These comprehensive RBSE Class 10 Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 1 Power Sharing will give a brief overview of all the concepts.
RBSE Class 10 Social Science Civics Chapter 1 Power Sharing
In a democracy all the power does not rest with any one organ of the government. An intelligent sharing of power among legislature, executive and judiciary is very important to the design of democracy.
Why is Power Sharing Desirable in Democracy? – Two different sets of reasons can be given in favour of power sharing –
(1) Firstly, power sharing is good because it helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.
(2) Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. A democratic rule involves sharing power with those affected by its exercise and who have to live with its effects.
Forms of Power Sharing – In modem democracies, power sharing arrangements can take many forms—
1. Horizontal Distribution of Power – Power is shared among different organs of government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary. None of the organs can exercise unlimited power. Each organ checks the others. This results in a balance of power among various institutions.
2. Vertical Distribution of Power – Power can be shared among governments at different levels. In India we refer to it as the central or Union Government for the entire country and the state government for the states. The same principle can be extended to levels of government lower than the state government, such as the municipality and panchayat.
3. Distribution of Power among Different Social Groups – Power may also be shared among different social groups, such as the religious and linguistic groups. ‘Community Government’ in Belgium is a good example of this arrangement. Socially weaker sections and women are represented in the legislatures and administration is also a good example. This method is used to give minority communities a fair share in power.
4. Power Sharing among Political Parties, Pressure and Interest Groups – Power sharing arrangements can also be seen in the way political parties, pressure groups and movement groups control or influence those in power. In die long run, power is shared among different political parties that represents different ideologies and social groups. Besides this, different interest and pressure groups also have a share in governmental power, either through participation in governmental committees or bringing influence in the decision making process.