Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 10 Science Notes Chapter 12 Main Natural Resources
Anything which is directly or indirectly beneficial for human beings is called resource. A resource which is directly obtained from nature is called a natural resource.
Types of Natural Resources: Resources on the basis of development and usage:
- Developed Resources: A resource which is being used at present and we know about its quantity and properties, is called a developed resource. For example: quantity of coal in Germany, quantity of crude oil in West Asia, quantity of black soil in Maharashtra, etc.
- Potential Resources: A resource about which no data is available and is not being used currently is called a potential resource. There is a possibility that such a resource shall be used in future. Uranium in Ladakh is an example of potential resource. At present we are not using Uranium from Ladakh but may use it in future.
Resources on the basis of origin:
- Biotic Resource: A resource which comes from any organism is called a biotic resource,
e.g. firewood, fruits, timber, etc.
Abiotic Resource: A resource which comes from non-living things is called abiotic resource, e.g. iron, coal, limestone, etc.
Resources on the basis of distribution:
- Local Resource: A resource which is found at selected places is called a local resource, e.g. diamond mines in Africa.
- Universal Resource: A resource which is found all over the world is called, universal resource, e.g. air and water.
Resources on the basis of renewability:
- Renewable Resources: A resource which can be reused or which can be renewed in foreseeable future is called a renewable resource. Renewable resources are present in unlimited quantity because they can be easily replenished. Examples: solar energy, wind energy, etc.
- Non-renewable Resources: A resource which cannot be renewed in foreseeable future is called a non-renewable resource. It takes millions of years for the formation of such resources and hence they cannot be replenished in our lifetime. Examples: coal, petroleum and natural gas.
Management of Natural Resources:
With developments in sciences and technology, man started exploitation of natural resources beyond the needs for sustenance of life which puts question mark on the existence of human life because there is threat of resources being wiped out.
Judicious Use and Conservation:
If resources are used in a planned and judicious manner then we can sustain the benefits from resources for a long time to come. The planned, proper and judicious use of resources is called conservation of resources. Conservation means that we use the resources in a way so that most of the human beings are benefited and we are in a position to use the resources for a long time to come.
Need for conservation of resources:
If the balance of nature will be disturbed, the existence of human beings will be in danger.
Ways of conservation of resources:
We should use resources on relative priority basis i.e., search for alternate of limited resource.
Forest Conservation and Management:
Following steps can be taken to ensure forest conservation:
- Forests should be cut only to the extent that they can self-sustain. The ratio of plantation should be equal to deforestation.
- Forest should be prevented from fire. For this, inspection houses and fire-protection tracks should be made.
- Insecticides should be used to protect forest from pests. Diseased tree should be removed to prevent further infection of trees.
- The practice of monoculture plantation should be stopped and steps should be taken to increase diversity of plant species.
- There should be ban on deforestation for the purpose of making way for human settlement and for jhum cultivation.
- Modern alternatives for timber and firewood should be adapted to prevent deforestation.
- Forest conservation should be kept in mind while making multipurpose dam projects.
- Public awareness about forest conservation should be increased. Chipko Movement and Peaceful Valley are results of such awareness. Social organizations and NGOs play important role in forest conservation.
- It is good to promote social forestry.
- Laws on forest conservation should be strictly enforced.
There are three components of social forestry:
- Plantation of trees for the community at public places; like canals, roads, hospitals, etc.
- Plantation of trees at public land by villagers.
Causes of Extinction of Wildlife
Destruction of Natural Habitat:
Volcanic eruption, earthquake and tsunami are the main reasons. Other causes are as follows:
- Growth in human population means there is ever increasing human need. Human beings have used forests to fulfill the need for shelter, agriculture and industries. It is posing danger for natural habitat of wildlife.
- Mega dam projects; like Bhakhra Nangal, Tehri Dam, Vyas Project, etc. have resulted in submersion of a large area of forest.
- Natural habitat has also been destroyed by mining, environmental pollution and acid rain.
- Greenhouse effect has raised the temperature of the earth and it is destroying biodiversity.
- Illegal poaching of wildlife
- Struggle between humans and wildlife
Conservation of Wildlife:
To conserve wildlife different steps are taken at various levels.
From 1952 to 1972, conservation of forest in India was done as per National Forest Policy. For better protection of wildlife, the Wildlife Protection Act was enacted in 1972.
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) was constituted in 1948, to ensure conservation of nature. IUCN compiled the data of extinct species in the form of a book called Red Data Book. IUCN classified five types of species which are as follows:
- Extinct Species: A species which is not longer found anywhere on earth, e.g. Dinosaur, rainia, dodo, etc.
- Endangered Species: A species which may become extinct if suitable steps are not taken in time, e.g. rhino, Asiatic lion, cheetah, etc.
- Vulnerable Species: A species, population of which has reduced to such a level that it may become endangered, e,g. Gangetic dolphin.
- Rare Species: A species, population of which is so low that it may become vulnerable or endangered, e.g. Asiatic buffalo.
- Unknown Species: Species which are living on the earth but we do not have sufficient information about them.
National Park is a natural area where wildlife, natural remains and environment are given protection. Grazing is completely prohibited in a national park. Private agencies cannot enter a national park for private work.
A sanctuary is a protected area where there is complete ban on hunting of animals. A private agency is given a permission to enter a sanctuary only when its activity is creative and is not going to have negative effects on wildlife.
A biosphere reserve is an area which is declared as peaceful areas for scientific research. There are 669 biosphere reserves in 128 countries; out of which 18 biosphere reserves are in India. The first biosphere reserve came into existence in 1986 in Nilgiri.
Water Conservation and Management:
About 97.5% of the total water on earth cannot be used by humans because of it being saline.
There are three major principles of water conservation and management,
- To ensure availability of water
- To prevent water pollution
- To purify and recycle contaminated water
Steps for Water Conservation and Management :
Following steps can be taken for proper management and conservation of water resources.
- Water should be declared a national property so that effective management of water resources can be done.
- Rainwater harvesting should be promoted aggressively.
- Prevent wastage of water during domestic use.
- Avoid exploitation of groundwater.
- Prevent pollution of water.
- Wastewater should be treated and recycled.
- River linking can help in flood control and in better management
- Use drip irrigation or sprinkler system for saving water.
Integrated Watershed Management:
Watershed management includes combined application of agricultural, forestry and technological practices. It involves the concept of all around development; which includes conservation of soil, humidity, flood control, water harvesting, plantation, development of pasture, social forestry, etc.
Following are the popular methods of rainwater harvesting in Rajasthan
- Khadin: It is a temporary pond made of soil which is made below a slope. .Two sides are surrounded by clay walls and third side is surrounded by stone wall. Rainwater fills khadin with water. When khadin becomes dry, it is used for farming.
- Pond: Separate ponds were made for men and women. There used to be a well at the centre of pond, and it was called beri. This is still in use at some places and facilitates in recharging the groundwater.
- Lake: There are many natural and artificial lakes in Rajasthan. The water from lake helps in recharging many aquifers, like wells, baoli, tanks, etc.
- Baoli: Baolis are synonymous with Rajasthan. Steps were made for climbing down into a baoli. Many beautiful motifs were also made on baolis.
- Toba: Toba is a traditional method of water harvesting in the Thar desert. It is in the shape of nadi but is deeper than a nadi.
Coal is a form of carbon which is used as fuel. It is the major fuel in industries, especially in thermal power plants. About 35-40% of total energy need is being fulfilled by coal.
Petroleum which is found in nature is called crude oil. Crude oil is a dark liquid and contains many components. The components of petroleum are separated by fractional distillation. Fractional distillation of petroleum gives petrol, diesel, kerosene, natural gas, petroleum jelly (Vaseline), lubricants, etc.
Conservation of Coal and Petroleum :
We should switch over to non-conventional sources like solar energy, hydel energy, biogas biodiesel etc.
Biodiesel is obtained from biotic sources and is almost as efficient as diesel. It is made from renewable sources and can be used without any alteration in traditional diesel-engines. This is a clean alternative to traditional fuels. Biodiesel is being hyped as the fuel of the future. This is non-polluting and biodegradable.
Chipko Movement was a decisive movement towards conservation of forests. The main purpose of this movement was to prevent contractor from felling trees. This movement first began in Khejrali village of Jodhpur district in Rajasthan. Khejrali was the village where Amrita Devi sacrificed her life along with 363 Bishnoi men, women and children.
The Khejrali sacrifice is considered to be a leading example of movement for forest conservation. The Khejri trees still tell the story of that sacrifice and give inspiration to people. Khejri is revered as the kalpavriksha in Rajasthan. Its scientific name is Prosopis cineraria. The Khejri tree was made the state tree of Rajasthan in 1983.