These comprehensive RBSE Class 10 Social Science Notes Civics Chapter 3 Democracy and Diversity will give a brief overview of all the concepts.
RBSE Class 10 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 Democracy and Diversity
Origins of Social Differences –
1. Social differences are mostly based on accident of birth. Normally we don’t choose to belong to our community. We belong to it simply because we were born into it We all experience social differences based on accident of birth in our everyday lives.
2. Some of the differences are based on our choices. Most of us choose what to study, which occupation to take up and which games or cultural activities to take part in. All these lead to formation of social groups that are based on our choices.
3. Every’ social difference does not lead to social division. Social differences divide similar people from one another, but they also unite very different people.
Overlapping and Cross-cutting Differences –
Social division takes place when some social difference overlaps with other differences. In our country, Dalits tend to be poor and landless. They often face discrimination and injustice. Consider the cases of Northern Ireland and the Netherlands. Both are predominantly Christian but divided between Catholics and Protestants.
In Northern Ireland, class and religion overlap with each other: Catholics and Protestants are about equally likely to be rich or poor. The result is that Catholics and Protestants have had conflicts in Northern Ireland, while they do not do so in the Netherlands.
Politics of Social Divisions –
1. Democracy involves competition among various political parties. Their competition tends to divide any society. If they start competing in terms of some existing social division, it can make social divisions into political divisions and lead to conflict, violence or even disintegration of a country. This lias happened in many countries.
In Yugoslavia, the story’ did not have a happy end. Political competition along religious and ethnic led to the disintegration of Yugoslavia into six independent countries. Such examples lead some people to conclude that politics and social divisions must not be allowed to mix.
2. At the same time every expression of social divisions in politics does not lead to such disasters. People from one community tend to prefer some party more than others. In many countries there are parties that focus only on one community. Yet all this does not lead to disintegration of the country.
Three Determinants – Three factors are crucial in deciding the outcome of politics of social divisions.
1. How People Perceive their Identities – If people see their identities in singular and exclusive terms; it becomes very difficult to accommodate. It is much easier if the people see that their identities are multiple and are complementary with the national identity. Most of the people in our country see their identity, they think of themselves as Indian as well as belonging to a state or a language group or a social or religious community.
2. How Political Leaders Raise the Demands of any Community – It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional frame work and are not at the cost of another community.
3. How the Government Reacts to Demands of Different Groups – If the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority community, social divisions become less threatening for the country. If they try to suppress such a demand in the name of national unity, the end result is often quite the opposite. In a democracy, political expression of social divisions is very normal and can be healthy. This allows various disadvantages and marginal social groups to express their grievances and get the government to attend them
People who feel marginalised, deprived and discriminated have to fight against the injustices. Such a fight often takes the democratic path. The struggle against such inequalities sometimes takes the path of violence.
Democracy is the best way to fight for recognition and also to accommodate diversity’.