Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 10 Social Science Notes Chapter 19 Road Safety Education
Road Accident and their causes
Road accidents are a common feature of metro cities. Some drivers do not obey the traffic rules. Rash driving causes accidents, because of this sometimes it leads to death of a person. In developing countries more than 80% of fatal and injury crashes happens due to drivers mistake.
The following points are the main cause of road accidents:
- Fast speed of the vehicle.
- Carelessness of the driver.
- Drunk while driving.
- Disobey the traffic rules.
- Ignore wearing helmet and seat belt while driving vehicle.
Did you Know?
- Every year nearby 1.38 lakh of people die in road accidents in India and about 5 lakh people are injured.
- In Rajasthan only every year nearby 90,000 people die in road accident and about 23000 are injured.
Adverse effect of road accident
Effect of a road accidents fall on family, society, state and on country. Road accidents badly affect the victim and their family members. Some of the examples are as follows.
- Lost of vehicle or property.
- Economical loss.
- Government and legal action taken.
- Person being handicapped or even died.
Some basic ideas to stay away from Road accidents:
- Two wheeler can use helmet or four wheeler seat belt.
- Drive vehicle normally between the speed of 40 km/hr to 60 km/hr.
- Parking at right or appropriate place.
- Driving license is compulsory to avoid accidents.
- Strictly follow the various traffic rules such as Zebra crossing, Red light, etc.
- Don’t drink and drive.
- Drive in a particular lane.
- Pedestrian must used zebra crossing while crossing the road.
Important Points and facts:
- Temporary license can be issued for a non gear vehicle after completing the age1 of 16 years.
- Permanent license can be issued for a gear vehicle after completing the age of 18 years.
- Police – 100
- Fire – 101
- Ambulance – 102
- Emergency helpline – 108
- Women’s Security helpline – 104
Urban Structure, Housing and Sanitation
Following are some of the programmes to ensure quality of life for urban people.
- JNNURM, 2005 (Jawharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission): The aim of the programme is to provide aid to urban poor for development of housing and capacity.
- BSUP (Basic Services to Urban Poor): It is organizing programmes related to improvement of housing and dirty slums in cities.
- Rajiv Housing Plan: It provides property rights to the people living in urban slums.
Criteria of Sanitation Management
- An organized management should stay away from pollutants.
- Management should install good skylight or exit device for clearance of smoke, steam, smell, exhaust or harmful gases, etc.
- Working place has to be separated from dirt, walls, floor and roof should be clean.
- Processing room of raw material, production, process room and packing room should be separated.
- Proper equipment’s are must to purify dirty water, etc.
- Floor, wall and roof should clean with waterproof materials.
- On entrance gate, window, skylight and drains equipment’s are essential to prevent rats, dust or harmful bacteria.
- While cooking and packing, clean and antibacterial and germ free steel equipment’s should be used.
- Thermometer is must on places related to cooling or re-cooling items.
- Flush toilet and anti-dirt equipment’s should be necessary in restroom and waterproof safety tank is must.
- Washing stands are essential for hand washing or wiping in rest rooms.
- Metal detector should be used.
- Food grain storeroom, production room and packing room should be arranged neatly.
Solid Waste Management
Solid waste means wet or dry useless garbage which come out from houses, factories, industries, hospitals and other places. It includes fruits and vegetables peels, leftover food, packing material, boxes, organic or inorganic material, battery cell, bulb, broken thermometer, poisonous material, radioactive material and explosive material.
Solid waste management refers to treatment of solid waste without any side effect on environment and health, disposal, reuse, recycle and arrangement of power generating processes. The Central Government has made strict rules on solid waste management. In new rules, it is the duty of the state:
- To provide training of solid waste management in local sectors of rural and urban regions
- To make arrangement of suggestions and resources
- To provide benefits of different works related to solid waste management, and its uses.
Solid Waste Management Process
In cities, sanitation workers collect garbage from houses, hospitals and other places.
It is the duty of the urban bodies to take this garbage on waste disposal centers through trucks, tractor trolley and horse carts.
At waste disposal centers, garbage is distributed in different categories as per their origin, e.g. household waste, industrial waste, construction waste and waste of business centers.
This waste is separated according to the ingredients contained in; such as organic waste, inorganic waste, plastic bottles, metals, paper, battery, dangerous things – poisonous material, infection, inflammable material, explosive material, radioactive material, infection-causing material, etc.
Solid Waste Disposal Measures
In the solid waste management planning, municipal bodies have taken various measures. Some of them are as follows:
- Waste Reduction and Reuse: Reduction of products or reuse; both are measures of waste reduction. In reduction process, producers and consumers, both have been asked to produce less waste. In reuse method, people have been encouraged to re-purchase useful things.
- Recycling of waste: Recycling refers to the use of waste as useful raw material and act to reduce the volume of waste. Recycling helps to utilize the waste material. It is three-level processes:
- Determining recycling material or metals from accumulation of garbage
- Preparing raw materials from them
- Making new product from raw material
- Waste Collection: Appointed staff of the municipal bodies in cities should collect special accumulation of garbage and recycle waste twice a week.
- Treatment and Disposal: Measures of waste disposal are used on the basis of volume, type and form of garbage. For giving final form to the waste material any one technique is used from the following: less management work, recycling, burying after reusing.
- Incineration: It involves the combustion of waste material in the presence of oxygen. This treatment method is commonly used as a means of recovering energy for electricity or heating.
- Gasificatio’n and Pyrolysis: Gasification and Pyrolysis are two similar thermal processes, both of which decompose organic waste material by exposing them to very high temperature. Gasification occurs in a high temperature range with very little oxygen. Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of the volatile components of organic waste in the absence of air or oxygen, forming pyrolysis liquids. An indirect source of heat is used.
Advantage of solid Waste Management
Its far-reaching implications are:
- Fire accidents, spread of rats, disease-causing pests or germs and stray animals can be kept under control.
- Disease will be kept under control, improvement in public health, working capacity will increase, less load of patients on hospital, etc.
- Extraction of low toxic materials, prevention of water pollution.
- Cheap and best botanical fertilizer will get, agriculture capacity and production will increase.
- Cheap energy is obtained for production of electricity.
- Many items can be produced from recycled raw materials.
- Increase in employment opportunities.
- Costly metals can be recovered from garbage.