Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 10 Social Science Notes Chapter 11 Manufacturing Industry
The process of transformation in chemical and physical properties of substances (obtained from agriculture and mining) is called industry. For example; cotton textiles industry changes cotton fiber into cloth.
Beginning of Modern Industry in India
- Industrialization in India began with establishment of cotton textiles industry in Bombay in 1845 and of jute industry in Calcutta in 1855.
- These were the only industries which developed in India till the First World War.
- The first industrial policy was implemented in 1948 after the independence.
Iron and Steel Industry in India
- Tata Iron and Steel Company was started by Jamshedji Tata in 1907 at Jamshedpur.
- During the Second Five Year Plan factories were established at Durgapur (West Bengal), Rourkela (Odisha) and Bhilai (Chattisgarh).
- The steel plant at Bokaro (Jharkhand) was established during the Fourth Five Year Plan. The steel plant at Bokaro is the largest steel plant in Asia.
- The Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) was formed in 1973 to ensure qualitative growth in this industry.
- The success of this industry depends on raw materials and cheaper transport.
- India is the third largest producer of wrought iron, is top producers of Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) or sponge iron, and is third largest producer of finished steel in the world.
Cotton Textiles Industry
- The modern cotton textiles factories started to come up in India during the late nineteenth century in Calcutta and Bombay.
- At present, there are about 2000 cotton textile mills which employ 40 lakh workers.
- Cotton textiles industry contributes 14% to the GDP.
Cotton Textiles Industry in different states of India
Maharashtra: There are 112 mills in this state and Bombay has maximum mills at 54. Bombay is also called the cotton textiles capital of India. This region has plenty of black soil in the hinterland, humid climate and proximity to the Bombay port. This state produces 39% of cotton textiles of the country.
Gujarat: This is the second largest producer of cotton textiles. There are 135 mills in Gujarat, out of which 67 are at Ahmadabad. The city of Ahmadabad is also known as the Boston of the East. This region has grown because of cotton farming in hinterland, cheap labor, availability of capital and proximity to the Kandla port. This state produces 35% of cotton textiles in India.
Tamil Nadu: This is the largest cotton producer in south India. There are 205 mills in Tamil Nadu; out of which maximum mills are in Coimbatore. This region has developed well because of humid climate and Chennai port. This state produces 6% of cotton textiles in India.
Madhya Pradesh: There are 36 mills in this state and most of the mills are in Indore, Gwalior, Ujjain, Devas, Jabalpur and Ratlam. As this state has well developed transport network and dense population so cotton industry has flourished here. Madhya Pradesh produces 5% of cotton textiles in the country.
West Bengal: There are 45 mills in West Bengal and most of the mills are situated around Hooghly in Kolkata, Hooghly, Howrah and 24 Pargana. This industry has developed in West Bengal due to local demand, proximity to Kolkata port, well developed transport network, and cheap labor due to dense population.
Rajasthan: The cotton textile industry is in nascent stage in Rajasthan. Cheaper electricity from Chambal and Bhakara Nangal projects, cotton farming in plateau of Harauti and irrigated plains of Ghaghar have helped in flourishing of mills in Bhilwara, Udaipur, Kota, Ganganagar and Pali. Coolants are used to maintain humidity in mills of Rajasthan. About 4% of country’s cotton is produced in this state which specializes in making cloths for suiting and shirting.
- The cotton textile industry has grown 12 folds since independence.
- While total production of cotton textiles was 351 crore square meter in 1947, it has grown to 6500 crore square meter nowadays.
This industry has developed in the following states.
Rajasthan: Rajasthan is the top producer of cement in the country. This industry is concentrated around Nimbahera, Chittorgarh, Kota, Bundi, Sawaimadhopur in one belt. There are 16 large, 5 medium and 130 private cement factories in Rajasthan. Chittogarh has 6 large factories of cement and hence it is called the ‘Cement City’ of Rajasthan. Rajasthan produces about 16% of cement produced in the country. About 90% cement produced in the state is Portland cement and 10% is white cement.
Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh: Both are leading states in cement production and produce 22% of country’s cement production. Raw material is obtained from the Kaimur hills. Most of the 17 big factories are in Katni, Satna, Durg, Mandhar, Banmor, Neemach, Ratlam, Devas, Nagda, Akaltara, Jamul, Tilda and Mehar.
Gujarat: This is the fourth largest producer of cement. There are 16 big factories of cement in Gujarat. Gujarat produces 9.4% of total cement production in the country. Cement factories are present in Ahmadabad, Bhavnagar, Porbander, Rajkot, Okra, Veraval, Jamnagar and Dwarka.
Tamil Nadu: This is the leading state in cement production. Raw materials come from the plateau in Tamil Nadu. Most of the big factories are in Tirunelveli, Dalmiapuram, Talyathu, Shankardurg, Rajmalayam, Madankarachi and Atyialar.
- In India; 70% paper is made from sugarcane extract.
- At present; there are 800 small and big paper mills, with a production capacity of 128 lakh tonne.
- 65% of the production is utilized for newsprint and other purposes.
Paper mills are present in following states:
- Titagarh, Raniganj, Triveni and Kolkata in West Bengal.
- Mumbai, Pune, Chandrapur, Khapoli, Pipri and Kampati in Maharashtra.
- Lucknow, Meerut, Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Pantnagar and Basti in Uttar Pradesh.
- Bhopal, Riva, Hosangabad and Kamlai in Madhya Pradesh.
- Bhadrawati, Bangalore, Ramnagar and Krishnarajsagar in Karnataka.
- Surat, Vapi, Vadodra and Rajkot in Gujarat.
- Industrial development has facilitated urbanization in many parts of the country, e.g. Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Ahmadabad, Nagpur, Surat, etc. These cities are suffering from high levels pollution of water and air.
- According to Central Wastewater Regulation Board; Ganga and its tributary Yamuna have become highly polluted because of numerous factories of leather, paper, fertilizer, chemicals and medicines along their banks.
- According to a study, about 30% population of cities is suffering from diseases of respiratory system.
- Industrial waste reaches the oceans through water and air, and ends up disturbing the ecosystem of oceans.
- Discharge of wastewater in rivers and lakes results in water pollution and soil pollution.
- Global warming is resulting in melting of glaciers which is drying up the sources of major rivers; like Ganga and Yamuna.
Industrialization in Rajasthan:
- Compared to other states Rajasthan is underdeveloped in terms of industrialization.
- Rajasthan contributes 6% in total industrial production in the country.
- The industries contribute 30% to the state’s GDR
Main Industries in Rajasthan
Lead and Zinc Industry: The Aravali hills of Rajasthan have the largest deposits of lead and zinc in the country. Hence, this industry has flourished in Jawar, Debari (Udaipur), Chanderia (Chittor), Rajpura Dariba and Rampura Dariba. This industry has developed near mines. About 95% of country’s demand for lead and zinc is fulfilled by Rajasthan.
Cement Industry: Rajasthan is the largest producer of cement in the country. Rajasthan contributes 16% to total cement production in the country. 90% of cement production in Rajasthan is of Portland cement and 10% is white cement.
Handicraft Industry: Rajasthan is famous for its handicrafts. Rajasthan is famous for carving of jewels, bangles & lac items, printing, dyeing and tie-dye.
Marble Industry: Rajasthan is famous for high grade marble. Units of cutting, polishing and carving of mica are present in Makratna, Sirohi, Rajnagar, Chittor, Udaipur and Kishangarh.
Salt and Chemicals Industry: Salt has been made from various runs and lakes of saline water in Rajasthan since ancient times. The largest saline water lake; Sambhar Lake; produces the largest amount of salt in the country.
Wool Industry: Most of the sheep and wool-giving animals are reared in Rajasthan. This ensures good availability of raw materials for this industry. Bikaner, Jodhpur, Barmer and Pali are the centers for woolen blanket and ‘namda’ carpets.
Cotton Textiles Industry: The cotton textiles industry is in nascent stage in Rajasthan. Cotton farming has been made possible in Rajasthan due to cheap electricity from ‘Chambal and Bhakra Nangal projects and due to irrigation facilities in the plateau of Harauti and plains of Ghagghar. Mills of cotton textiles are in Bhilwara, Udaipur, Kota, Ganganagar and Pali.
Oil seeds Industry: Rajasthan is the number one oil seeds producer in the country. Oil pressing units for groundnut, mustard, soya bean, flex, and castor are present at Bharatpur, Alwar, Jaipur, Dausa, Kota and Bundi.
Other Industries: Sugar industry is present at Bundi, Chittor and Bhilwara. Guar gum industry is present at Churu, Jodhpur and Barmer. Paper industry is present at Dhosunda, Kota, Bhilwara, Udaipur and Banswara.
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