Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 10 Social Science Notes Chapter 4 World History
Emergence of Nationalism in Europe
Nationalism is such a feeling in which a person’s greatest devotion or allegiance is sacrifice towards nation, willing of freedom and the powerful expression of making nation can be seen in the struggle for freedom of America. The first clear expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789.
This revolution only played the main role in spreading Nationalism in Europe. When we see the map of middle 18th Century of Europe, then in it no ‘nation state’ is found. Europe was divided into different multi-dynastic Empires, ditches and cantons. It was divided into small political units based on religion and their rulers had autonomous regions.
Eastern and middle Europe were under despotic and autocratic monarchies within the territories of which lived diverse people. They did not see themselves as sharing a collective identity or a common culture. They spoke different languages and belonged to different ethnic group for example – In the Habsburg Empire the aristocracy was predominantly German speaking while in Lombardy and Venetia Italian speaking, In Hungary half of the people spoke Magyar while the other half spoke a variety of dialects.
In Galicia the aristocracy spoke Polish. Such differences did not easily promote a sense of political unity. The only tie binding these diverse groups together was a common allegiance to the Emperor.
Causes of Nationalism in Europe
1. Emergence of Middle class: In Europe socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class. This powerful aristocracy was numerically a small group while majority of the population was made up of peasantry. In western Europe the bulk of the land was formed by tenants and small owners, while in Eastern and Central Europe the pattern of land holding was characterized by the vast states, which were cultivated by the serfs.
In western and central Europe, due to industrial production, growth in trade, development of towns and emergence of commercial classes, a new social group came into existence in which people of labour class, middle class which was formed of industrialists, businessmen and professionals. Among these classes, after the abolition of aristocratic privileges, ideas of national unity become popular.
2. Liberal Nationalism: Nauture of the feeling of Nationalism in Europe was done by liberalism and democracy. The general meaning of the liberalism is from disciplined or limited freedom and equality. The objective of liberalism was to make most of the fields control free. Liberals wanted to decide personal freedom like writing, formation of organizations, security of Private wealth. ‘Politically, it emphasized the concept of government by consent.
In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital. During the nineteenth century this was a strong demand of the emerging middle classes. In the first half of the nineteenth century Napoleon’s administrative measures had created out of countless small principalities a confederation of 39 states each of these possessed its own currency and weights and measures.
A merchant travelling in 1833 from Hamburg to Nuremberg to sell his goods would have had to pass through 11 customs barriers. Such conditions were viewed as obstacles to economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes, who argued for the creation of a unified economic territory, allowing the unhindered movement of goods, people and capital. In 1834 such an economic zone or zollverein (customs union) was formed at the initiative of Prussia and joined by most of the German states.
This union abolished tarrif barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two. This confederation made economic interests to national unification. A wave of economic nationalism strengthened the wider sentiments growing at that time.
3. Revolution of England and France: The glorious revolution of England gave birth to the tradition that Divine right have no legality in any administrative system. In the same chain the Revolution of France gave birth to the concept, that the freedom of man is so important that no power can ignore it. This imagination was the victory of nationality. Nationality was emerged in the reply of those monarchial powers who promised that powers of Monarchs are autocratic on the behalf of Divine rights.
4. A new conservatism after 1815: In 1815 representatives of the European powers – Britain, Russia, Russia and Austria – who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Viena to draw up a settlement for Europe. The delegates who were collected in Viena congress on the basis of their experience and understanding established the old system of Europe and recalled their pledge to keep away Europe from the features of new era of the nineteenth century – Nationality, Liberalism and Democratic feelings, but they couldn’t recognize the sprouted seeds. This is the cause that those arrangements which Viena congress tried to establish were ruined for the next hundred years.
5. Revolutionaries: During the years following 1815, the fear of repression drove many liberal nationalists underground. Secret societies sprang up in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideals. To be revolutionary this time meant a commitment to oppose monarchial forms that had been established after the Viena congress and to fight for liberty and freedom. Most of these revolutionaries also saw the creation of nation states as a necessary part of this struggle for freedom.
6. Contribution of language and folktales: The development of nationalism did not come about only through wars and territorial expansion. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation. Art, poetry, stories and music helped to express and shape nationalist feelings. Language too played an important role in developing nationalists sentiments. After Russia occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere.
In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place which was ultimately crushed. Following this, many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistence. The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.
From the beginning of Human civilization to till early 19th century world’s all work were generally done with Hand run tools. Man discovered many new sources of energy by the use of these his power of work had no limit. In the field of steam power, electric power, gas etc man had his progressive steps, which was transformed into the invention of atomic/nuclear power.
In the world India is such a prosperous country in the view of cottage industries where high quality steel was prepared from iron furnaces in very ancient time. It’s live example is iron pillar of Delhi which is even today stand in open without rust. The advanced breeds of Agriculture and mixed culture is the contribution of India. India has pioneer role in the construction of dam and setu as well as making availability of basic frame for industries.
Thousand years ago the construction of ‘Ramsetu’ between India and Sri Lanka is the example, its method of construction is also given in our shastras. At present the system of Agriculture industries, Trade and commerce of early 19th century were being existed thousand of years ago in India, while in the world these experiments are started from 19th century by the so called thousands of developed nations.
Meaning of Industrial Revolution
The meaning of Industrial Revolution are those fundamental changes which are being held in production system, result of which human resources have to leave their traditional occupations like – agriculture, trade and domestic industries and got opportunities to work in new large scale industries and use of new means of transport.
The word of industrial revolution in Europe intellectuals was first used by the Georges Mishle of France and Kaidrick Engem of Germany. Arnold Tainavi had cleared in his book ‘Lectures of Industrial revolution’ that Industrial revolution is not a sudden event but a continuous process of development.
According to Historian ‘G.W. Southgate’ Industrial revolution was a change in industrial system in which in place of handicraft power driven devices machines were used and changes were held in industrial organization place of production was changed from homes to industries. According to Historian C.D. Haisan Mechanization of cottage industries is industrial revolution.
According to Devi’s: Industrial revolution means those changes, which made possible that man should leave the ancient methods of production and can does production of goods in a large scale in the industries.
According to encyclopedia of sciences Kannada eight economic and technical development which become more powerful and intense in the 18th century, which gave birth to modern Industrialism as its result, is called Industrial revolution.
We can say that the meaning of industrial revolution is related to that economic system which comes out from the down stages of the traditional less production and enters in the modern industrial sector by which more production, style of living, and per capital income increases and rate of production continuously increases which puts a greater impact on man, society and state.
Changes which occur due to industrial revolution
- Activities done for production which were earlier done by hands, now were done by power driven machines.
- Due to increasing demand of steel, to fulfill it steel plants were established,
- Due to use of power driven machines in agriculture was done on farms in place of small fields.
- Due to increase in use of capital baking system was developed.
- Transport was greatly changed due to use of steam driven engines and machine driven ships.
- An organized trade system was developed to increase international trade.
- Principle of less manual labor and maximum production was adopted.
Why did Industrial Revolution Started in England?
England was the first country where modern industrialization was felt first. In England, such conditions were existed compared to other European nations, which made occurrence of industrial revolution first in England.
1. England’s vast colonial empire: England received raw material and new markets from its 18th century colonial empire, while other European nations hadn’t colonies.
2. Mines of coal and iron were in close proximity: Close proximity of iron and coal in England facilitated manufacturing of wrought iron, for making machines wrought iron was needed.
3. Production according to consumption: The trade export of France was of high quality luxurious goods, such goods are consumed in limits, while trade of England was of those goods which were required in large quantity. England believed that if means are found to make them more cheap then their market could be increased more hence England was ready to adopt those methods by which production of such goods could be increased.
4. Availability of half skilled Artisans: French Revolution and wars of Napoleon both helped a lot and contributed in the development of industrial revolution of England. During war days England needed to improve his methods of production to supply the needs of soldiers of England and other friend nations.
5. Availability of Capital: Compared to other nations of Europe England had more capital to establish industries. The immediate circumstances were favourable to collect capital and for its use in 18th century the Industrialists of England got facility to get loan and deposition of capital.
6. Favourable Geographical conditions of England: Being surrounded by the sea coast England was safe from external attacks and could do its industrial development.
7. Agricule Revolution: Held in England also encouraged industrial development.
8. Encouragement to scientific inventions: England compared to other European nations kept her scientists away from religious and political interfere and encouragement to scientific institutions which resulted into more scientific inventions in England.
Discoveries and reforms held in different fields during the period of Industrial revolution.
During industrial revolution the foremost reforms held in the field of agriculture. Due to no change in the method and tools as well as agriculture technique the demand of agriculture products was not more than nation’s need but due to industrial revolution, population of cities increased, hence more demand of grain and cotton for the industries was increased hence need of scientific methods and manufacturing of machines was realized. Now people were investing in agriculture for profit, it brought agriculture revolution.
It was invented by land lord of Yarkshayar ‘Jethrotal’ which made work of sowing seeds more systematic and proper.
One English land lord ‘Towns hand’ gave the principle of crop rotation. By which fertility of soil could be maintained by sowing different crops now there was no need to leave land exposed production increased per acre land.
By 1770 ‘Robert Bake Bail’ made rearing of animals profitable beside agriculture. He started experiments to improve the breeds of cows and sheep. In 1793 inhabitant of America ‘Hariton’ invented machine to separate chaff from grain and in 1834. McCormick of Cyrus invented harvester. Later the mechanization in agriculture was went on increasing, power driven machines brought a revolution in agriculture.
New invention in textile industries
The real start of industrial revolution was held from mainly textile industries. Up to middle 18th century the old system of manufacturing clothes in Europe couldn’t supply clothes according to demand.
Earlier cotton clothes were import from India to England, but when political control of East India company held on India then England started importing cotton with clothes. Due to increasing demand of clothes to fulfill them new inventions were done in this field, invention of Flying Shuttle by John in 1733 made possible making wide cloth in less time, invention of Spinning Jenny by Hergreeves in 1765 made possible of knitting of many yarn by single person.
Richard Arkwright in 1769 invented water frame now more durable thread could be made than earlier. He knitted yarn knit by mule invented by Samuel Cromton was very strong and of good quality. In 1787 power loom was invented by Edmund cart right.
New Technological changes in the field of iron industry
In England raw material needed for machines was available in abounded, beside it availability of minerals used in industries like – lead, copper and tin in great quality, but from old method demand of iron cannot be fulfilled. Hence to purify iron new methods were tried to discovered. In 1709 Abraham by invented Dhaman France in which first time coke was experimented which made melting and smelting of iron ore easier.
This invention brought revolution in the industry of metallurgy Derby second (1711-68) developed conversion of casting iron into wrought iron Aloddan (Puddling Furance) Furance by Henry court (1740-1893) by which impurities can be removed from molded iron. He also invented rolling mil which made possible to make pure and good quality iron.
Machines made up of iron were heavy and they got rusted also to get rid of this problems discoveries were made and steel was invented. In making steel a few quantity of carbon Manganese and other substance was used. Steel was lighter than iron, strong, flexible and non-rusty. Henry Baseman discovered a new method of making steel, which is known as Baseman process or method from this method from casting iron, direct steel is prepared and it brought a revolution in Iron Industry.
New discoveries in the field of Transport
Need of reforms was felt in the means of transport due to increase in trade and industries, to make transport easy and cheap inhabitant of Scotland Macadam discovered a new method of building roads, in which in the lower part of the road layer of heavy stones, after it layer of small pebbles and after that soil was spread.
The transport of heavy goods by road ways was inconvenient and costly. Hence to make transport of heavy goods convenient and cheap canals were built. In England the first canal ‘Versally Canal’ in 1761 was built by ‘James Brithely’. It decreased the expenditure of goods loading and unloading half.
In England the period from 1788-96 is called as ‘Neharonmad’ (Crazyness of building canals) because during this period many canals were built. In 1869 French Engineer Fartinod-Da-Lespeth built Swez Canal which joins Red Sea with Meditarannean Sea. It decreased the distance between India and Europe one third. Steam was used in the means of transport to make them more cheap and convenient. Robert Phulton discovered first steam driven boat in 1807, which was first sailed in the Hudson river, the discovery of the railway engine which run on tracks on land brought a revolution in the field of transport.
In 1814 George Stephenson invented famous steam engine (Rocket). By this rail transport become all weather transport. In 1830 the first train run between Menchester and Liverpool.
Discovery of train made loading, carrying and transportation of coal, iron and other industrial goods in less time and expenditure.
New Experiments held in the field of communication
In 1844 Samuel Morse discovered a public wire device. This wire device joined the great continents of the world mutually. In 1876 Graham Bell invented telephone which brought revolution in the field of communication.
Results of Industrial Revolution
In the view of study the results of industrial revolution can be divided into four parts –
1. Economic Results : An unbalanced growth occurred in production and commerce it created economic unbalance, urban development occurred more compared to rural development. Cottage industries were destroyed. National markets got guardianship from state and industrial capital was developed.
2. Political Results: Demand of Democracy in political field was increased. Political ambitions of middle class emerged. Industrial revolution gave birth to colonial competence. Laborers were organized and movements were emerged of their demands.
3. Social Results: New social class was emerged moral values were declined. Joint family system scattered . New culture took birth and human relations were declined Slums were increased in cities as a problem due to increase in the number of labourers.
4. Thoughtful Results: Economic liberalism was welcomed, socialism was emerged.
Unification of Germany
In the end of 18th century Germany was divided into more than 300 small and big confederations in geographical ciew confederations of Germany could be divided roughly into three parts – Northern central and southern. In Northen part were states of Prussia, Secsani, Hanover, Frankfurt etc. while in central part Rhineland and Southern Burtemberg, Baweria, Baden, Palletinate, Hes-Dermestat etc. in the view of size and military power Prussia was the most powerful but though politically disintegrated the two things were made the states of Germany united.
The first was – both states kept feeling of respect towards emperor of Rome Principly and second – existence of ‘Diet’ where representatives of states were present, at one platform. According to 19th century French Lipan the cause of the formation of nationality was that “This is one of the fun of the history that the founder of the modern Germany was Napoleon”.
The main obstacles in the unification of Germany
- Interference of Austria in the problems of Germany
- Economical, Sectarian, social and political inequalities in German confederations.
- England also had interest like France in German Confederations. It had interference in Northern states in the shadow of Hanover region.
- Most of the confederations had inactive military power.
- Lack of awareness in common people.
Impact of Pope in southern states of Germany was the obstacle in the unification of Germany.
Elements helpful in the unification of Germany
1. Zollverein: The economic unification of Germany started before its political unification. When in 1818 Zollverein agreement a custom duty treaty was done by the Prussia with small states named Bhowarz Berg – Sonder Shosan. The tarries were abolished between both states and unhindered trade was started.
This economic treaty decreased the Provincial and regional impact which was an obstacle in unification of Germany. According to Catlabi the formation of Zollverein paved the path of political unification of Germany in future under the leadership of Prussia. ‘Robert Ergag’ wrote that Zollverein decreased or suppressed the regional feelings and gave priority to powerful German Nationalist elements. By 1834 all of the main confederations of Germany become the member of this.
In the beginning the Prussia had no political motive behind Zollverein Prussia was unknowingly presenting itself to take the responsibility of political leadership of Germany’s unification.
2. Intellectual Movement: In the unification of Germany the thinkers, Historians, teleralists and Poets of Germany gave their great contribution. The role of main thinkers Life, Eagle, Dalmel hardenberg, flating hine, was main who filled the feeling of ‘German race is the best race of human’ among German people.
Phikte gave the right direction to the feelings against French in Germany and raised the feelings of nationality. In 1815 a patriotic organization named Barshen Sheft was formed in Zena University. This organization gave stress on moral up lift meant of Germans. This organization filled the feelings of Justice, freedom and Unity among German people.
3. Industrial Development: With the expansion of Zollverein trade and industries got a way of development in Germany. At this time Prussia and Russia both were considered the pillar of every industry. Due to these resources industrialization was held speedily in Prussia. In many places cotton textiles were established and railways was expanded. Many cities of the Germany were linked with railways.
By 1860 Germany was counted among the industrial states of Europe, while Austria had to face intense economic crises due to its traditional policies and Austria – Prussia war, while Prussia was progressing due to its increasing trade, commerce and industry.
4. Contribution of Bismarck: After the death of ruler of Prussia Fredrick William IV in 1861, sixty four years (64) old William I became the ruler. His brain was not so brilliant and thoughtful but he had a strange quality of testing able people. He believed in liberalism but he believed that unification of Germany can be done by Prussia through powerful rule and military.
To strengthen the military of Prussia Banrun was made war friend and Wammollake was made Chief Commander. When constitutional hindrance occurred on the issue of military reforms, then to remove this hindrance William I appointed the Bismarck as his chancellor.
Bismarck was a cunning politician a well known person of international matters skilled and diplomat wealthy personality. According to him the problems of that period couldn’t be solved by the speech and majority resolutions but could be solved by the policy of iron and blood hence due to this cause to make Prussia powerful when military budget was not accepted by the lower house of the Parliament then Bismarck got it passed by the upper house and introduced his firm determination.
The unification of Germany was done in three steps
1. War with Denmark and Treaty of Gastine: On Schleswig and Hal stein two Dutch’s Denmark had its right but they were not the undivided parts of Denmark, most of the population of Hal-stain was German beside Germany was the member of German federation. In Schleswig though Germans were in majority but Den also lived there.
Dens were against the unification of Germany. In 1852 in London conference rulers of Europe accepted the right of Denmark. On these Dutch’s on this condition that in future Denmark will not merge them in it, but after 10 years ruler of Denmark Fredick occupied these confederations. On this Bismarck got an opportunity to show his diplomacy. He wanted to abolish German federation by eliminating Austria from Germany.
He got success in his efforts and in January 1864 by taking both Dutch’s an agreement was held between Prussia and Austria. In which by rejecting right of Denmark on both, it was decided to give last warning. This agreement was the victory of Bismarck. In 1864 combined army of Austria and Prussia defeated Denmark. By taking rights of both Dutch’s in 1865 William and Fransis Josoph both signed an agreement Holstein to Austria and Schleswig was given to Prussia.
Prussia got right to surround on seaport named keel. The Gastine agreement was a political mistake of Austria and diplomatic victory of Bismarck. On the question of Holstein Bismarck had prepared a platform of war.
2. Austria, Prussia and Treaty of Prag: The next step of Bismarck after Gastine agreement was preparation of war against Austria. On one hand Bismarck started war preparation on the other hand by diplomacy started efforts, so Austria could not get help from European nations. At this time international environment was also in his favor. England was following the policy of non intervention in European confederations.
It got sympathy of Russian by helping in revolt being held in Poland. It made France to remain neutral by promising of giving few regions of Rhineland to it. Austria was an obstacle in the unification of Italy. In 1866 an agreement was held between Prussia and Sardinia. According to it, if Sardinia starts war against Austria then Venetia would be given to it. When Germans were revolting against Austria in Holstein then Bismarck was secretly supporting them.
On the other hand Austria was encouraging movement which was being held in Holstein in the favor of Duke of Augustus class. On this issue a war was began between Austria and Prussia, but on 3 July 1866 a war of Verdict was held of Sedowa and Conigraz in which Austria was completely defeated and Treaty of Prag was held between Austria and Prussia on 23rd August 1866. Holstein Dutche was included in Prussia and Northern Germany was made a sub-federation under the leadership of Prussia in which Austria was not included.
Frenko-Prussian war and Treaty of Frankfurt
France had hope that it would get parts of Rhineland on being Prussia and Austria neutral and its territory would be up to Rhine, but Bismarck ignored it, victory of Prussia and formation of north German sub-federation. France’s international prestige was hurt, on the other side politicians of France were demanding to take revenge of Sedowa. Napoleon III wanted to regain its lost prestige and in future war was the solution of their problem both nations were viewing this.
Napoleon III proposed to purchase Laxumberg. The nationalists of Germany, news favorites and politicians denied to give Luxamberg to France. The second tensed question was held on the issue of Royal throne of Spain and relations of both the nations were spoiled and at the end war was held. The war started between France and Prussia on 15th July 1870. Army of Germans attacked on France from three sides.
In the wars of Bisenberg, Gravlat France was defeated. The most important war was held on 2nd September 1870 in which Army commander of Prussia Baurnmoltech completely defeated to army of France Napoleon III surrendered. On 18 January 1871 in the famous palace of Versailles Bismarck coronated the emperor of Germany William I. On 28 February, 1871 war of Prussia – France ended on 21 February signs of the representatives of both the nations on treaty of Frankfurt were done.
In this treaty France had to give Mez including stramverg, Alas and Lauren regions to Germany. France was compelled to give 20 crore pounds as war compensation in three years. It can be said that unification of Germany could become possible due to blood and iron policy, firm determination of Bismarck, extreme courage and diplomatic skills of him.
Unification of Italy
There was a great impact of victories of Napoleon on the unification of Italy. After the victory over Italy Napoleon established Republic in Italy and after becoming Samrat, (emperor) he abolished small federations and confined them into three parts. He abolished feudalism and also abolished economic barriers on internal trade.
Equal laws were implemented in Italy. When Napoleon used Italy in the form of colony, then nationalist feelings of Italians were provoked. Due to these reasons Napoleon is called the founder of Nationalism in Italy.
According to Merriut, “Napoleon was that first person who foremost gave the unity to Italy”.
Main obstacles in the unification of Italy
- The main obstacle was influence of foreign reactionalism in Italy. Lombardy and Venetia were under direct control and on Medena and Tuskony Princes related to Austria had their right.
- Pope wanted to continue his power over his state Rome.
- Italy was divided mainly into three political units, which was the main obstacle in unification.
- The Italy’s feudal class and clergy class after the decline of Napoleon wanted to re-establish feudal system because they feared that after unification their impact would be abolished.
- In Italy still national feelings were not rose. All states had their own different – different traditions and rites and rituals. One state did not want to join other.
- One more obstacle in the unification of Italy was that under which thought/Philosophy unification of Italy should be done? On this issue Politician were not unanimous Mazzini and Garibaldi wanted unification of Italy in the form of a Republic, while Geoburty was in the favor of states under the Pope’s federation.
Main People and Organizations helpful in the unification of Italy
1. Carbonari: The establishment of this secret institution was held in 1810 in Nepal . In this institution people of all classes were included. There were two main objectives of this institution
- To exit foreigners from Italy
- To establish constitutional freedom. Due to lack of influenscive leadership and definite objectives this institution faild.
2. young Italy: It was established by Mazzini in 1831, which took place of Carbonari in Italy’s national movement. Mazzini believed in the youth of Italy. According to him ‘If revolution is to be brought in the society, then give leadership in the hands of youth. There is a great power hidden in their heart.”
This institution had three slogans:
- Have faith in God
- Merge all brothers together
- Make Italy free
The objectives of this institution were clear:
- Unity of Italy
- Achievement of Freedom
- Establishment of state based on freedom, equality and people’s welfare.
This institution filled the feelings of Patriotism, struggle, sacrifice and freedom .Mazzini called upon Italians and said ‘Don’t run after anything none than ideal of Joint/united Italy’. Italy will become a Nation. In the eyes of Patriots Mazzini was a messenger of God, who came to from future of Italy. In reality Mazzini kept the founder stone of Italy’s unification. The south gale wrote that This was Mazzini who filled the feelings of freedom among Italians. Though he was not a military commander like Cavour but he was a poet, an Ideal Philosopher and messenger of Revolution.
Cavour took birth in 1810 in a noble family of Turin. After getting military education, he joined military service as an engineer. He was a favourer of the thoughts of liberalism beside studied about parliamentary system during England travel. He wanted to establish such a system in Italy.
Cavour thought that the unification of Italy could be done under the leadership of Piedmont, to spread his thoughts in this direction he became the finance and industry minister in 184. In 1852 Victor Emmanuel made him Prime minister. Cavour was a practical, diplomatic, politician and a person of advocating Monarchism. He was well equipped with the ability and power of Italy.
Hence it was his thinking that till the foreign grants/help will not be received, unification of Italy cannot be done, for this reason, he wanted to Internationalize the question of Italy’s unification. Cavour’s internal policy, reforms and foreign policy completed the unification of Italy.
Contribution of Cavour in Unification
Cavour is such a person without whom the idealism of Mazzini and boldness of Garibaldi were useless.
According to Cavour:
- Piedmont Sardenia is capable of doing Italy’s unification.
- Austria is the greatest hindrance in unification.
- Austria cannot be eliminated without foreign help.
Cavour believed in exact practical politics. He wanted to internationalize the question of unification of Italy. So, active help and sympathy of foreign power could be gained. At this time there were two powerful nations in Europe
In England due to the formation of the policy of non-intervention in foreign matters, there was no hope of help from her while ruler of France had sympathy with Italy on the question of its unification. Hence Cavour sent army to help cremia and received friendship and sympathy. Cavour get privilege of this friendship in Paris conference 1856.
Though Austria opposed by Piedmont Sardinia was invited in Paris summit. Cavour made Austria responsible for the miserable condition of Italy in this summit. In Paris summit Cavour got moral victory on the question of Italy.
Co-Operation of Napoleon and achievement of Lombardy
Samrat (emperor) Napoleon was resting near the border of Sardenea to spend his one month’s holidays. Cavour reached Plombears without any formal control. An arrangement was held as the result of Cavour’s meeting with Napoleon, in which following decision were taken
- If war held between Austria and Sardenia then Franc will give help of 2 Lacs soldiers.
- Nepal, Siscli will remain confederations of Pope.
- Lombardy and Venetia would be given to Sardiniehs.
- In place of help from France regions of Neece and Sewaya would be given to France.
- Victor Emmanuel will marry her daughter with Prince Zerom Bonapart.
In this agreement it was decided that war should be started very soon by provoking Austria. So Austria looked agreesive and Sardenia looked like fighting for self security. To provoke Austria Cavour made revolt in Mass and Karrata regions. Austria reacted in the same manner as Cavour wanted. On 23 April 1859 France declared war in the favour of Italy. Austria was continuously defeating, but without asking Sardinia, France separated her from the war and Napoleon III met with Joseph amrat of Austria at a place named Vilaphrenka and did agreement of the ceasefire.
Following were the terms of the agreement
- Lombardy was given to Sardinia
- Venetia was given to Austria
- Parma, Medona and Askani were made again free states
This agreement disappointed Cavour and Italy. Cavour was displeased and gave his resignation. Victor Emmanuel signed the treaty of Jeureikh on 10 November 1859 with Austria and France. By the treaty of Jewreikh the treaty of Vilfrenka for ceasefire was confirmed with this the first step of unification Italy was completed.
Merger of Central Italy
After the end of the war the people of the states of central Italy -Parma, Medina, Tuskany, Bologna and Romagna revolted . they were anxious to merge in Italy. The policy of non-intervention of England and sympathy towards Italy were encouraging to unite with Italy. Austria wanted that the old rulers should be re-established in these states under the treaty of Jewriekh.
Cavour took the advantage of the situation made France on his side by promising her to give regions of Nees and Sewayan. In March 1860 people’s opinion was taken through Pole in which Parma, Medona, Tuskony Bologna and Viyokenza in Sardinia and Nees and Sewayan gave their consence to merge in France England had her sympathy with Italy hence at the question of people’s verdict on the merger of states of central Italy England took favour of Italy with France, with this the second step of unification Italy was completed.
Garibaldi and Merge of Nepal and Siscly
Giuseppe Garibaldi was born on 1807 in the city of Nees. His father wanted to give him higher education but Garibaldi did not take interest in studies. He studied this much that he could read books and could satisfy his free and adventurous attitude. Garibaldi came in the contact of Patriots.
He took part in the neavy consiperacy of 1833. He was caught and was punished for sentence to death, but he went to South America. There he learned the Gorrilla war. In 1854 he came back. He made an organization of patriots named ‘Red Kurti’ and on its strength he could enter in Siscly. In Nepal and Siscly rulers were foreigners beside they were not able to rule. Mazzini Franscil, Krischi and Garibaldy planned of revolting there.
Garibaldi attacked on 5 May 1860 on Siscly with an organization 1000 Red Kurti self Sewaks. Garibaldi achieved victory and declared himself dictator. Victor Emmanuel approached ahead self with army towards Nepals. At place named Tiano Emmanuel and Garibaldi met each other. Garibaldi accepted Victor Emmanuel as the ruler of Italy. Garibaldi surrendered his all rights and army to Victor Emmanuel with the merger of southern states with Italy the third step of the unification of Italy was completed.
The last step of unification of Italy merger of Venetia
In 1866 the war which was held between Prussia and Austria, in this war Italy had given military help to Prussia against Austria. On 3 July 1866 Prussia defeated Austria. Treaty of Prag was held between Prussia and Austria in which Venetia was given to Italy.
Merger of Rome
The condition of Italy without Rome was same, as Heart without body. Rome was under Pope and armies of France were present for the security of Pope. The dream of Italy to have control over Rome was completed when international conditions were against France. In 1870 war was held between Prussia and France, in it France had to use her whole power against Prussia.
She called army from Rome, but still she was defeated. Italy took the privilege of this situation and took control over Rome. In Rome public polling was done in which verdict of public went in the favor of Italy. Rome was made the capital of united Italy. Victor Emmanuel said while inaugurated the Parliament of United Italy – “The work for which we sacrificed our lives, that is completed today” Our national unity is established.
We have made our nation happy and prosperous, we are in Rome, and will remain in Rome with the achievement of Rome, Italy remained not only a geographical expression but became an independent sovereign nation. In reality unification of Italy was happened with the sacrifice of uncountable patriots moral force of Mazzini, sword of Garibaldi, diplomacy of Cavour and under standing of Victor Emmanuel.
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