These comprehensive RBSE Class 10 Social Science Notes History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe will give a brief overview of all the concepts.
RBSE Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 1 Notes The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
1. The French Revolution and the Idea of the Nation—The first clear expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789. As a result of this revolution sovereignty centralized in the body of French Citizens. The French revolutionaries introduced many measures and practices that could create a sense of common identity amongst the French people.
2. Napoleon Bonaparte—Through a return to monarchy, Napoleon Bonaparte incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient. Napoleon introduced The civil Code in 1804, which is known as ‘Napoleonic Code’. The Civil Code did away with all privileges based on birth established equality before the law and secured the right to property. This code was implemented in the regions under French control.
3. The Aristocracy and the New Middle Class—Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class or the Europe an continent but this powerful aristocracy was numerically a small group. The majority of the population was made up of the peasantry on account of development of trade and industry commerce classes came into existance.
In the beginning of 19th century 7 new social groups came into being; a working class population and middle classes made up of industrialists, businessmen and professionals. It was among the educated, liberal middle classes that ideas of national unity following the abolition of aristocratic privileges gained popularity.
4. Meaning of Liberal Nationalism- ‘ wr the new middle classes liberalism stood for freedom for the individual equality of all before the law. Politically, it emphasized the concept of government by consent. Since the French revolution, liberalism had stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privilages a constitution and representative government through parliament. In the economic sphere liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
4. A new conservatism after 1815—After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, representatives of the European powers—Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria, met at Vienna Congress to draw up a . settlement for Europe. These representatives drew up the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 with the object of undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic Wars. The Vienna Congress set up a new conservative order in Europe. Conservative regime set up in 1815 were autocratic.
5. Giuseppe Mazzini (The Revolutionary)—During the years following 1815 the fear of repression drove many liberal nationalists underground. Giuseppe Mazzini was a great revolutionary of Italy. He established two underground societies—‘Young Italy” and ‘Young Europe”. He presented a programme for unified Italy.
6. The Age of Revolutions : 1830-1848 –
(i) A revolution broke out in France in July 1830. As a result of this revolution, constitutional monarchy was established in France. In 1821 the people of Greek started their struggle for freedom and ultimately in 1832 Greece was recognised as an independent nation.
(ii) In February, 1848, a revolution broke out in France. As a result of this revolution, republic was set up in France. In 1848, in German states, revolutions broke out. The Frankfurt Parliament drafted a constitution for a German Nation.When the deputies offered the crown to Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia, he rejected it. Thus the revolution of 1848 did not succeed.
7. Unification of Germany—The nationalists of Germany started their movement under Prussia for the unification of Germany. Prime Minister of Prussia Ottovon Bismarck, followed the policy of Iron and Blood” and during the period of seven years. He defeated Denmark, Austria and France and completed the process of unification of Germany. The new German Empire was proclaimed on 18th January, 1871 The king of Prussia William I was declared the king of New German Empire.
8. Unification of Italy—In the middle of nineteenth century’ Italy was divided into seven states. The revolutionary leader of Italy Giuseppe Mazzini presented a programme for Unitary Italian Republic. He established a secret society’ called young Italy in 1831. The Prime Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont Cavour defeated Austria with the assistance of France. Another revolutionary leader Garibaldi conquered Sicily and Naples in 1860. In 1861. Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.
9. Britain—There was no British nation prior to the eighteenth century. A revolution broke out in 1688 in England. As a result of this revolution, the Parliament of England seized power from the monarchy and through this Parliament, a nation-state was formed with England at its centre. The Act of union (1707) between England and Scotland resulted in the fonnation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain”. In 1801, Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the ‘United Kingdom”. A new ‘British nation’ was formed in which English culture was dominant.
10. Visualising the Nation—Artists in the 18th and 19th centuries personified a nation and represented a country as if it were a per so J. Nations were then portrayed as female figures. The female figures became an allegory of the Nation. In France, Marianne became the allegory’ of French Nation. In Germany Germania became the allegory of the German nation.
11. Nationalism and Imperialism—By the last quarter of the nineteenth century, nationalism no longer remained its idealistic liberal democratic sentiment of the 1st half of the century, but became a narrow creed with limited ends. Due to the spread of nationalism, many states of the Balkan region started their struggle for freedom against the Ottoman Empire. Many European subject nationalities broke away from the control of Ottoman Empire and declared independence.
On the other hand, the Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to get more territory at the expanse of the others. In addition to this, rivalry started among the big nations in Balkan region. Consequently, a series of wars started in this region and finally the First World War.