Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 10 Social Science Notes Chapter 3 Resistance and Freedom Struggle Against the British Empire
Western countries made their colonies in separate nations in view of fulfilling their economic interests and later established their empire. In India beginning of British colonialism occurred with treachery, atrocities and exploitation.
India is being a prosper nation since ancient times. Hence along other nations of the world. English always had their eyes upon India. Soon they become ruler in place of trader. Due to British India is basically harmed in social, economic and cultural arrangements.
Awareness of freedom from 1757 A.D. to 1857 A.D.
On 23 September 1600 A.D. the chief traders of Britain opened a trading industry in joint venture named “The Governor and company of merchants of London trading in to the East Indies”. On 31 December 1600 A.D. Elizabeth I gave a document of rights to the company to allow doing trade with east. In 1612 A.D. the East India Company established a permanent trading center in Surat. In Madras (Chennai) built fort of Saint George in 1604 A.D.
In 1717 A.D. they received Zamindari of 38 villages from Badshah Farrukhshiyar through an order. Company goods were made customs free in place of Rs. 3000 as gift (Nazrana). Right of Dustak (special permission letter) was received by the British for making toll tax free for British goods. Company focused more on Bengal. Before 1757 British established their supremacy by defeating other European companies. Interference of East India Company increased in Bengal after getting order from Mughals.
On 10 April, 1756 A.D. Nawab of Bengal Alivardi Khan died. His successor was son of her younger daughter, Siraj-ud-daullah became Nawab while Governor of Purnia Shankat Jung also wanted to become Governor. English took advantage of this situation and started giving patronage to the opponents of Nawab.
There were much conflicts between Nawab and English on economic matters. These conflicts become the cause of battle of Plassey on 23rd June 1757 A.D. in which English got victory and Nawab was killed. British made Mir Zafar, Nawab of Bengal and established their supremacy in Bengal.
In 1760 when Mir Zafar couldn’t fulfill the economic demands of British, then English made Mir Quasim Nawab of Bengal. After becoming Nawab Quasim tried to regain administration in Bengal but due to British interference he couldn’t succeeded. Conflicts between Quasim and British increased on different facilities and economic matters which resulted into Battle of Buxar on 22 October 1764 A.D. in which Nawab was defeated.
This battle was harmful for India. This war gave the Diwani rights of Bengal, Bihar and Odissa to English. It gave a blow to Indian industries and trade struggle of British with Marathas and Mysore. In 18th century Maratha power was established in India as a great power.
In Battle of Panipat on 14th January 1761 A.D. it became weak. This was the only power which could act as a challenge against British. So, British were trying to get opportunity to control over Marathas. They got this opportunity when in 1772 A.D. Peshwa Madhav Rao died and his brother became Peshwa, but his uncle earlier Peshwa Raghunath Rao also wanted to be Peshwa.
Treaty of Surat:
It was held between Raghunath Peshwa and British. According to it British wiii help Raghunath to become Peshwa and in place of it Peshwa will give half of the revenue of Basin, Salsot and Surat to British. Hence ambitions of Raghunath Rao and treaty made by the Bombay government with him made war between Marathas and English inevitable and essential.
First Anglo Maratha War:
A struggle was held between English and Marathas from 1775 to 1782 A.D.
Treaty of Badgaon:
British were defeated from the organized army of the Marathas and did an insulted treaty of Badgaon on 29th January 1799 A.D.
According to it:
- Regions won by English were returned to Marathas.
- To surrender Raghunath Rao to Poona Darbar.
- To give 41,000 rupees by the British as compensation.
Second Anglo Maratha War
It was held between 1802 to 1805 A.D. The cause of this war was Imperialistic ambitions of Lord Wellesly and jealous among Maratha Sardars. In this struggle Maratha Sardars fought separately with British and were defeated.
Treaty of Devgaon: It was done by the Bhosle in South India, on 17 December 1803 A.D. when he was defeated in the struggle with English in 1803 A.D.
Treaty of Surji Arjungaon: It was held between English and Sindhiya when Sindhiya was defeated in Lalwadi war on 30th December 1803 A.D.
Treaty of Rajghat: Though the war between Holkar and English was not decided but a treaty was held between English and Holkar in 1806 named Rajghat treaty. According to it Holkar left his right over northern region of Chambal river and promised not to interfere in internal matters of Rajputana. These insulted treaties were made to maintain supremacy of English in India. To break these insulted treaties Marathas started putting efforts, but Peshwa in Kirki, Bhosle in Sitwardi and Holkar in Mahindpur defeated.
On 18 June 1818 Melcom did a treaty with Peshwa according to which post of Peshwa was abolished and he was sent to Bithur by giving 8 lacs as pension, where he died in 1852 A.D. In this way British defeated Marathas with their policies of Divide and Rule and diplomacy.
English Mysore Struggle
In 1761 Haider Ali snatched the power from the king of Mysore Nandaraj and became whole and sole. He declared himself king in 1776 after the death of the king of Mysore.
Haider Ali was an obstacle in the imperialistic race of English hence they formed an organization against Haider Ali with Marathas and Nizam, but by diplomacy Haider made Marathas neutral in war and included Nizam in his own side by giving regional allurement. In 1767 A.D. Haider Ali attacked on British occupied regions.
Treaty of Madras: English were defeated they were helpless and did treaty of Madras according to which each had to give back each other regions.
Second English Mysore Struggle:
English wanted to take revenge of their defeat. Hindu was annoyed with English due to their control over Guntur. Hence Hindu fought with the help of Marathas and Nizam against English in
July 1780 A.D. though he was succeeding but he was died on 7 December 1782 A.D. So, burden came on his son Tipu Sultan.
Treaty of Manglore:
Tipu continued war for a year, but after tiring of war after 11 years both the sides did treaty of Manglore and returned each others occupied territories. English promised not to influence in Mysore’s matters.
Third English Mysore war:
- English wanted to end the dominance of Tipu.
- Tipu wanted to buy Dutch Fort, Kagnoor and icot located in Cochin to secure Malabar.
- The king of Travarcore who was in sheter of English purchased these and made Tipu annoyed. Hence on April 1790 Tipu attacked on Tranvancore. Cornwallis attacked on Mysore with a large army.
Treaty of Sri Rangapatnam:
Though Tipu faced the war bravely but he had to sign treaty of Sri Rangapatnam on 23 February 1792 A.D. According to this treaty half of the Mysore and 3 crores were given as war compensation to British. Beside two of his sons were kept with British as prisoners.
Forth English Mysore War:
Lord wellesly came to India in 1798 A.D. as the Governor of East India Company. He was an imperialistic governor. He decided either to abolish Tipu Sultan completely or to take over control him completely. So, he decided to keep a supportive treaty. Tipu rejected it. Hence he started a campaign against Tipu in April 1799 A.D. He won fort of Sri Rangapatnam on 4 May 1799 and freedom of Mysore was ended Tipu died while struggling.
Struggle of English with Punjab:
Ruler of Afghanistan made Ranjeet Singh Governor of Punjab.
Cause: Ranjeet Singh wanted to have control over east regions of River Satluj while British wanted their control. Hence in February, 1809 Actor Loni declared control of British on East regions of River Satluj and if there would be any attack from Lahore then it would be controlled by military force.
Treaty of Amritsar:
Ranjeet Singh was defeated and a treaty of Amritsar was held between English and Ranjeet Singh. On 25 April 1809 A.D. according to it rule of British was accepted on East regions of Satluj river.
English had peaceful relations with Ranjeet singh. Ranjeet Singh died on 27 June, 1839 A.D. Selfishness and ambitions of Sardars made groups in court. Khadak Singh was a weak ruler which gave opportunity to Dogra brothers to interfere in court matters. British took advantage of lawlessness and created such a situation that gave birth to war between both.
The First English Sikh War:
Cause: Imperialistic policy and divide and rule policy of English became the cause of first English Sikh war. On 13 December 1845 Lord Harding declared war against Sikhs after first encounter.
Sabrao War: A war of Verdict in the English held on 10 february 1846. Lahore went under the control of British.
Treaty of Lahore:
It was held on 1 March 1846 A.D. according to which Jalandhar Doab was included in British empire and Sikhs had to pay one crore and 50 lacs to English as war compensation. Sikh army was made limited. Harding wanted control over Punjab administration till Dalip Singh become mature (Adult).
Supplimentry treaty of Bhaironwal:
It was done on 26 December 1846 A.D. by which English become the master of one part of Punjab.
Second English Sikh Battle and merger of Punjab in British empire Causes:
In 1847-48 such reforms were made by the English in Punjab which all were against Sikhs. Unrest among soldiers who were freed from military, snatch of Rani Jinda’s rights and her wish of taking revenge. Excessive interference of the Resident in internal matters, Dalhousie’s wish of English administration over Punjab made the English Sikh war compulsory.
On 10 October, 1848 by the declaration of iast war with the Sikhs by Dalhousie battle was started and with the surrender of Sher Singh, Chattar Singh and Mulraj war was ended on 13 March, 1849 A.D. Dalhousie merged Punjab in British India by a declaration made by him on 29 March 1849 A.D. By this declaration the free status of Punjab was ended.
Struggle of Independence of 1857 A.D.:
Before 1857 A.D. East India company has to face resistance of India’s provincial states, Deshi Riyasats, farmers, tribals etc. continuously for the 100 years. But British made it failure by taking the advantage of mutual weaknesses and diplomacy. But they were compelled to change their policy.
Nature/Form of the struggle for freedom:
There are conflicts regarding the nature of the first war of Independence. While British and European historians called it as a Sipoy mutiny and reaction of Samantaas or results of Muslim conspiracy. On the other hand Indian historians and intellectuals considered it that it started as a military revolt which soon took the form a wide mass movement. Later it took the form of national revolt and freedom movement.
Surendra Nath has written “This war was started in the name of religion and ended in freedom movement”. Dr. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in his book (War of India’s freedom) or war of Indian independence” has told this war as India’s war of independence.
Causes of Struggle for freedom
- British economic polity
- Lord Dalhousie’s Doctrine of Lapse
- British policy of imperialist expansion
- Social, religious and military causes.
Beginning of the freedom struggle widespread:
When soldiers resented the use of greased cartridges with the fat of pig and cow. They were charged of indiscipline and punished. On 29th March 1857, Mangal Pandey a Brahmin sepoy revolted and killed a British officer. British officers broke the 34th V.N.I. Regiment and Indian soldiers were punished.
In May 1857, 85 soldiers in the cent refused to use greased cartridges, they were punished with long imprisonment by the military court. On 10th May soldiers revolted openly and killed their officers and freed their friends from the prison and marched towards Delhi.
On 12 May they captured Delhi and declared Bahadur Shah II, the Samrat of India. Soon revolt spread in Lucknow, Allahabad, Kanpur, Bareily, Banaras, some parts of Bihar, Jhansi and in other regions British called army from Punjab to recapture in Delhi. September 1857. In this war English officer Lord Sir John Nicholson was killed. Samrat was imprisoned. Lt. Hudson murdered Samrat’s two sons and a grand son with bullets.
On 4th June 1857 revolt held in Lucknow Indian soldiers besieged the British officials in the Residence, in which British Resident Sir Henry Lawrence was shot dead. General Havelock and Outdrum tried to recapture Lucknow but failed. At last in November 1857 A.D. Sir Collin Compbell entered in the city with the help of Gorkha regiment and recaptured Lucknow in 1857 A.D.
On 5 June 1857 revolutionaries captured Kanpur and declared Nana Sahib as Peshwa but General Sir Hume Wheeler who was the commander of Cant surrendered on 27 June. On 6 December 1857 Sir Compbell recaptured Kanpur. Tantia Tope ran away and went to Jhansi.
Central India Jhansi:
Revolt occurred in Jhansi. In June Rani Laxmi Bai was declared ruler of Riyasat. Sir Heuroz recaptured Jhansi by attacking it in April 1858. Rani and Tantia Tope ran towards Gwalior where Indian soldiers welcomed them, but Scindia remained loyal to British and took shelter in Agra, Rani Laxmi Bai died fighting bravely in the battle field. Tantia Tope was captured with the help of one of the Samanta of Scindita and sentenced to death by the British.
In Bihar this revolt was led by Zamindar of Jagdishpur, 80 years old kunwar Singh. He defeated military commander of British Millmel, colonel Dex, Mark and Major Dalas and recaptured his Riyasat in 1858. In Bareily Bahadur Khan took part in the revolt in Banaras revolt was suppressed by colonel Neil. In south India the number of revolutionaries were less than North India, then though many people martyred in South India also, many were punished and imprisoned.
Among them main were Rang Babu ji Gupte (Satara), Sonaji Pandit, Ranga Rao Pange and Maulvi Sayed Allauddin (Hyderabad) Bhim Rao and Mundargi Chota Singh (Karnataka) Annaji Phadanwis (Kolhapur) Gulam gaus and Sultan Bux (Madras) Aruna Giri and Krishna Chilgalphut, Mulgabal Swami (Coimbatore), Mull Sunny, Vijay Kudarat (Kerala) etc. are specially illustrated. In this way the struggle of 1852 was nationwide soldiers, farmers, people of all religions, regions, castes, Zamindars took part in it.
After the battle of Plassey on 23rd June 1857 A.D. East India Company established their control over Bengal. After the battle of Buxar in 1764 A.D. process of colonization of India as colony of English by the East India Company started. This process of colonization of India gave birth mass revolts among them tribals movements also include.
Causes of Tribals Movements
- Loss of freedom by the tribal people
- Influence of foreign in self rule
- Changes in administration
- Demand of excess taxes
- Dissolve of economic system, etc are considered the main causes.
Tribal Revolt in Bengal and East India
1. Sanyasi Revolt:
There was a severe famine occurred in Bengal after the establishment of British rule in Bengal in 1769-1770 A.D. Beside English charged taxes harshly. Sanyasis did pilgrimages regularly along agriculture, they become annoyed due to ban on visiting pilgrimage places. Sanyasis also had tradition to fight against injustice.
So, they joined hands with common people and plundered wealth of company by attacking on their kothis and treasures. They fought against company’s soldiers but Warren Hastings suppressed the revolt after a long campaign which is illustrated in ‘Anand Math’ novel of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee.
2. Kol Revolt:
Causes: Administrative complexity.
Rigid taxation system (Revenue) Behaviour of ignorance of local rulers towards people and exploitation gave birth to Kol Revolt. It become aggressive when their land was snatched from their chief and given to outsider in 1831 A.D. A great violence occurred during this revolt. It spread in Ranchi, Singhbhum, Hajari Bagh, Palamau and western region of Manbhumi. After a wide military action peace was established here. The president of the council Metcouf located at Calcutta accepted that a feeling of oppose towards British was clearly seen in this revolt.
3. Santhal Revolt:
It was an important revolt which begun between 1855-56. The leadership and organization could be seen at a level of an organized manner. It was spread in Veer Bhumi, Bakura, Singhbhum, Hajari Bagh, Bhagalpur and Mahajans.
Causes: Revenue, malbehavior of officers, repression policy of police forcefully recovery of tax by the landlords and Mahajans.
Leadership: It was led by two brothers Sindhu and Kanhu. They declared the end of company rule and themselves independent rulers. After a wide military action things were under control in 1856 A.D. and government had to form an independent and separate Santhal Pargana.
4. Bhil Revolt:
Bhil tribe lived in District Khandesh at west coast. They revolted against their new master (English) from 1812-19. It was considered by the company officials that this revolt was encouraged by the Peshwa Baji Rao II and his representative Trikbakji Dangaliya.
Causes: The main cause was difficulties related to agriculture and fear from the new government. Many English Batalians were indulged to crush them. They again revolted in 1825 under the leadership of Sevram and also revolts were made in 1831 and 1846.
5. Ramosi Revolt:
It was a tribe living in west coast. They were displeased from English administrative system and administration. In 1822 they revolted under the leadership of their chief Chittar Singh and plundered the regions nearby Satara. English become successful to suppress these revolts by large military action.
Contribution of Revolutionary Organizations in Freedom Struggle
Indians never accepted slavery of British by heart. They struggled from 1757 to till independence. The revolutionaries wrote history of freedom with blood from later 19th century to 20th century. After revolt of 1857 English re-established their empire but Lord Curzon reactive policies compelled Indians for Revolutionary movement. Due to Bang Bhung (Division of Bengal) in 1905 every Indian exploded. The feeling of insult arouse among people due to failure of giving skillful leadership by the leaders to gave them birth of Revolutionary movement.
The revolutionaries believed that what a were the appropriate elements in national life like – religious, and political freedoms, moral values and Indian culture would be destroyed by the foreign rule. All revolutionaries had a sole objective, “To make motherland free from Foreign Rule”.
Revolutionary Movement in Maharashtra
The beginning of Revolutionary activity in Maharashtra was started by Vasudev Balwant Phadke a government employee in 1876 A.D. He left British job to remove difficulties of people arouse by severe famine in Maharashtra in 1876 A.D. and gave speeches from place to place to encourage people to root out the British government. Speeches of Phadke spread excitement and in 1879 after arresting Phadke, he was sent in the jail of Adan (Arab Desh) where he died in 1889 A.D.
Murder of Rand by Chapekar Brothers
The Chapekar Brothers of Pune (Maharashtra) – Damodar Hari Chapekar, Balkrishna Hari Chapekar and Vasudev Hari Chapekar gave direction to Revolutionary movement. They formed ‘Hindu security Sabha’ in 1893. Under this banner festivals of Ganesh and Shivaji were started celebrating and arouse the feeling of nationalism among masses.
In 1897 plague spread in Pune like an epidemic. The plague commissioner of Pune Rand and Leticent Erst instead of helping plague victims was spreading terror. Both these two officers were defame, harsh and of bad conduct. The whole Pune city was frightened of their atrocities hence Chapekar brothers murdered both on 22 June 1897. Chapekar brothers were arrested and sentenced to death.
Shyamji Krishna Verma and Establishment of India House in London
He was the inhabitant of Kathiawad region of west India. He got his education from Cambridge University and became barrister on return back to India by seeing the behavior of English political residents. He determined to make India free and made his activities center in London. He took the initiative of establishing revolutionary organization to get freedom outside the country. In 1905 he organized Bharat self rule Samiti which was named as ‘India House’.
He also started a monthly magazine ‘India socialism’. He also started fellowship of one thousand for Indians who came to foreign. Very soon India house became a center of movements for Indians living in London. Revolutionaries like V.D. Sawarkar, Lala Hardayal and Madan Lai Dhingra became the member of it. By seeing the activities of Shyamji Verma, English government started taking action against him. He left India and reached to Paris and continued his activities from there.
Vinayak Damodar Sawarkar
He was a great revolutionary, great patriot and great organizer. He sacrificed his whole life for the freedom of nation that cannot be described in words. People entitled him with the title of ‘Veer’ or he was called Veer Sawarkar. He was born on 28 May, 1883 A.D. in village Bhagur (Maharashtra). After matriculation in 1901 took admission in Ferguson college, where he came in the contact of Lokmanya Tilak. At the time of Bengal division, he made bonefire of foreign cloths by making an organization ‘Mitra Mela’ with his companions for which he was expelled from the college.
He was the only revolutionary to whom British gave whole life imprisonment. His book The Indian war of independence’ was banned by the British government. Before publication this book reached to India with different names. He established Abhinav Bharat in 1906 A.D. Sawarkar was the first person who called struggle of 1857 as first war of Independence in place of Gadar. He spent long time in cellular Jail of Andaman. Due to unhealthiness in 1924 A.D. he was kept in Ratnagiri. He was released from jail in 1937. He did his best efforts to stop division of India.
Revolutionary Movement in Bengal
In Bengal Revolutionary movement was started by Sri P.Mishra by establishing a revolutionary organization ‘Anushedan Samiti’. Political awareness in Bengal came after Division of Bengal when objective of the movement was not to stop division but to get self nation (Rule).
In 1905 Varindra Kumar Ghosh wrote a book named ‘Bhawani Mandir’ through which he gave detail information of making revolutionary activities organized in Yugantar and Sandhya magazines thoughts against English were being published. In one more book “Mukti Kaun Pathe” request was made to soldiers to give arms and weapons to Indian Revolutionaries.
The ancient agriculture system was changed due to new agriculture policies and administrative system of British. The new system of British gave birth to new social system in rural India. Indian farmers were caught in the clutches of Mahajans and traders due to excess government taxes and taxes of landlords. The new class of landlords, mediators greedy and corrupt Mahajans together made farmers poor and poorer. Upto 19th century farmers came to that situation that they wanted to break the chains of Samantaas, capitalists, local exploiters and British rule.
Causes of farmers movement:
- Revenue policies of British Government
- Frequent famines for a long period
- Recovery of excess taxes from farmers by the zamindars and Samantaas.
- Formation of fake documents by the merchants and mahajans through mischievousness.
Main farmers Movement
1. Revolt of farmers of Bengal Indulged in growing Indigo:
It was against British landlords, Samantaas, rich class villagers all were with farmers in this revolt. Some retired European officers got land from the landlords of Bengal and Bihar in 19th century and started farming of Indigo. They forced farmers to grow indigo on such a term and conditions which were not beneficial to farmers. In April 1860 farmers of sub-department of Barasat and all farmers of Pawna and Nadia districts went on strike and denied to grow indigo. This strike spread in many regions of Bengal. To escape from a wide problem government had to appoint an Indigo commission.
2. Sauth Revolts of 1875 A.D.
Causes: Excess revenue, decrease in cost price of cotton, recovery of excess tax from Maratha farmers. Due to greed false accounts by Marwadi and Gujarati Mahajans thumb impression by illiterate farmers without information which made decisions in the favour of mahajans in the matter reached in the Diwani courts.
Then farmers were dishonored from the land. In 1875 a farmer revolt occurred against Mahajans of Poona which reached to Ahmadnagar and later suppressed by the police. A south revolt commission was appointed to know the cause of the revolt and in 1879 A.D. farmer relief Act was passed. According to it if the loan is not paid by the farmer then he couldn’t be arrest or imprisoned.
3. Farmers movement in Punjab:
In Punjab the cause was transfer of land from loanee farmer to non-farming class. To stop it Punjab land Alienation Act 1900 was passed.
4. Farmers movement of Champaran:
In Champaran District European producer of Indigo put atrocities on Bihar farmers. To oppose it Gandhiji with the help of Rajendra Prasad enquired the real condition of the farmers. He asked farmers for a non-violent movement. Later an enquiry committee was appointed in 1917, on its report Champaran agriculture act was passed. According to it ban was made to compel farmers forcibly to do farming of Indigo.
5. Farmers movement of Kheda:
It was against Bombay government. Though crops were destroyed in spring season in 1818 but government was demanding for revenue while it was clearly given in the rules of taxation that if crop produce is 25% less than the normal then complete rebate would be given in tax, government was not ready to do so, hence Gandhiji collected farmers and did Satyagraha. At last government had to accept Gandhiji’s term.
6. Other organized effort:
Akhil Bhartiya kisan sabha was organized on 11 April 1936 to run movement at national level. It did movement in Andhra Pradesh against landlords for land system, in 1936 in Bihar (self tilted land). On 18 October 1937 farmers day was celebrated against atrocities made on farmers Sabhas.
Political Movements 1857 – 1919
After the failure of the Revolt of 1857, the leadership of the freedom movement came in the hands of India’s modern educated landlords and rich class. These people for their demands gave memorandum, recall letters. Applications to the parliament, beside were making countrymen organized and aware them through the information of the exploitation. The people of initial period of it had faith on liberal people of England.
They wanted to prepare liberals of England regarding the aspirations of Indians and constitutional as well as administrative reforms, informing people regarding exploitation, atrocities made on Indians. In this they wanted to expand movement and organize more and more people from all regions, classes and religions.
Spread of Political awareness after 1858 A.D.
Gradually the political aspirations of Indians were being increased. They not only wanted participation in civil services but even wanted to control over it. Now Indians were demanding a people’s elected and responsible government. In the mean time the editor of the main Hindu newspaper of Bengal, Christo Das Pal demanded for a constitutional government for the Indians and by the Indians in his article under the heading Swarajya for Indians in 1874.
In those times political organizations which were active in India were not ready for such an advanced demand and struggle for it, for this some of the intellectuals and thinkers formed Indian League in 1875 A.D.
Objective of Indian League:
To arise awareness among people of Nationalism and political awareness. It was first political organization to start with public awareness.
Next year of the establishment of this institution in 1876, 800 important people took part in it under the leadership of Surendra Nath Bannerjee in Albert Hall of Calcutta. It was decided that organization will bring people of same political thinking at one platform and organize common people.
Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress was the result of political development being held in India after 1858. It was established by a retired English Indian Civil Service Officer Allen Octavian Hume. The thinking of Brititsh government behind its establishment was to form such an organization, by which British government could know what is inside the mind of Indians beside, it would release the aggression of political leaders and their efforts could be stopped to dismiss British government. So, in 1885 the INC was formed.
On 28 December 1885 A.D. under the presidentship of Wyomesh Chandra Bannerjee, a barrister from Bengal, the first session of INC was held in Gokul Das Tejpal Sanskrit College of Bombay in which 72 delegates took part.
Four aims of Congress were said in the session:
- To provide opportunity to people indulged in national progress to introduce each other.
- To think over programmes of coming years.
- To oppose functions of Indian government done against the principles decided by the parliament of England by keeping full faith and devotion towards British empire.
- This organization would adopt the form of Indian parliament indirectly. It would give appropriate reply that whether the thinking of British that the elected representatives of India do not have ability to run the administration. The period of congress can be divided into two steps
First Step – (1885-90) which can be called as Liberal Politics or period of political Beggership (Moderates).
Second Step – (1905-1919) It is called period of Radical Era of Politics.
The moderate leaders of 1885-90 were: Dababhai Naoroji, Feroz Shah Mehta, Deensha Wacha, Wyomesh and Surendra Nath Bannerji. They believed in liberalism and moderation. They wanted equality among humans, equality before law, spread of citizens’ freedom and development of representative institutions.
In this period representatives of congress belonged to prosper, middle class and intellectuals like – Doctors, Lawyers, Engineers, Journalists and literalists.
They had a contact with common people. They were in favour of making British rule strengthened because in their view British rule was the symbol of law, order and peace. They thought English are lawful so they will not do unjustice with India. Our complaints are from English bureaucrats, so they did not demand for nation’s freedom, instead they demanded some rebates for Indians.
Beginning of Extremist Nationalist Movement
The dominance of Extremist Nationalist thinking of people being increased in the end of 19th century and beginning of 20th century years. The process of splitting in the congress started when an argument was held on the question of reform of the society between Tilak and Radicals or social reformers. According to Tilak no social reforms could occur without Swarajya (Self Rule), neither progress, useful education nor fulfill ness of National Life. Four main congress leaders – Lokmanya Tilak, Vipin Chandra Pal, Arvind Ghosh and Lala Lajpat Rai guided this movement.
In the programmes of this extremists movement stress was given on boycott of foreign goods and use of Swadesh goods, national education and satyagraha encouragement to Indian industries. So, Indians could get opportunities of work and services. In place of government controlled education a national education plan should be made and students should be appointed in Nation’s service.
Seif Rule Movement:
On the pattern of Irish Home Rule League Mrs. Anne Besant declared to establish Home Rule League in 1915. In 1916 Tilak established Home League in Poona. Both the institutions were working in co-ordination. Their aim was to send demand of self rule in the British rule up to the people.
Political Movement (1919-1947):
The Rowlatt Act 1919:
After the end of first world war British Government had promised to give more and more facilities to Indians but the reforms done after the war were not satisfactory. Instead opposite to it activities like – economic exploitation, harsh rules of press and other suppressive activities were given. Indian masses were firm against British.
Government had fear of conspiracy. Hence in 1917 government organized a committee under the presidentship of Sidney Rowlatt the Bill made by it was passed by the legislative assembly on 19th March, 1919. According to this act the government could arrest anybody. There was no right to appeal, Dalil or trail (Wakil). It was called Black law.
The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre:
A protest meeting was held against Rowlatt Act in Jallianwala Bagh of Amritsar on 13th April, 1919. In which 20,000 people gathered. Among them there were men, women and children. General Dyre entered ft and ordered to fire bullets. According to government, 379 people were killed while according to congress Samiti it was approx 1000.
Non-cooperation and Khilafat Movement
Rowlatt act, Jallianwala Massacre, Report of Hunter committee, division of Turkey, abolition of Khilafa’s post etc. made Gandhiji upset. So, in 1920 Congress decided not to co-operate with injustice government. Under this gave up of Government posts, legislative assemblies, courts, government schools, foreign goods, not paying taxes were included opposite to it establishment of national education institutions, settling mutual disputes by decision of panchas, use of handmade and weaved clothes were works to do. About 3000 people went to jail.
It was the first time in the Indian History that when in struggle for Swarajya such a great number of people took part. But when this movement was at peak then on 5 february, 1922 in Chauri Chaura in the Gorakhpur district of UP. police put atrocities on a peaceful procession. The people became violent and burnt the police station in which 21 policemen and one superintendent died. By seeing movement violent Gandhiji called off the movement on 12 february 1922.
By this declaration of Gandhiji, the other prominent leaders shocked. S.C.Bose said it is very sad, C.R. Das formed Swaraj party under the congress, which took part in the legislative councils and interrupt in the functioning of government.
The Simon Commission:
To analyse the government of India Act, 1919 British government appointed a commission under the presidentship of Sir John Simon in 1927 A.D. it had seven members but no Indian. On 3 February 1928 when this commission reached Bombay, it was greatly opposed. In Lahore, its opposition was done under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai, police charged masses with lathies in which Lalaji was hurt and died after a month. On 1930 the report of this commission came in which no where the establishment of colonial Swarajya was mentioned.
Civil Disobedience Movement:
On 30 December 1929 A.D. in congress sessions, under the presidentship of Jawaharlal Nehru congress passed the revolution of complete independence.
To achieve the goal of complete independence Gandhiji along with 78 members marched towards Dandi village which 200 km away in Gujarat on sea coast on foot from his Sabarmati Ashram. On 6th April 1930 after reaching Dandi, he broke the salt law by making it illegally. From this event the civil disobedience Movement began in the whole country.
In this movement making salt illegally, picketting of women at liquor shops, opium shops, foreign clothes, keeping away from untouchability, gave up of government schools, colleges, government jobs were called upon by the Gandhiji. The speciality of this movement was that women also took part in it. In very short period 60,000 people were put behind bars.
Gandhi Irwin Pact:
On 5 March 1931 Gandhi Irwin Pact was held between British government and congress Viceroy declared that the aim of Indian constitutional development is to provide dominion status to India. Gandhiji took part in first Round Table Conference called for Indian Constitutional reforms and restarted civil disobedience movement in 1932 A.D. He accepted the failure of this movement and resigned from the membership of congress.
The Second World War was started. Strikes and demonstrations were going on in different parts of the nation against including Indian in the war. Gandhiji proposed Individual’s Satyagraha in place of Satyagraha which was accepted by the congress. On 17 October 1940, congress started individual Satyagraha.
Under individual Satyagraha chosen by Gandhiji will reach the public
places, one by one and will give speech against war and arrest. Vinoba Bhave was the first who was punished for three months, Jawahar Lai Nehru second, and Brahamadutta was third. In this Individual Satyagraha 30,000 people were arrested.
Quit India Movement
- Failure of Cripps Mission
- Fear of attack of Japan on India
The tense atmosphere created by these factors and decision taken by congress in Wardha session on 14 July 1942 at Bombay in which Gandhiji’s quit India Resolution was accepted. In his speech Gandhiji gave mantra (slogan) “Do or Die”. |The slogan was aimed at inspiring the Indians to lay down their lives for the cause of the country and break the chins of slavery. The government reacted sharply towards it. Gandhiji and other important leaders were immediately arrested and congress was declared illegal. There was no definite planning made of this movement.
In this movement doing strike peacefully, public meeting, refuse to pay revenue and non-co-operation of the government etc. Hence people reacted as they understood, strikes were held, attacks were made on government buildings, most of the leaders of congress socialist party were escaped from arrest.
Leaders of this party continue the movement from underground among them Jai Prakash Narayan, Ram Manohar Lohiya, Achyut Patvardhan, Ramananda Mishra, S.M. Joshi were the main. In this movement role of Jai Prakash was the main. In Bombay this movement was led by Aruna Asaf Ali successfully.
During this movement in many cities, towns and villages activists had made parallel governments. This movement was also curbed. More than 1000 people were killed revoltee villages had to pay compensation. The responsibility of the violence of this movement was imposed on Gandhiji.
Achievement of the Movement
This movement led the path of India’s freedom. It arouses feeling of bravery, courage, excitement and sacrifice for the nation among Indians. A new generation came forward in the country for the leadership which increased in the people the power and strength to struggle. Now India wanted nothing other than complete freedom.
Tribals, Farmers and Prajamandal movements of Rajasthan
The beginning of political awareness started in Rajasthan through Farmers and tribal society. When excess economic burden was put on farmers then farmers of here revolted and challenged the immediate political system. In tribal regions of Rajasthan these movements were self active, which were started against injustice and atrocities and become the inspiring source for future political movements.
The Bhils inhabitated in southern region of Rajasthan mainly – Dungarpur, Mewar, Pratapgarh, Banswara and Kushalgarh. It is very traditional tribal caste which is aware of their social and economic level when they were deprived of their traditional rights then they revolted against rulers and British.
Govind Guru established samp sabha for the social and moral development of Bhils and established Bhagat Sect to keep them in the limits of Hindu religion. Administration become suspicious due to social awareness among Bhills of Mewar Durgapur, Idhar, Gujarat, Vijaynagar and Malwa by Smp Sabha apd forced them to leave Bhagat sect (Panth). When Bhils were deprived of traditional rights of forests then they started movement.
British government expressed the possibility of estabilishing. Bhil state behind the organization and reform movement being run by Govind Guru. Govind Guru was arrested on April 1913 by the Dungurpur state but was released later. He went in the Mangarh hills along his companions. He sent a message in October 1913 to collect all Bhils on the hill of Mangarh.
Bhils collected with weapons in a large number. By frightened of Bhils British sent an army which attacked on Bhils with bullets and scattered them. According to government 1500 Bhils were killed in this. In this way Bhagat Movement was curbed brutely and Govind Guru was given imprisonment of 10 years.
Opposition policy for Bhils was continued by the government. In 1917 Bhils and Garasiyas expressed their revolt against repressive policy and Begar by writing a letter to Maharana, but no result came out, then Bhils started movement under the leadership of Motiial Tejawat. This movement become famous as Eki Movement.
Rajasthan’s political, social and economical structure is being Samantai. It was three level, in which rulers, Jagirdars and farmers classes were included. This system was based upon mutual inter¬relations among all these. Till 19th century these relations were brotherly but after it the scenario of Rajasthan started changing. The result of it was that the different parts of Rajasthan have to face many farmers movements.
The main causes of the movements were as follows
- Under the influence of British Rulers did not give notice towards their subject. They thought that their dependence of rulers on Jagirdars and Jagirdars on farmers being ended.
- Increase in Revenue and Begar and Lags in few states was more than 300 Lags,
- Increase in the number of Agriculture labour which resulted in the harshness of Jagirdars.
- Decrease in the prices of agriculture products and increase both were not beneficial to farmers as Jagirdars recovered the revenue in the form of commodities.
- By adopting British administrative arrangements the liberal and ancestral view of Samantaas towards farmers changed.
Bijolia farmers Movement (Bhilwara):
It was the pioneer movement of other farmers movements in Rajasthan. Most of the farmers of here were of Dhakad Caste. Bijolia farmers had no complaints against Jagirdars till the death of Rao Govind Das in 1894. But the new Jagirdar Krishna Singh (Kishan Singh) changed the policy of Thikanas management and Jagir towards farmers. In his time the 87% part of farmers income was taken by the Jagirdars except begar was also taken from them.
In 1897 in Girdharpura village at the occasion of Gangaram Dhakad’s death feast thousands of farmers openly discussed about their difficulties and it was informed to Maharana. For the enquiry of the complaints of Lagat and Begar Assistant Revenue officer Hamid Hussain was appointed.
Hamid hussain gave his report against thikana to Mehkma Khas but there was no result of it. From state only one or two lagats were asked to decrease. It boost up the courage of Krishna Singh. Due to different types of Lagats and severe famine of 1899-1900 A.D. (Chapaniya Akal) condition of farmers of Bijoliya was pitty. Inspite of this Rao Krishna Singh imposed a new tax Chanvari on farmers.
In this every person had to deposit five rupees in thikanas treasury at the occasion of his daughter’s marriage. Chanvari tax was not only burden on Bijolia farmers but socially a great insult. Farmers opposed it saliently and for two years they did not marry their daughters.
In front of farmers resistance Rao had to remove Chanvri tax, to get 2/5 part of thikana from the crops, not to call Bision men with Ahalkars for doing Kunta were declared. In 1906 the new master of Bijolia Prithvi Singh abolished all old rebates but imposed a new tax of Talwar Bandhai. In his period loot and exploitation crossed their limit. In 1913 farmers in the leadership of Sadhu Sitaram, Patehkaran Charan, and Brahamdev denied to plough in the region of Jagir.
It created a great loss to Jagir (Thikana). It increased the atrocities of thakurs Phatehkaran Charam and Brahamdev left Bijolia due to terror. Sadhu Sita Ram Das was separated from the job of the Library. Vijay Singh Pathik took control of the movement on the invitation of Sadhu Sita Ram.
In 1917 on the day of Hariyali Amavasya by establishing a Uppar Mai Panch Board Organization started the movement under its banner. He not only wrote an editorial article in English newspaper “Maratha by influencing from bravery and organization of Bijolia farmers. But wrote a letter to the Maharana Phateh Singh of Mewar that Dynasty of Mewar has sacrificed for freedom, you yourself is the priest of freedom, hence in your kingdom it is a matter of insult to keep freedom lovers in jail.
On one side to make farmers of Bijolia aware the song of Manikya Lai Verma ‘Panchida’ was being sung on the other hand Pragyachakshu Bhanwal Lai Swarnkar was lighting the torch through his poetries in village to village. To inculcate the feeling of patriotism near the region of Bijolia Pathik established “Upper Mai Sewa Samiti Organization” and published a magazine named ‘Upper Mai ka Danka’. To make movement popular Pathik sent a silver Rakhi to the editor of newspaper ‘Pratap’ from Kanpur Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi. He accepted it and answer to support the movement.
The newspaper Pratap recognized Bijolia movement at national level. In the novel of Premchand ‘Rangbhumi’ the mass movement of Mewar is picturized. It is the Replica of Bijolia Farmers movement. In April 1919 government of Udaipur established a commission under the presidentship of Mandal Garh.
Hakim Bindudal Bhattacharya to hear the complaints of Bijolia farmers many recommendations were made by the commission in the favour of farmers but government didn’t notice them. The foreign department of Indian government was in opinion that there is need of agreement with the farmers otherwise movement can become fierce in the whole Rajputana. To make movement cease a high level committee was organized under the presidentship of A.G.G. Robert Holland of Rajasthan. He dismissed 35 Lagats after a discussion with farmers unluckily due to mischieveness of Thikana this agreement couldn’t become permanent.
In the opposition of new Bandobast (System) of 1927, and to put pressure on thikana on the advice of Vijay Singh Pathik left their Mai Bhumi in opposition of high rates taxes, but against the concept of farmers, new farmers availed the land in auction done by the thikana, for this Pathik was made responsible. So, he separated himself from the movement. To get back their land farmers continued their movement till 1941.
Sikar Kisan Movement
It was begin due to increase in land revenue from 25-30% by the new Raoraja Kalyan Singh of Sikar Thikana. He made excuse for it expenditure done on ex-Rao Raja’s cremation and coronation of him and assured next year rebate would be given in the Revenue but he forget his promise in 1923 A.D. Under the leadership of Ram Narayan Chaudhary of Rajasthan, Seva Sangh farmers raised their voice. Articles were published in the favour of farmers in ‘Daily Herald’ newspaper published from London and in 1925 in the lower house of British Parliament from (House of Commons) a member of labour party from lichester (West) Sir Pathik Lawrence raised voice in the favour of farmers.
After the establishment of Rajasthan Jat Region Sabha farmers movement got new energy in 1931. To organize people on religion basis Thakur Deshraj did a meeting in Pathena and.decided to do “Jat Prajapati Mahayagya”.
On Basant Panchmi 20 January 1934 in Sikar under the supervision of Yagyacharya Pt. Khemraj Sharma Yagya was started. On the completion of Yagya Kisan Yagyapati wanted to demonstrate by making Kunwar Singh sitting on elephant, but Rao Kalyan Singh and other Jagirdars were opposing it because Jagirdars considered farmers inferior in view of social prestige and procession on sitting elephant considered as their special right.
So, Thikana of Sikar stole the Yagya elephant created tension, the famous farmer Choturam informed Maharaja by telegram that if anything happened to any farmer then Jaipur state has to face severe results. Sikar thikana surrendered and gave the decorated elephant for the procession local people and people from Hisar, Patiala, U.P., Punjab, Luharu took part in the Yagya held in Rajputana. In this movement women played an important role.
A great conference was held by the Thakur Man Singh of Sihot against the misbehavior done with the farmer, women in the village Sotia ka Bas on 25 april, 1934 at katrathal under the presidentship of Srimati kishori Devi. To ban this conference Sikar Thikana enforced Dhara – 144.
Then though by breaking law this conference was held. The women took part in a great number among them main were – Srimati Durga Devi Sharma, Srimati Phula Devi, Srimati Rama Devi Joshi and Srimati Uttam Devi. On 25 April 1935 when a group of Revenue Discovery reached the kudan village then by an old woman Dhapi Dadi provoked farmers not to give revenue farmers organized themselves and denied to give tax.
Police fired on farmers to curb them, four farmers – Chetaram, Tikuram, Tulchiram and Asharam martyred and 175 were arrested. After this fierce masscare the echo of Sikar farmers was heard in British Parliament. At the end of 1935 most of the demands of farmers were accepted. The main leaders were – Sardar Harlal Singh Netaram Singh, Gaurir, Panne Singh, Batdanau, Haru Singh, Palthana, Goru Singh, Katrathal, Ishwar Singh Bhairupura, Lekhram Kaswali etc.
Farmers Movement (Chittorgarh) Bengu
Inspiring from Bijolia farmers movement, farmers of Bengu thikana also started movement in 1921, because people of here too were oppressed by the atrocities of Lag Bag and Lagan. Most of them were of Dhakad caste like Bijolia. They were also grinding in the mill of Begar, lagan and atrocities of thikanadars.
By the great efforts of Vijaylal Pathik, Manikya Lai Verma and Ram Narayan Choudhary the wave of awareness circulated in the farmers of Bengu.
In 1921 farmers of Bengu collected at Bhaironkund in Menal and requested Vijay Lai Pathik to lead the movement against Lag-Bag, Begar and Lagan. The burden of the movement was transferred to minister of Rajasthan Sewa Sansh Samiti Ram Narayan Choudhary by Pathik.
After two years Thakur Anoop Singh of Bengu accepted the demands of farmers and did an agreement. The government of Mewar and resident named it as Bolshevik decision and made Anoop Singh Nazarband in Udaipur and sat Munsarmat on Thikana. To sort out the problems of farmers a commission was appointed under the leadership of Bandobast of Mewar commissioner Trench. To think over on the decision of Trench Commissioner farmers gathered at Govindpura where Trench and Lala Amrit Lai ordered farmers to accept the decision of trench and scatter.
On 13 July bullets were fired on farmers in which two farmers Rupaji and Kripaji Dhakad were martyred, women were insulted, more than 500 farmers were arrested, by seeing the decreasing moral of the farmers, Pathik reached Bengu secretly and took over the leadership of the movement himself. He was imprisoned by the Mewar government. After that movement was ended slowly.
Barad Farmers Movement (Bundi)
Lagans, Begar and high rates of revenue were the causes of Barad, farmers movement also. The oppressive farmers of Barad region of Bundi state joined to boundary of Bijolia started movement against Bundi administration in April 1922. The leadership of this movement was in the hands to devoted worker of Rajasthan Sewa Sangh Nayanuram Sharma, On 2nd April 1923 a meeting was being held under the leadership of Nayanuram in Dabi Village on which Bullets were fired under the leadership of police superintendent Iqram Hussain in which Nanak Bhil and Devlal Gurjar were martyred.
Nayanuram Sharma was appointed to introduce the problems of farmers to the administration on 27 September, 1925. In 1927 Rajasthan Sewa Sangh was closed due to internal oppositions. Hence Barad farmers movement was ended with it.
Nimuchana Farmers Movement (Alwar)
There was ban on killing of pigs in Alwar. Pigs destroyed the crops of the farmers. So, in 1921 farmers started movement. Due to pressure of farmers movement Maharaja has to give permission to kill the pigs. In 1922 in Alwar after third Bandobast of land in 1923-24 new rates of revenue were imposed.
According to it less revenue was taken by the ex-Rajputs and Brahmans compared to other castes, but by the new system these special rights were abolished. Rajputs of Bansur and Thana of Gaji opposed these taxes and complained to resident. By such complaints Maharaja Jaidev Singh become annoyed. On 14th May 1925 farmers collected in Neemuchana village of Bansur Tehsil of Alwar to discuss on the matter of revenue.
Suddenly commander of the state Chajju Singh fired bullets on these farmers and burnt their houses. In this event 156 persons were killed and approx 600 were wounded. Newspaper named Riyasat compared this massacre with Jallianwala massacre while Mahatma Gandhi compared it as ‘Dual Diarshahi’ through Young India and described as more fierce than Jallianwala massacre.
Prajamandal movement in Rajasthan
In the early decades of 20th century many revolts were started in different parts of Rajasthan against atrocities of Samantaas and exploitation but the objective of these movements was only to decrease revenue and freedom from atrocities of the Samantaas. Nationalists of Rajputana were disappointed in 1920 by the resolution of Congress of not to interfere in internal matters of Deshi Riyasats. After the establishment of Akhil Bhartiya Deshi Rajya Lok Parishad in 1927 political workers got a platform to express their feelings.
The first conference of this institution was held in Bombay in 1927 under the presidentship of Diwan Bahadur Ram Chandra Rao. In the commitment of the institution there were seven members – Naynu Ram Sharma (Kota), Shankar Lai Sharma (Ajmer), Jai Narayan Vyas and Kanhaiya Lai Kalyantri (Jodhpur), Ram Dev Poddar and Balkishan Poddar (Bikaner) and Trilokchand Mathur (Karauli). Sri Vijay Singh Pathik was the vice president and Ram Narayan Chaudhary was elected as regional secretary of Rajasthan and central India.
The main objective of the establishment of this institution was – Establishment of a responsible government in the Deshi Riyasats of India under the guidance of Rulers (kings) of here.
In 1928 in the Haripura Session of the congress after passing the resolution of support movement of Deshi Riyasats, a systematic establishment of Prajamandals was held in different Deshi Riyasats.
Functions of Prajamandals
- Establishment of a responsible administration in Deshi Riyasats.
- Opposition of Atrocities and exploitation of Samantaas.
- Making political awareness among Deshi Riyasats.
- The political organization which were established to give pace to the National movement being running in the country. They were named as Prajamandals.
- In all Riyasats of Rajasthan, their own Prajamandals were working, which conducted many movements till the independence was got on the above said issues from time to time.
S.No. Praja Mandal Year Founder 1. Jaipur Prajamandal 1931 Jamna Lai Bajaj and Kapoor Chand Patni 2. Bundi Prajamandal 1931 Kantilal 3. Hadoti Prajamandal 1934 Pt. Naynu Ram Sharma 4. Marwad Prajamandal 1934 Jai Narayan Vyas 5. Sirohi Prajamandal 1934 Vridhi Shankar Trivedi 6. Bikaner Prajamandal 1936 Magharam Vaidya 7. Kota Prajamandal 1939 Pt. Nayani Ram Sharma 8. Mewad Prajamandal 1938 Manikya Lai Verma 9. Alwar Prajamandal 1938 Hari Narayan Sharma 10. Bharatpur Prajamandal 1938 Kishan Lai Joshi 11. Shahpura Prajamandal 1938 Ramesh Chandra Ojha 12. Dholpur Prajamandal 1938 Jwala Prasad Jigyasu 13. Karauli Prajamandal 1938 Trilok Chand Mathur 14. Kishangarh Prajamandal 1939 Kantilal Chauthani 15. Jaisalmer Prajamandal 1945 Metha Lai Vyas 16. Kushalgarh Prajamandal 1942 Bhanwar Lai Nigam 17. Doongarpur Prajamandal 1944 Bhogi Lai Pandya 18. Banswara Prajamandal 1945 Bhupendra Nath Trivedi 19. Pratapgarh Prajamandal 1945 Amrit Lai Payak 20. Jhalawar Prajamandal 1946 Mangilal Bhavya
Achievements of Prajamandals
- It made women to come out of the four walls of the house and stand beside men.
- Many women were arrested.
- The main women of Jaipur Prajamandal were – Rama Devi Deshpandey, Sushila Devi, Indira Devi, Anjana Devi Chaudhary etc.
- During Quit India Movement Gorja Devi in Jodhpur, Savitri Devi Bhati, Sirekanwal Vyas, Rajkaur Vyas, etc. were arrested. In Udaipur wife of Manikya Lai Verma Narayan Devi went jail along her 6 months old son.
- Prajamandals’ workers gave stress on social reforms, spread of education, Begar and Upliftment of Dalits and tribals.
Before 1938 there was no direct co-ordination of Deshi Riyasats with National Movement but after the establishment of Prajamandals during Quit Movement of 1942 the local movements become
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