These comprehensive RBSE Class 10 Social Science Notes History Chapter 3 The Making of Global World will give a brief overview of all the concepts.
RBSE Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 3 The Making of Global World
(1) The Pre-modern World – Even before the modem world, human societies have become steadily more interlinked.
(2) Silk Routes Link the World – The silk routes are a good example of vibrant pre modem trade and cultural links between distant parts of the world. Silk routes point to the importance of west bound Chinese silk cargoes along this route. Historians have identified several silk routes over land and by sea linking Asia with Europe and northern Africa.
(3) Food Traveles : Spaghetti and Potato – Traders and travellers introduced new crops to the lands they travelled. Similarly, spaghetti and potatoes arrived in Europe and other countries.
(4) Conquest, Disease and Trade – The Portuguese and Spanish conquest and colonisation of America was decisively under way by the mid sixteenth century. The Spanish soldiers carried the germs of smallpox to America. A large number of Americans died on account of spread of smallpox. Consequently, the colonial powers got an opportunity to conquer America. In the Eighteenth century and beyond, die centre of world trade moved westwards. Europe now emerged as the centre of world trade.
(5) Flow of international economic exchanges – The economists identify three types of flows within international economic exchanges –
- The flow of trade,
- the flow of labour, and
- the flow of capital.
(6) Rise of a world economy – After the com laws were scrapped, industrialisation and population growth had increased the demand for food grain in Britain. In the mid-nineteenth century due to the faster industrial growth in Britain, the food was imported in large quantity. Nearly 50 million people emigrated from Europe to America and Australia in the nineteenth century.
(7) Global agricultural economy – By 1890, a global agricultural economy had developed. Now there had been changes in labour movement pattern, capital flows, ecologies and technology.
(8) Late nineteenth century colonialism – Trade flourished and markets expanded in the late nineteenth century. But late nineteenth century European conquests produced many painful economic, social and ecological changes through which the colonised societies were brought into the world economy.
(9) Indentured labour migration from India – In the nineteenth century, hundred thousands of Indian and Chinese labourers went to work on plantations, in mines and in road and railway construction projects around the world. Most Indian indentured workers came from the present day regions of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, central India and Tamilnadu. The main destinations of Indian indentured migrants were the Caribbean Islands (mainly Trinidad, Guyana and Surinam), Mauritius and Fiji. The system of indentured labour migration was abolished in 1921.
(10) Indian Entrepreneurs Abroad – Indian traders and moneylenders also followed European colonisers into Africa.
(11) Indian Trade, colonialism and the Global system – Due to the policy of British government the inflow of fine Indian cotton began to decline. From the early nineteenth century,British manufacturers also began to seek overseas markets for their cloth. Around 1800, the percentage of export of cotton cloth was 30 percent. By the 1870s, this proportion had dropped to below 3 percent. But the export of raw materials increased equally fast.Over the nineteenth century, British manufacturers flooded the Indian market. The British had a ‘trade surplus’ with India.
(12) Home charges – Britain’s trade surplus in India also helped pay the so called ‘home charges’. That included private remittances home by British officials and traders, interest payments on India’s external debt and pensions of British officials in India.
(13) The Inter-war economy – The First world war was the first modem industrial war. In this war 9 million people were killed and 20 million injured. Their deaths and injuries reduced the able-bodied workforce in Europe. During the war industries were restructured to produce war related goods. The war transformed the US from being an international debtor to an international creditor.
(14) Post-war recovery – After the war, Britain found it difficult to recapture its earlier position of dominance in the Indian market and to compete with Japan internationally. But the war helped look the U S. economy, the important feature of the U S. economy of the 1920s was mass production. The pioneer of mass production was the car manufacturer Henry Ford. Henry Ford adapted the assembly live to produce cars.
Henry Ford’s cars came off the assembly live at three minutes intervals. Car production in the U S. rose from 2 million 1919 to more than 5 million in 1929. There was a spurt in the purchase of refrigerators, washing machines, radios, gramophone players, all through a system of ‘hire purchase’. The housing and consumer boom of the 1920s created the basis of prosperity in the U S.
(15) The great depression – The great depression began around 1929 and landed till the mid-1930s. During this period most parts of the world experienced great declines in production employment, incomes and trade. The US was severely effected by the depression. Thousands of banks went bankrupt and were forced to close.
(16) India and the great depression – India’s exports and imports nearly halved between 1928 and 1934. Peasants and farmers suffered more than urban dwellers. Across India peasant indebtedness increased.
(17) Post-war era – The main aim of the post-war international economic system was to preserve the economic stability and full employment in the industrial world. The depression proved less grim for urban India.
(18) Bretton woods conference – In July 1944, the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference was held at Bretton woods in New Hampshire U.S.A. The Bretton woods conference established I.M.F. and world bank.
(19) The Early Post-war years – After the war, between the early years of 1950 to 1970, world trade grow annually at over 8 percent.
(20) Decolonisation and independence – After the second world war, over the next two decades most colonies in Asia and Africa became free independent nations but they were overburdened by poverty. Their economies begans to deteriovate.
(21) Emphasis on a new international economic order – Most developing countries did not benefit from the fast growth the western economics experienced in the 1950s and 1960s. Therefore they organised themselves as a group the Group of 77 (or G-77) to demand a new international economic order (NIEO).
(22) The end of Bretton woods and the beginning of Globalisation – From the 1960s the rising costs of its overseas involvements weakened the U.S.’s finances and competitive strength. From the mid-1970s the international financial system also changed in important ways. The industrial world was also hit by unemployment that began rising from the mid 1970s. In the last two decades the world’s economic geography has been transformed as countries such as India, China and Brazil, have undergone a rapid economic transformation.