which are as follows:
- Kalma (Mool Mantra): People should worship only Allah and Muhammad is his messenger.
- Namaz: Every Muslim should offer namaaz five times a day.
- Roja (Vrat): Every Muslim should keep fast in the month of Ramzan.
- Jakat (Charity): Every Muslim should give amount of not less than 1.40% of the income in alms.
- Hajyatra: Every Muslim should go on pilgrimage of Mecca and Madina (Haj) once in his life.
- Islam does not believe in the cycle of birth and rebirth.
- Islam believes that after the death of man Allah calculates his deeds and give him Dojakh (Narak/hell) or Jannat (Swarg/heaven).
- Islam did not believe in idol worshipping.
Introducing Jesus Christ throw light on philosophy of Christian religion.
Founder of Christianity and philosophy was Jesus Christ. He was born in mountainous region of Philistine (Palestine) at Bethlehem. His father Yusuf and mother Marium were carpenters. He determined to make society free from orthodoxy. He gave message to people that God looks every one with same eyes or everyone is equal before God. His views were not tolerated by Jews.
Once he opposed the violent acts of Jews in Jerusalem. It made Jews against him and annoyed. One of the disciples of Christ, made him arrest. He was given punishment by crucifying at the age of 30. In his last words he said, “O God forgive them, because they do not know what they are doing.” His main disciples Saint Paul and Saint Peter propagated his principles.
Philosophy of Christianity : The teachings of Jesus are compiled in the holy book called Bible.
The principles and teachings of Christianity are as follows:
- God is one and all are equal before him.
- Jesus said, “Hate the sin and not the sinner.”
- All human being are the children of one God. So we all are related to each other.
- We should leave anger and feeling of revenge and learn to forgive.
- Learn tolerance it would make the soul powerful. .
- Christianity gave lesson to the people of truth, non-violence, service to poor and sufferers, sacrifice.
- It lays stress on living a virtuous life.
Later Christianity divided into two sects:
ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS SOLVED
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
Which philosophy has given the welfare Mantra,”Serve Bhavantu Sukhina”?
(a) Vedic philosophy
(b) Christian philosophy
(c) Islam philosophy
(d) Parsi philosophy
The first Jain Tirthankar was
(b) Rishab Dev
Who said, “O, God forgive them for they do not know what they are doing”
(a) Jesus Christ
(b) St. Paul
(c) St. Joseph
(d) Mahatma Gandhi
Who got enlightenment under the ‘Banyan tree’?
(b) Swami Vivekananda
(c) Gautam Buddha
(d) Swami Mahavir
The religious scripture of Parsis is
“None but the Allah (God ) deserves to be worshipped and I am his messenger.” Who gave this message to the people of the Arabia?
(a) Muhammad Saheb
(b) Jesus Christ
(c) Mahavir Swami
Basic five principles of Panch Mahavratas are related with the
(a) Buddhist philosophy
(b) Jain philosophy
(c) Islamic philosophy
(d) Parsi philosophy
The oldest scriptures of the Hindus is the
(a) Rig Veda
‘Hate the evil, not the evil-doers is the basic theme of the
(a) Hindu philosophy
(b) Christian philosophy
(c) Sikh philosophy
(d) Muslim philosophy
Very Short Answer Type Questions
‘Ashtangik Marga’ is related to which religious philosophy?
The Ashtangik Marga is related to the Buddhist philosophy.
Write the names of two sects of Christianity.
Who is the founder of the Jainism?
Mahavir Swami is the founder of the Jainism.
Name two sects of Islam.
Whose deity is Ahuramazada?
Ahuramazada is the deity of the Parsis.
Which are the two sects of the Jain religion?
Two sects of the Jain religion are-
Which philosophy has propounded the doctrine of Tri-Ratna?
The Jain philosophy has propounded the doctrine of Tri-Ratna.
Which sect of the Christians opposed the sale of indulgence paper?
The sale of indulgence papers was opposed by the Protestants.
Why did Buddha suggest to adopt Ashtangik Marga?
Buddha told to adopt Ashtangik Marga in order to get rid of suffering.
Short Answer Type Questions
What is the difference between Hinayan and Mahayan?
The Hinayan or the Lesser Vehicle considers religious scriptures and Karmas (deeds) as a base to achieve Nirvana, whereas Mahayana or the Greater Vehicle considers Buddha as a deity and worships his idols.
What is Gautam Buddha’s eightfold path?
Eight-fold path of Gautam Buddha includes:
- right belief
- right thought
- right speech
- right action
- right exertion
- right meditation
- right remembrance
- right means of livelihood
Point out any three similarities between the Jainism and the Buddhism.
Three similarities between the Jainism and the Buddhism are-
- Belief in the theory of rebirth.
- Belief in the theory of Karma.
- Moksha as the ultimate aim of life.
Point out any three differences between the Jainism and Buddhism.
Three differences between the Jainism and the Buddhism are:
- Jainism laid undue stress on non¬violence while Buddhism avoided extremes.
- Bucfdhist did not believe in remaining naked like the Jains.
- Jainism remained confined to certain regions in India itself while Buddhism spread beyond India.
Who were known as the Ansars in Islam?
Ansars were the people of Medina, who accepted Mohammad Saheb’s views and extended him a great welcome. They propagated Islam and thus helped Muhammad Saheb.
“Impact of Jain philosophy is visible, even today, on the Indian society.” Explain it.
Every year Mahavir Jayanti is celebrated on the 13th of Chetra Shukla in India. The people of India visit the important pilgrimages of Jains. They are Sravanbelgola in Karnataka, Girnar and Palithana in Gujarat and Sammed Shikharji in Jharkhand. The famous Jain pilgrimages in Rajasthan are Mahaviiji in Karoli, Dada badi and Soni Ji-Ki Nashia in Ajmer, Rishab Deva, Chand- Kheri, Rankpur and Jaisalmer. Thus, one can see the impact of the Jain philosophy on the Indian society.
Why was Jesus Christ crucified?
Which event in particular was respon¬sible for Jesus Christ’s crucification?
Before Christ, the emperor of Rome, was worshiped like God and religious dogmatism was at its peak. The Jews were in despair. Jesus Christ resolved to liberate the society from human worship and belief in superstitions. He moved from village to village to convey the message, “all are equal in the eyes of God.” Jews were offended. Once Jesus opposed the violent activities of Jews in a festival of Jerusalem. Then, the Jewish priests felt offended. Judas, a follower of Christ, got him arrested by fraud. As an act of punishment, Jesus Christ was crucified at the age of 30.
The continuous process of human thought existed all over the world. Explain it briefly.
This continuous process of human thought existed all over the world in man’s community, which resulted to give birth different Upasnas, sects and religions in the world. Way of worshipping or upasana of these religions is different, while ultimate aim is the same, i.e. to get Moksha. Dharma guides the Sadhak the form of philosophy and analyses elements which work as abstractions or supporter in Chintan.
What should we do to become a good citizen?
Analysis, Chintan or Mimansa have developed the philosophies of all religions of the world. Hence, to become a good citizen, every individual should have the knowledge of philosophies of main religions of the world.
Write two common principles of all the religions.
Two common principles of all the religions-
- All the religions aim to reach that ultimate authority (God).
- Values like service of humanity, helping others, Ahimsa, love, etc. are found in all the religions.
What is the ultimate objective of all religions?
Ultimate objective of all religions is one, i.e. making human life spiritually better. Every religion stress on five good: character-building and good traits, service to mankind, Ahimsa, love, etc. feelings are found in every religion. We should have feeling of equal respect towards all religions.
Long Answer Type Questions
Write a critical appraisal of the concept of Sarv Panth Samadar.
Sarv Panth Samadar, literary means, equal respect to all religious sects. The concept is rightly tuned because the study of all the major religious philosophies has revealed that the ultimate aim of all the religions is to improve the physical and spiritual life of man. Various principles laid down by the preceptors and founders of various religions aim to reach that ultimate authority (God). Many principles are same in most of the religious philosophies. Values like service of humanity, helping others, Ahimsa, love, etc. are found in all the religions. All the sects emphasise the need of virtues for good character building. In our country, people of all major religions and cults reside. We should have an attitude of mutual respect towards all. This is the underlying theme of Sarv Panth Samadar. Panth is a way to achieve God.
All the sects and cult are near truth. The best remedy lies in creating the human religion by taking out good tenets from the other religions, sects and cults. By doing so the feeling of Sarv Dharma Samadar will emerge. Mahatma Gandhi had equal respect for all the religions and sects. He studied scriptures like Gita, Quran, etc. and made the good ideas in them, a part of his life. Today we need to understand the idea of Sarv Panth Samadar and give it a practical shape. We should live under the banner of Vasudeva Kutumbkam’ so as to realise the teachings of the Vedas, Gita, Quran and Bible. Emperor Ashoka had emphasised the feeling of Sarv Panth Samadar in his stone engravings in the words, “A man, who, while in love with his own religion, Criticises the religion of the other, in fact, damages his own religion. In our Constitution too, there is emphasis on the feeling of Sarv Dharma Samadar.
Give the life sketch of Lord Mahavira and Gautam Buddha.
He was born in 599 BC in Kundagram near Vaishali in Kshatriya Kul. His childhood name was Vardhman. His father’s name Siddhartha and mother’s name Trishla. His mother was sister of king Chetak belonged to Lichchvi Ganrajya. He became an ascetic at the age of 30 after the death of his parents. He left his home in search of truth by the permission of his elder brother Nandivardhan. He had to face difficulties during rigorous meditation. He lived without food and clothes. After 12 years, he attained knowledge on the bank of river Rizupalika. He was then called with names Jin (winner), Nirgranth (free from doubt) and Mahavir, etc. After attaining enlightment, he started giving right way of life to people. To propagate his thoughts, he roamed place to place. His thoughts reached to Magadha, Kashi and Kaushla. Due to his true teachings, many people became his followers. Slowly number of his followers increased. He breathed his last at the age of 72 years at Pavapuri in 527 BC. He left behind him 14 thousand disciples.
He was born in 563 BC in Kapilvastu Ganrajya near North Bihar in Shakya dynasty in Kshatriya Kul. His father’s name was Shuddhodhan. His mother Mayadevi gave him birth in Lumbini on the way when she was going to her parents’ place. His childhood name was Siddharth. Unfortunately his mother died after seven days of the birth of Siddharth. Hence, he was brought up by his aunt Prajapati Gautami right from his childhood. He was very kind and philosophical minded. He had no interest in world. By seeing such an attitude, his father got him marry with a princess named Yashodhra. After spending 10 years of married life, his ascetic mana could not love this physical world. He left his wife and son Rahul, father Shushoddhan, and went in search of enlightment. This event of Siddhartha’s life is stated as ‘Mahabhinish kraman’ in Buddha literature.
He lived 7 years as a sage. First of all, he went to Alar Kalam of Vaishali for knowledge but it could not fulfil his thirst. Then he went to Udrak Ramput at Rajgriha still he was not satisfied then he reached to Uruvela forests. There he did meditation with his five disciples including Kandinya at the bank of river Niranjana. He became very weak physically. Still he was not satisfied so he started taking meals leaving Tapasya. By seeing such change in him, his disciples left him. But Siddhartha sat for Tapa under a Peepal tree with firm determination. He attained enlightment after rigorous penance of 7 days on Vaishakh Purnima, and that day on wards he was named Buddha.
The Peepal tree under which he attained enlightment became famous as Bodh-vriksh. He gave his first sermon to two Banjaras named Tapassu and Mallik at Bodh Gaya. Then he reached to Sarnath to preach his teachings to common people. He made contact with his 5 disciples. He gave them Diksha. This event in Bodh religion is called Dharmachakra-Parivartan. He left his body at the age of 80 in 483 BC in Kushinagar near Gorakhpur. This event of leaving his body is called Mahaparinirvan.
How did Lord Buddha propound his philosophy?
Lord Buddha propounded his philosophy independently by criticizing orthodoxes of that era. He stressed on reason. He did not believe in blind faith. Hence, he criticized the authenticity of Vedas. He did not accept God as creator. Hence people called him Nastik (who do not believe in God). He did not believe in immortality of soul. According to him, soul was a matter of suspense, so he did not say soul is present, or not. He believed in the theory of Karma (deeds). He said one has to reap the fruits of his Karma.
He believed in cycle of rebirth which is based on Karmas. But according to him, soul do not take rebirth instead ego takes rebirth. When man’s Trishna and Vaasna is removed or destroyed, ego also destroyed and man comes out from the cycle of rebirth and gets Nirvana or Moksha or salvation. Though Ahimsa is the main mantra of Buddhism like Jainism, but he did not give much stress on it, instead he gave stress on purity of soul. The ultimate aim of Buddhism is Moksha. The meaning of Nirvana is to Extinguish. According to him, Nirvana can be achieved after extinguishing fire of Trishna. In this way, Jainism and Buddhism eliminated the rituals of Vedic philosophy and added new.
Describe the salient features of Parsi philosophy.
Human body is mortal, soul is immortal.
Man gets heaven or hell according to his deeds like the Vedic philosophy. There are two types of forces in the world-
(a) Deities: Ahuramazada, symbol of Gods, is a great deity who created earth, man and heaven. He says, “Dont think evil, don’t leave the right path (truth), don’t do sin.”
(b) Demons: Ahirman is the representative of demons. He makes the people shaitan and take them towards hell. There is always a fight between deities and demons but ultimately Ahurnazada wins.
- Parsi or Zoroastrian philosophy is not an escapist. According to him, doing
good deeds by living on the earth heaven can be attained.
- Physical and spiritual are two parts of the body and after death the former dies but the later remains alive.
- According to Parsi philosophy, the world is made up of air, water, fire and the earth.
- Avesta-a-Jind, the holy book of Parsis in which teaching of Zoroaster are preserved.
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