These comprehensive RBSE Class 10 Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture will give a brief overview of all the concepts.
RBSE Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture
Agriculture – Agriculture is the art and science of cultivating soil, raising crops and rearing live stock including fishing and forests. It is a primary activity.
Types of farming –
(1) Primitive subsistence farming – A type of agriculture which is practised on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like hoe, dao, digging sticks and family or community labour which depends on monsoon.
(2) Intensive subsistence farming – Increase in the agricultural production by using scientific methods and better agricultural inputs.
(3) Commercial agriculture – Farming in which the farmer grows crop with the aim of selling it in the market.
(4) Plantation agriculture – In this type of farming a single crop is grown on a large area. It is like a commercial crop. Machines and labour are required for this type of agriculture.
In India, tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, banana etc. are important plantation crops.
Cropping pattern – India has three cropping seasons – Rabi, Kharif and Zaid.
- Major crops – Major crops grown in India are rice, wheat, millets, maize, pulses.
- Food crops other than grain – In India food crops grown other than grains are tea, coffee, sugarcane, oilseeds, cotton and jute etc.
- Non-food crops – Rubber.
- Fibre crops – Cotton, Jute.
- Horticulture crops – Mango, banana, pears, apple, apricot and pear etc.
Technological and institutional reforms – Agriculture which provides livelihood for 60% and more of its population needs some serious technical and institutional reforms.
In 1980s and 1990s, a comprehensive land development programme was initiated which included both institutional and technical reforms. The Kisan credit card, Personal and Crop insurance schemes etc. are introduced by the government of India for the benefit of the farmers.
Contribution of the agriculture to the national economy, employment and output – Agriculture has been the backbone of the Indian economy. By its share in the Gross Domestic Product, (GDP) it has registered a declining trend since 1951 onwards. Yet its share in providing employment and livelihood to the population continues to be as high as 52% in 2010-11.
Effect of globalisation on Indian agriculture – Under globalisation, particularly after 1990, the farmers in India have been exposed to new challenges. Despite being an important producer of rice, cotton, rubber, tea, coffee, jute and spices, our agricultural products are not able to compete with developed countries because of the highly subsidised agriculture in those countries.