Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 History Notes Chapter 5 Colonial Invasions
- From 16th to 17th century, different European countries such as Portugal, Spain, England, Holland etc. established their colonies in Asia and Africa continents.
- During the industrial revolution when capitalism was largely emerging in some European countries, the policy of colonial expansion became directly associated with the requirements of development of capitalism.
- Prosperity of India also attracted Europeans for trade.
- Vasco-de-gama of Portugal was the first European who reached Calcutta on 17th May, 1498 by the sea route.
- In 1502 CE, Vasco-de-gama visited India for the second time and established trading centres of Kannanor, Calicut and Kochin.
- In 1600 CE, British East India Company came to India and established its trading centres in Ahmadabad, Burhanpur, Ajmer and Agra in 1615 CE.
- In 1602 CE, the Dutch (residents of Holland) established the Dutch United East India Company.
- The French East India Company was established under the leadership of Louis XTV and his minister Collect in 1664 CE and the French established their trading centers in Surat, Machilipatnam and Pondicherry.
- Gradually the Dutch and Portuguese powers declined in India. Now only the British and the French were left in the form of major competitors.
- In 1742, Dupleix became the Governor General of French East India Company and came to India. Three battles were fought between the British and the French in sputh India, which are famous by the name of Carnatic wars. The first war took place between 1746—48, the second war between 1749-54, and the third war between 1758-63.
- All these wars eliminated the possibility of establishment of French Empire in India.
- The causes of the defeat of the French in Carnatic war were strong naval fleet of the British, lack of co-ordination among. French, the victory of British over Bengal and returning of Governor Duplex.
Political Condition of India in 18th Century:
- After the decline of Mughal empire various regional powers declared themselves independent and the Europeans get an opportunity to establish themselves in India.
- During the 18th century the Marathas extended their power under the leadership of the Peshwas in North India but on 14th January 1761 after the defeat in the battle of Panipat by Ahmadshah Abdali and due to lack of unity, the Maratha Empire get disintegrated.
- The causes of the defeat of the Marathas wereDefective military organization and lack of discipline and lack of unity.
- In 1728 CE Saadat Khan, the Subedar of Awadh freed himself from the control of Mughal Empire and established an independent state but after the defeat in the battle of Buxar, Awadh get merged in British empire by the treaty of Allahabad.
- Independent rule in Bengal was established by Murshid Quli Khan but in 1757 after the battle of Plassey, Bengal came under the control of company rule.
- The main cause of the battle of Plassey was the interference of Britishers in administration of •Siraj-Ud-Daula. As a result of this battle Bengal was occupied by the British.
- Three Anglo Mysore wars were fought between British and Hyder Ah and fourth war was fought between Tipu Sultan and British in which Tipu Sultan was defeated and Mysore was annexed into British empire under a treaty with the new appointed ruler of Mysore.
- By the subsidiary alliance of Lord Wellesley, the states of Hyderabad (1798), .Mysore (1799), Awadh (1801), Peshwa (1802) were annexed in British empire.
- From 1757 to 1760, Mir Zafar remained the puppet Nawab of Bengal.
- Mir Zafar could not provide money to the British, so Mir Qasim was appointed as the new Nawab of Bengal.
- On 27 September 1760, the treaty of Vansittart was signed to appoint Mir Qasim as the future Nawab of Bengal.
- Difference began to increase between Mir Qasim and Britishers in context to financial matters and other facilities which resulted into the Battle of Buxar on 22 October 1764.
- In the battle of Buxar, joint army of all the three (Mir Qasim the Nawab of Bengal, Shuja-Ud-Daula the Nawab of Awadh and Mughal Emperor Shah Alam) was defeated by the British.
- This battle transformed the British into an All India Power.
- Jats expanded their kingdom upto Agra, Etah, Dholpur, Chambal, Mathura, Aligarh, Laxmangarh, Punjab and Haryana.
- The Jat kingdom reached or its height during the reign of Maharaja Suraj Mai.
- In Punjab, Maharaja Ranjit Singh United 12 misls and founded an independent state. In 1849, it was merged into the British empire.
- After the death of Ranjit Singh, two wars were fought between Sikh army and the British and finally after the second war, Sikh empire came to end in Punjab.
- In Rohilkhand, Ali Muhammad Khan established his rule and made Bareilly his capital.
Doctrine of Lapse by Dalhousie:
- Lord Dalhousie adopted various methods of annexing the states in the name of maladministration. He declared British right on such Indian states that were without an heir. They were not allowed to successor from amongst themselves. This was known as the Doctrine of Lapse.
- According to this policy states of Satara (1848), Sambhalpur (1849), Jhansi (1853), Nagpur (1854), Jaitpur (1849), Baghar (1850), Udaipur (1852), Tanjore (1855) and Awadh (1856) etc. were annexed into British empire.
Revolt of 1857:
- The policy of extension of British empire, procurement of wealth, economic and social causes created dissatisfaction among Indians which was exposed in the form of 1857 revolt and shook the roots of British empire.
- The social causes of 1857 revolt were Ban on sati system, British reforms, spread of western education and offensive behavior of Britisher towards Indians.
- Many economic causes were also equally responsible for 1857 revolt as decline of rural economy, destruction of cottage industries unemployment etc.
- Political causes also played an important role this revolt such as—Subsidiary. Alliance of Lord Wellesley, Doctrine of Lapse of Lord Dalhousie, rude behavior towards Mughal Emperor, corruption in judicial system and Charter act of 1833.
- British policies campaign of conversion by Christian missionaries, the permission of propagating Christianity by 1813 Charter act, tax on mosques and temples etc. hurt the religious feelings of Indians which resulted in the revolt of 1857.
- General service enlistment act of 1856, Post office act 1854 and the incident of forcible use of cartridges made of cow and pig fat infused a spark and the explosion occurring due to this shook the roots of British empire.
Expansion and the main leaders of the Revolt:
- The revolt began on 10 May, 1857 from the Barrackpore cantt when soldiers refused to cut the fat plated cartridges with their mouth. Soldier Mangal Pandey led the soldiers began revolt.
- Bahadur Shah Zafar led the revolutionaries from Delhi. After the revolt, Bahadur Shah was impriosoned and sent to Rangoon.
- In Lucknow, this revolt started on 4 June, 1857 in the leadership of Begum Hazrat Mahal.
- Nana Sahib from Kanpur, Rani Laxmibai from Jhansi and Kunwar Singh from Bihar led the revolt.
- From Rajasthan, Thakur of Aaunwa Aaunwa Kushal Singh led the revolt.
- Ahamdulla from Rohilkhand and Sadruddin from Mewat led the revolt.
- The main leaders of 1857 revolt in South India were: Ranga Bapuji Gupte (Satara), Sonaji Pandit,Rangarav Parge, Maulvi Sayyid Alauddin (Hyderabad), Annaji Faranvis (Kolhapur); Gulam Gaus and Sultan Baksh (Madras), Mulbagal Swami (Coimbatore) and Vijay Kudrat Kunji Mama (Kerala) etc.
Causes of the Failure of Revolt:
- There was lack of skilled and capable leadership who could organize the revolt in an appropriate manner.
- The revolt took place even before its fixed scheduled time.
- Most of the kings of the states supported the British in crushing this revolt owing to their self interests.
- Many landlords, merchants and educated class did not support the revolt.
- Lack of fixed objectives and ideals allowed the revolt to be crushed easily.
- Due to lack of unity, limited resources and diplomacy of Lord Canning, the British remained successful in crushing this revolt.
Consequences of the 1857 Revolt:
- On 1st November 1858 Company Raj was ended through a Charter and the rule of India was transferred in the hands of British crown.
- British had to change their policy towards Indian kings.
- British started promoting Divide and Rule policy, and narrower tendencies of communism, casteism, regionalism etc.
- This revolt provided momentum to the national movement of 1947.
- The heroes of the revolt—Kunwar Singh, Laxmibai, Tatya Tope, Bahadur Shah Zafar,
- Nana Saheb and Rangaji Bapu Gupte etc. became inspiring ambassadors of national movement.
Nature of 1857 Revolt:
- According to Robert John Lawrence and Ceiling, this was just a sepoy mutiny.
- According to Sir James Outram and W. Taylor this revolt was a form of Muslim conspiracy under pretext of Hindus concerns.
- John Bruce and Mollison have called it as public revolt.
- Benjamin Disraeili who was a major leader of England, called it as a ‘National revolt’.
- Some scholars have addressed it as a peasant revolt because farmers also revolted against the big tallauqdars.
- Veer Savarkar has regarded it to be the first freedom struggle for independence. Dr Tarachand, Dr Vishveshvar Prasad and S. B. Chaudhary have also regarded it as a freedom struggle.
Important Dates of the Chapter and Related Events:
- Colonialism — The practice by which a powerful country directly controls less powerful countries and uses their resources to increase its own power and wealth.
- Capitalism — An economic and political system in which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
- Imperialism — Imperialism is a system in which a rich and powerful country controls other countries. ,,
- Dustak — In 1717 CE, emperor Farukkhsiyar issued a firman by which trading facilities were provided to the British.
- Subsidiary alliance — The system started by Lord Wellesley in which Indian states were forced to sign treaty on British conditions.
- Doctrine of Lapse — This word is used for the imperialistic policy of Lord Dalhousie. Under this, on Indian states without an heir was annexed in British empire.
- Fat Cartridge — Cow and pig fat cartridge. These were the immediate cause of 1857 revolt.
Important Personalities of the Chapter:
- Columbus — A Spanish who discovered America.
- Vasco-de-gama — The first European Portuguese trader who reached India in 1498 by sea route.
- Sir Thomas Roe — A British ambassador who was sent in Jahangir’s court to get trading facilities.
- Dupleix — French Governor General who came to India in 1742.
- Bahadur Shah Zafar — Last Mughal Emperor who led the revolt of 1857 from Delhi.
- Suja-Ud-Daula — The Nawab of Awadh during the battle of Buxar.
- Siraj-Ud-Daula — The Nawab of Bengal during the Battle of Plassey.
- Hyder Ali — The ruler of Mysore. ‘
- Raja Surajmal — Famous Jat ruler who is known as the Plato of Jat community.
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh — Famous Sikh ruler who united 12 misls and formed on independent state.
- Tipu Sultan — The son of Hyder Ali and the last ruler of Mysore.
- Lord Wellesley — In 1798 CE, he became the Governor General of India. He implemented subsidiary alliance in Indian states.
- Lord Hastings — In 1813 CE, he became the Governor General of India.
- Guru Govintf Singh — The tenth Guru of Sikhs who established the Khalsa Sect.
- Lord Dalhousie — The Governor General of India who implemented Doctrine of Lapse. 138 Colonial Invasions
- Lord Canning — The Governor General of India during 1857 revolt.
- Begum Hazrat Mahal — The Begum of Awadh who led the revolt of 1857 from Lucknow.
- Nana Sahib — The adopted son of Bajirav who led the revolt of 1857 from Kanpur.
- Rani LaxmiBai — The Queen of Jhansi who sacrified her life for saving her kingdom.
- Kunwar Singh — The ruler of Bihar who led the revolt of 1857 from Bihar.
- Khushal Singh — He led the revolt of 1857 from the area of Rajasthan.
- Benzamin Dizreli — The leader of England who wrote the famous book The Great Rebellion’.
- V. D. Savarkar — The writer of the famous book ‘War of Indian Independence’.