Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 History Notes Chapter 4 Mughal Invasion: Types and Effects
- No other country of the world confronted the invasions made by the Arabs and the Turks in such an extended, rigid and successful way, as India of the medieval period did.
- Firstly the Arabians invaded Syria and in one year itself (635-636 CE), the capital Damascus had surrendered.
- Within five years of attaining victory in the famous Battle of Quadisiya in 637 CE, the Arabs occupied the entire massive empire of Persia and during 642-50 CE, they conquered the Central Asia.
Reasons of Arab Invasion on India:
- Just like in other countries, the objective of propogating their religion inspired Arabs to invade upon India also.
- Along with the spirit of Empire extension, the economic prosperity of India also attracted Arabs for invasion.
- After the death of Prophet Mohammad in 632 CE, the sequence of Arab invasions on India started.
- During the reign of Ummayad dynasty, the Arab army occupied Kirmar, Siestan and Makran situated on the other side of Sindh under the leadership of Abdullah.
- Dahir Sen was a Brahmin ruler of Sindh. The boundaries of the Kingdom of Dahir extended till Kashmir in the north and till Kannauj to the Pratiharas in the east.
- On the basis of the incident of the plundering of the Arabian Ships’ Arabs attacked Dahir Sen. Dahir bravely faced the enemies. Dahir recieved matyrdom on June 20, 712 CE.
Decline of Muhammad Bin Qasim:
- According to historian Gaurishankar Hirachand Ojha, Khalifa immediately issued a written order to send Muhammad Bin Qasim alive, woven in the skin of an ox to him.
- The above order of Khalifa was issued because of the allegation on Bin Qasim to have taken away the virginity of Dahir’s daughters.
Effects of Relations with India on the Arabs:
- Indian philosophy, science, mathematics, medical science and astrology influenced the Arabians in a great way. They got many Indian Sanskrit texts translated into Arabic language.
- Brahmagupta’s Brahmasiddhanta and Khandakhadyaka are famous among the translated books.
- The Arabian people learned various fundamental principles such as number system, decimal system, medical science and astrology also.
- In this way, Indian knowledge successfully reached the western countries through the Arabs.
Reasons for Success of the Arabs:
- There were several reasons for the success of Arabs in context to Sindh such as-the ‘ dissatisfaction of general section of the society during the reign of Dahir, lack of the spirit of mutual co-ordination, brotherhood and co-operation.
- Along with the qualification, bravery and leadership of Muhammad Bin Qasim, the zeal of religions, prolongations immense desire of gaining wealth and the military support extended by the Khalifa also contributed significantly towards their success.
- Nagabhatta-I (730-756 CE) is regarded as the founder of Guijara-Pratihara dynasty of Jalore, Avanti and Kannauj.
- In Gwalior Prashasti, Nagabhata-I has been adorned with the title of ‘Narayan’ as he had failed the invasions made by foreigners and was the well wisher of the helpless.
- As a result of his victories, Nagabhatta-II became the most powerful ruler of South India. On this occassion, he gained the title of Parambhattarak, Maharajadhiraj Parameshwar.
- Bappa Rawal is regarded as the actual founder of Guhil dynasty of Mewar. Bappa Rawal protected Chittor from Muslim armies. Bappa occupied Chittor and gained three titles:
- Hindu Surya
- Rajguru and
- At the age of Fifty, Bappa invaded Khurasan and occupied it. He died over there. His epitaph is famous by the name of ‘Bappa Rawal’. He issued gold coins. In his coins of 115 grams, kamdhenu, calf, shivling, nandi, a man bowing on his knees, river, fish, trident etc. are inscribed on both the sides.
- Historian C. V. Vaidya has compared him with Chalres Martel (the French Commander who was the first to defeat the Mughal army).
- The first Turkish invade? to invade India was Ghazni ruler Subuktgin.
- Subuktgin died in 997 CE and after this, his son Ismael and Mahmud (Ghaznavi) became the rulers respectivley. He invaded India 17 times, among which his sixteenth invasion made on Somnath Temple (Gujrat) in 1025 CE is the most famous.
- After gaining victory, Mahmud himself broke the statue of Somnath and sent its
- pieces to Ghazni, Mecca and Madina and settled them under the staircases of the main mosque.
- In 1173 CE, Gaur ruler Ghiyasuddin occupied Ghazni and appointed his younger brother Shihabuddin as the ruler of Ghazni.
- The same Shihabuddin became famous by the name of Muhammad Ghori in history.
- During the time of invasions of Muhammad Ghori upon India, there was rule of Prithviraj Chauhan upon Delhi and Ajmer who is renowned by the name of ‘Rai Pithora’ in history.
- Prihviraj’s mother Karpuradevi was a skilled politician. Due to this reason, he easily got control over the administration of the kingdom with the assistance of Prime minister Kadambavasa and Commander Bhuvanaikamalla.
Conquests of Prithviraj Chauhan:
- In order to avenge for the assassination of some of his soldiers, Prithviraj attacked Mahoba state in 1182 CE. In this battle, Chandel ruler Paramari Deva’s two commanders Aiha and Udal were killed while fighting.
- Prithviraj forcefully kidnapped Samyogita, the daughter of Jaichand and married her. This issue was the height of call of struggle between these two rulers.
Story of Samyogita:
- According to Chandar Bardais’ composition ‘Prithviraj Raso’, the reason of struggle between Jaichand and Prithviraj Chauhan was the kidnapping of Jaichand’s daughter Samyogita by Prithviraj Chauhan and marrying her.
- Historians such as Dr R. S. Tripathi, Gauri Shankar, Hirachand and Visweswara Rao have rejected this historic event as just a love story.
- Historian Dr Dashrath Sharma has accepted the incident of Samyogita as a historical fact in ‘The Early Chauhan Dynasties’.
Struggle between Prithviraj Chauhan and Muhammad Gauri:
- The claim of Prithviraj’s victories on Gauri has been made as 21 times in Prithviraj Raso and for 7 times in Hammir Mahakavya.
- According to a secret plan, Gauri suddenly attacked one night at Rajput army. Rajput army was not ready for battle. So it was defeated. The defeated Prithviraj was imprisoned near Sirsa at a place called Saraswati.
Reasons for the defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan:
- Even after being a conqueror, Prithviraj Chauhan lacked foresightedness and diplomacy.
- He started to neglect the administrative obligation after his marriage with Samyogita and had started to live a luxurious life.
Evaluation of Prithiviraj Chauhan:
- Prithviraj was a brave and courageous ruler. From the beginning of his reign, he waged wars, one after the other, which proves him to be an efficient soldier and commander.
- Chandar Bardai was his royal poet, whose text ‘Prithviraj Raso’ is regarded as the first epic of Hindi literature.
The Story of Padmini:
- The story of Padmini has been historically described by Malik Muhammad Jayasi in his composition, ‘Padmavat’.
- The same story has been repeated along with some amendments in Akbamama (Abul Fazl), Gulshan-e-Ibrahimi (Firishta), Jafrulvali (Haji Uddhvir), Annals and Antquities of Rajasthan (Colonel Toda), Stereo de Magore (French traveller Manucci) etc.
- Famous poet Suryamall Misan of Bundi and various modem historians have not accepted the historicity of the story of Padmini.
Maharana Kumbha (1433-1468 CE): Maharana Kumbha attained the throne of Mewar in 1433 CE. He conferred height to the prestige of Chittor through his wartime and cultural achievements.
Initial Problems Faced by Kumbha:
- At the time of becoming ruler, various internal and external problems were present in front of Kumha. Many conspiracies were woven against him. The opposite group tried to capture Mewar.
- However, Kumbha became successful in suppresing the enemies but some were successful in fleeing and reaching the haven of Malwa’s Sultan Mahumud Khilji. Ekka and Mehpa Pawar were the main among them.
- Mewar and Malwa both were neighbouring kingdoms and the rulers of these kingdoms wished to expand the frontiers of their respective kingdoms.
- Provision of protection of Sultan of Malwa to the rebel chieftains of Kumbha became the immediate reason of struggle between them. When all efforts became unsuccessful, Kumbha decided to invade Malwa.
- A violent struggle took place and Mahmud Khilji was defeated. Kumbha imprisoned him and after six months, released him without any condition.
- At the time of Kumbha, maladministration prevailing in Gujrat had ended and the rulers were eager to extend their regions of influence.
- In 1456 CE, after the death of Firoz Khan, his son Shams Khan became the new ruler of Nagaur, but Firoz’s younger brother Mujahid Khan defeated Shams Khan and occupied Nagaur.
- According to Firishta, Kumbha granted wealth to the invaders and sent them back, while according to Kirti Stambh Prashasti and Rasikpriya, Kumbha defeated both the Sultans. Due to his victory upon the Mughal rulers, Kumbha became renowned as Sultan of the Hindus.
Cultural Achievements of Maharana Kumbha:
- Kumbha was not only a brave warrior, but also a lover of art, as well as scholastic ruler. Due to this, he was regarded to be “of a stable mindset during the war.” According to Ekalinga Mahatamya, he excelled in Vedas, Smritis, Mimansa, Upanishadas, Vyakaran (Grammar), Politics and Literature.
- Kumbha has been called Rano Raso (the protector of scholars). Kanha Vyas, the author of Ekalinga Mahatmaya and famous architect Mandan were present in his court. Mandan wrote architectural books named Devamurti Prakarana (Rupavatara), Prasad Mandan, Raja Vallabha (Bhupati Vallabha), Rup Mandan, Vastu Mandan, Vastu Shastra, Vastukar etc.
- The rampart of Kumbhalgarh fort built by Kumbha is 36 km long, which is regardedas the world’s longest wall after the Great Wall of China. The famous Jain temple of Ranakpur was built during the reign of Maharana Kumbha by Dharanak Shah.
- In Kumbhalgarh inscription, he has been regarded as ‘the incaranation of religion and sacredness’ and greater than charitable king Bhoja and Kama.
- Vijaya Stambha which is a nine storey and 122 feet tall structure inside the Chittor fort was built by Maharana Kumbha in the memory of his victory upon Malwa’s Sultan Mahmud Khilji.
- Due to the artistic statues of numerous Hindu gods and goddess engraved upon it, the Vijaya Stambha is called as the ‘Precious treasure of ancient Hindu sculpture’.
- During the Indian national movement, the Vijaya stambha had became the source of inspiration for the revolutionaries.
- In India, Mughal empire was founded by Babur in 1526 CE. He was bom in 1483 CE at a place called Fargana. From the side of his father Umar Sheikh Mirza, he was the fifth descendant of Timur and from the side of his mother Qutlugh Nigar Khanum, he was the fourteenth descendant of Genghis Khan.
- At The time of Babur’s invasion, Mewar’s ruler Maharana sanga was the most Powerful in India. *
After the death of his father Maharana Raimal, Sanga became the ruler of Mewar at the age of 27 years in 1509 CE. He was the most glorious warrior among the Maharanas of Mewar.
- In the reign of Rana Sanga, the first war of Mewar was fought with Gujrat. Along with it, a battle was fought with Delhi’s ruler Sultan Sikandar Lodhi and his successor Ibrahim Lodhi.
- Rana Sanga became successful in the battle of 1517 CE. He got victory two times. He had good relations with Medini Rai of Malwa.
- At the time of Sanga’s death, at least 80 bruises of blows of swords and spears were present on his body which proved the ‘remains of a soldier’.
- Babur has written in his appreciation that ‘Rana Sanga had become a great person on the basis of his courage and sword. No individual Sultan of Malwa, Delhi and Gujrat was able to defeat him. Annual income of his state was ten crore rupees. There were one lakh soldiers in his army. Seven kings, and 104 small chieftains used to live along with him.
Babur and Sanga:
- Reasons of conflict:
- Accusation of Sanga for not keeping his promise
- Clash of ambitions
- Rajput- Afghan friendship
- Sanga occupied the region of the Sultanate.
- The battle of Khanwa was fought between Babur and Rana Sanga in which the Rajputs fought bravely but they were defeated.
- Due to the use of traditional weapons, war while sitting on elephant, lack of unity and their momentum, Rajputs were defeated.
- As a result of war, the superiority of Rajputs declined.
- Mughal empire was established in India by Babur.
- Babur became the permanent emperor of India.
- Rao Chandrasen was the first ruler of independent thoughts in Rajasthan during the period of Akbar. He chose to leave the state of Jodhpur and roam for days and nights in the hills and confront the Mughal army, but he didn’t accept the sovereignty of the Mughals.
- The start of the struggle which was done by Chandrasen was followed by Maharana Pratap who became extremely renowned in later period.
- Due to this, Chandrasen is also known as “The Mentor of Pratap” and “The Pratap of Mewar”.
- After becoming the ruler, Pratap did not accept the sovereignty of Akbar, contrary to other provinces such as Amer, Bikaner and Jaisalmer, rather he chose to give importance to the independence of his motherland and adhering to the prestige of his clan, he chose to fight against the Mughals.
- The battle of Haldighati (1576 CE) was fought between Maharana Pratap and Akbar.
- Till last time, Akbar could not capture Mewar and Maharana Pratap also did not accept his sovereignty and Mewar remained free.
- Maharana Pratap was not only a brave and courageous personality but also a protector of scholars. The characteristics qualities of Pratap were that he never attacked one without arms, loved of freedom, was a guardian of religion, respected women and was an exemplary man.
- Pratap had established such a strong rule that even the women and children did not fear anyone. The internal security was also provided to people to such extent that no innocent person was given punishment. He also made efforts to propagate education.
- By the end of 1588 CE, Pratap occupied entire Mewar except the internal regions which joined Chittor, Mandalgarh and Ajmer. As the Mughal invasions had ended, Pratap led the last days of his life while ruling peacefully upon Chavand.
- Under the guardianship of Pratap, Chakrapani Misra wrote three Sanskrit texts named Rajyabhishek Padyati, Muhurtamala and Vishava vallabha. These texts are associated with the process of enthronement as per ancient scripturers, astrological science and forest science respectively.
Veer Durgadas Rathore:
- The name of Veer Durgadas is famous in the history of Marwar. Royal control was established upon Jodhpur by his efforts.
- He protected Marwar till his death. He tried a lot for protection of Ajit Singh and played an important role in forming Rathore-Sisodia Alliance.
- Durgadas was a skilled diplomat. He not only provided protection to Ajit Singh, but also enthroned him on the throne of Jodhpur. For this, he not only made Rathore- Sisodiya alliance by the support of Mewar’s Maharana Raj Singh but also inspired Prince Akbar to revolt against the Emperor.
- Keeping Akbar’s son Buland Akhtar and daughter Safiyat-un-Nissa along with him, Durgadas not only carried on his friendship but also gave the proof of his religious philosophy ‘Sarvapanth Samadar’.
- Due to these heroic qualities, Durgadas won the heart of a stone hearted person such as Aurangzeb and acquired Mansab. Colonel James Todd has addressed him as The Ulisers of Rathores”.
Shivaji (1627-1680 CE):
- Shivaji was the son of Sardar Shahji Bhonsle and Jijabai. He was bom on 20th April 1627 in a hilly fort of Shivner near Puna (Maharashtra).
- From his childhood, Shivaji had acquired full knowledge of the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and other Hindu scriptures. At of age of 12, he obtained his father’s Jagir Pima.
- Aurangzeb was extremely terrified due to the increasing power of Shivaji. To eliminate Shivaji, he appointed his uncle Shaista Khan as the subedar of the south. Soon after Shaista Khan occupied Puna and from there itself, he started to operate campaign against Shivaji.
- Shivaji was forced to enter the treaty of Purandar with Jai Singh in June 1665 CE. According to the provisions of this treaty, he handed oves 23 forts to Mughals.
- Shivaji called a Brahmin named Gangabhatt from Benaras and performed his coronation in the capital Raigarh in June 1674 CE and gained the titles of ‘Chhatrapati’, ‘Hindu Dharmoddharak’, ‘Gau Brahmin Pratipalak’ etc.
- The last days of Shivaji were spent in distress. On one hand, he was unhappy as his Son Sambhaji had moved in the haven of the Mughals and on the other hand, his wife Soyarabai was planning a conspiracy to make her son Rajaram as his successor. In such conditionsm, Shivaji died in April 1680 CE.
- Shivaji struggled throughout his if to instill a renewed spirit of renaissance and for the objective of establishing an independent Hindu kingdom.
Peshwa (1713-1740 CE):
- At the time of weak successors of Shivaji, the reign of Maratha kingdom came in the hands of Peshwa (Prime Minister).
- Sayyid brother-Abdullah Khan and Hussain Ali were regarded as the empire builders of Delhi. The Sayyid brothers had dethroned Bahadur Shah-I and enthroned Farrukhsiyar on the Mughal throne, but soon after this, he started a conspiracy against these two brothers.
- Gaining the right of collecting chauth and Sardeshmukhi in south was a great achievement of Balaji Vishwanath. He is regarded as the second founder of Maratha Empire.
- After the death of Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath, his elder son Bajirao (1720-40 CE) was appointed on the post of Peshwa. At that time, he was merely 20 years of age.
- In 1740 CE, Bajirao defeated Nasir Jung, the second son of Nizam Ul-Mulk and forced him to sign the treaty of Mungi Shivagaon. According to this treaty, Nasir Jung handed over the districts of Handia and Khargaon to the Marathas.
- On 8th May, 1740 CE, Bajirao met sudden death at a place called Ravar on the banks of river Narmada.
Important Dates and Events Related to the Chapter:
632 CE — The death of prophet Muhammad.
711 CE — Robbery on Arabic ships by the pirates of Sindh.
712 CE — Invasion of Arab invader Mir Qasim.
730-36 CE — The reign of Nagbhatt I.
795 CE — Nagbhatt II asscended the Pratihar throne.
833 CE — Suicide by Nagbhatt II.
1178 CE — Prithvi Raj Chauhan asscended the throne.
1191 CE — The first battle of’Mrain.
1192 CE — The second battle of Tarain.
1296 CE — The murder of Jalaluddin and Alauddin became Sultan of Delhi.
1299 CE — Invasion of Allauddin Khilji on Gujrat.
1301 CE — The conquest of Allauddin Khilji on Ranthambore.]
1302 CE — Rawal Ratan Singh asscended the throne of Mewar.
1303 CE — Chittor was captured by Allauddin Khilji.
1433 CE — Maharana Kumbha asscended the throne of Mewar.
1443 CE — Invasion of Mahmud Khilji on Kumbhalgarh.
1456 CE — The treaty of Champaner.
1526 CE — The first battle of Panipat, eastablishment of Mughal empire.
1527 CE — The battle of Khanwa and defeat of Rana Sanga.
1562 CE — Rao Chandrasen asscended the throne of Jodhpur.
1563 CE — War between Rao Chandrasen and the armies of Uday Singh. Akbar reached Nagaur.
1570 CE — Chandrasen gave up Bhadrajun.
1571 CE — Revolt in Gujrat and coronation of Maharana Pratap in Gogunda. The efforts of capturing Chandrasen by Akbar.
1572 CE — The efforts of getting favour of Chandrasen by Akbar.
1573 CE — The battle of Haldighati.
1575 CE — The birth of Durgadas Rathore.
1674 CE — Shivaji asscended the throne.
1678 CE — The death of Jaswant Singh in Jamrud
1680 CE — The Death of Maharana Raj Singh.
1681 CE — Akbar declared himself emperor in Nadol.
1707 CE — The death of Aurangzeb.
1713 CE — Balaji Vishwanath became Peshwa.
1720 CE — Appointment of Bajirao on the post of Peshwa.
1724 CE — Malwa conquest of Bajirao.
1728 CE — The war ofPalkheda.
1740 CE — The death of Bajirao.
Important Terms, Places and Personalities:
- Prophet Muhammad — The founder of Islam. After his death, the Arab invasion began in India.
- Dahir — ruler of Deval. He was a Brahmin ruler. The boundaries of his empire extended from Kashmir in the north to Kannauj in the east.
- Sindh — The part of ancient India which faced the invasions of foreigners for seventy five years.
- Khalifa — Leader of Islamic world who besides being a religious leader, was the political head also.
- Muhammad Bin Qasim — The Arab invader who was woven in the skin of an ox alive because of the allegation on him to have taken away the virginity of Dahir’s daughters.
- Nagbhatta-I — Founder of Gurjar Pratihara dynasty of Jalore, Avanti and Kannauj. In Gwalior Prashasti, Nagabhata-I has been adorned with the title of Narayana as he had failed the invasions made by foreigners and was the well wisher of the helpless.
- Nagbhatta-II — As a result of his victories, Nagabhatta-II became the most powerful ruler of south India. On this occasion, he gained the title of Parambhattarak Maharajadhiraj Parameshwar.
- Bappa Rawal — Founder of Guhil dynasty. Historian C. V. Vaidya has compared him with Charles Martel (the French commander who was the first to defeat the Mughal Army).
- Bapa Rawal — The epitaph of Bappa Rawal is famous by the name of‘Bappa Rawal’.
- Subuktgin — First Turkish invader who attacked India. He was the ruler of Ghazni.
- Mahmud Ghaznavi — Turkish invader. He attacked on India Seventeenth times in which invasion on Somnath temple in 1025 CE was the most voracious.
- Karpur Devi — Mother of Prithviraj Chauhan and a skilled politician who got control over her kingdom with the help of her prime minister and commander.
- Alha and Udal — Commanders of Chandel ruler Paramardi. They both were killed in the battle of Mahoba in 1182 CE by Prithviraj Chauhan.
- Prithviraj Raso — The epic composed by Chandarbardai, the court poet of Prithviraj Chauhan. This is considered as the first epic of Hindi literature.
- Samyogita — The daugher of Jaichand. It is considered that she loved Prithviraj Chauhan and this became the cause of conflict between Prithviraj Chauhan and Jaichand.
- Shabdbhedi arrow — According to Prithviraj Raso, Prithviraj killed Ghori by this shabd bhedi arrow.
- Dalpangul — After gaining victory in several battles, Prithiviraj gained the title of ‘Dalpangul’. (conqueror of the world).
- Miftah-ul-Futh — The famous book of Amir Khusro. He described the battles between Hammir Chauhan and Jalaluddin Khilji and their strategies in this book.
- Hammir Mahakavya — The composition of Nayan Chandra Suri. According to this composition, the main cause of attack on Ranthambore was giving protection to the rebels of Alauddin Khilji by Hammir Chauhan.
- Nav Muslim — Nav Muslim were those mongols who had settled in India during the reign of Jalaluddin Firoz Khilzi and had accepted Islam as their religion.
- Bhairav Yantras, Thikuliya and Makrati Yantras — These yantras were used for protection of the fort of Ranthambore. These were used in showering stones which hurt the enemies deeply.
- Johar — A tradition of Rajputana in contemporary period in which the queen burnt herself after the death of king in battlefield. The wives of ordinary soldiers also did so.
- Protection of the refugees — This meant to give protection to those people who approached. For this Hammir Dev Chauhan is famous.
- Sikandar Sani — Alauddin Khilji assumed this title. It meant second Alexander. He wanted to become conqueror like Alexander.
- Padmavat — The composition of Malik Muhammad Jaysi. The story of Padmini has been historically described in this composition. According to it, Alauddin Khilji attacked upon Rawal Ratan Singh to get Queen Padmavati.
- Khirzabad — After defeating Rawal Ratan Singh, Alauddin Khilji changed the name of Chittor to Khirzabad and handed its administration to his oC” Khizr Khan and returned to Delhi.
- Hindu Suratran — Due to the victory on Mughal rulers, Maharana Kumbha was called Hindu Surtran (Sultan of the Hindus).
- A stable mindset during the war — Kumbha was not only a brave warrior, but he was also a lover of art and a scholastic ruler. Due to this, he was regarded to be ‘of a stable mindset during the war’.
- Rano Raso — Maharana Kumbha gained the title of Rano Raso because he was the protector of scholars.
- Veer Vinod — The composition of poet Shyamaldas. According to it, out of the 84 forts of Mewar, Maharana Kumbha alone had built 32 forts.
- Mughal Empire — The rule of Mughals which was established by Babur after the third battle of Panipat.
- Tuzek-e-Babri — The autobiography of Babur in Turkish language.
- Hindupat — A title of Maharana Sanga which means Hindu chief.
- Shukra Talab — In 1570 CE during his Ajmer visit, Akbar heard about the Marwar region and reached Nagaur. On this occassion, he dug a pond, which became famous by the name of ‘Sukra Talab’.
- The Mentor of Pratap/The Pratap of Marwar — Due to the qualities of patriotism, self respect, and love for freedom, Chandrasen was known as ‘the Mentor of Pratap/the Pratap ofMarwar’.
- The Forgotten Hero ofMarwar — Due to getting less importance, Chandra sen was called the Forgotten hero ofMarwar.
- A widow lady without ornaments—Noticing the destruction of Chittor and its poor economic condition, the contemporary poets had even entitled Chittor as ‘a widow lady without ornaments’.
- Panch Dhaatu — It means five metals. It included gold, silver, copper, bronze and nickel.
- Harawal — The foremost front part of the army was called Harawal.
- Ram Prasad — This was the most famous elephant of Maharana Pratap. After getting it in the battle, Akbar named it ‘Peer Prasad’.
- Chandawal — The last line of the army was called Chandawal.
- Chetak — Name of the most famous horse of Maharana Pratap.
- The ulises of Rathores — Colonel James Todd has addressed Veer Durgadas Rathore as ‘the Ulises of Rathores’.
- Chhatrapati/Hindu Dharmoddharak/Gau Brahmin Pratipalak — These were the titles of Shivaji which he assumed in June 1674 CE.
- Shivaji Utsav — In the memory of Marathas’ public hero Shivaji, Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak started Shivaji Utsav in 1895 CE.
- Balaji Vishvanath — He was called the second founder of Maratha Empire.