These comprehensive RBSE Class 10 Social Science Notes Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources will give a brief overview of all the concepts.
RBSE Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources
Minerals—Geologists define minerals as a homogeneous, naturally occur with a definable internal structure.
Mode of occurrence of minerals – Minerals generally occur in these forms-
- In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals may occur in cracks, ere joints.
- In sedimentary rocks a number of minerals occur in beds or layers.
- Another mode of formation involves the decomposition of surface rocks and the removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass or weathered material containing ores.
- Certain minerals may occur in alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors or base of hills.
Ferrous minerals – Ferrous minerals account for about three fourth of the total value of the production of metallic minerals. They provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries.
Iron ore – Iron ore is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development. Magnetite is the finest iron ore (iron 70%).
Manganese – Manganese is mainly used in the manufacturing of steel and ferro-manganese alloy. Odisha is the largest producer of manganese ore in India:
Non-ferrous minerals – India’s reserves and production of non-ferrous minerals is not very satisfactory (copper, bauxite). It plays a vital role in a number of metallurgical, engineering and electrical industries.
Copper – India is critically deficient in the reserve and production of copper. It is mainly used in electrical cables, electronic and chemical industries.
Bauxite – Aluminium is obtained from bauxite. It combines the strength of metals such as iron with extreme lightness and also with good conductivity and great malleability.
Mica – Mica is a mineral made up of a series of plates or leaves. It can be clear, black, green, red, yellow or brown,
Limestone – Limestone is found in association with rocks, composed of calcium carbonate or calcium and magnesium carbonates. It is the basic raw material for the cement industry.
Conservation of minerals – The total volume of workable mineral deposits is an insignificant fraction, i.e. 1% of the earth’s crust. The geological processes of the mineral formation are so slow that the rate of replenishment are infinitely small in comparison to the present rates of consumption. Recycling of metals using scrap metals and other substitutes are the steps in conserving minerals for the future.
Energy resources – Energy can be generated from fuel minerals like coal, petroleum, natural gas, uranium and from electricity’.
Conventional sources of energy :
Coal – In India coal is the most abundantly available fossil fuel. It provides a substantial part of the nation’s energy needs It is used for power generation to supply energy to industries as well as for domestic needs.
Petroleum – Petroleum provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machineries and raw materials for a number of manufacturing industries.
Natural gas – Natural gas is used as source of energy as well as an industrial raw material in the petro chemical industry.
Electricity – Electricity is mainly generated in two ways, by running water (hydro electricity) and by burning fuels like coal, petroleum etc. (thermal power).
Nuclear or atomic energy – This is obtained by altering the structure of atoms. Uranium and thorium which are available in Jharkhand and the Aravalli ranges of Rajasthan.
Non-conventional sources of energy – There is a pressing need to use renewable energy sources like solar energy, wind, tide, biomass and energy from waste materials. These are called non-conventional energy sources.
Conservation of energy resources – Energy is a basic requirement for economic development. Every’ sector of the national economy – agriculture, industry, transport, commercial and domestic – needs inputs of energy.
We have to adopt our cautious approach for the judicious use of our limited energy’ resources.