Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 History Notes Chapter 6 Freedom Movement of Modern India
- During the first half of the eighteenth century, the movement which started in social and cultural life of India came to be known as Indian Renaissance.
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy established ‘Brahma Samaj’. He is known as the father of Indian Renaissance. He was promoter of reform movements. In 1815 CE, he established ‘Atmiya Samaj’ in Calcutta.
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy wrote books named Gift to Monotheist and Precepts of Jesus. He also wrote to ‘Tohfat-ul-Muhiddin’ in Persian language. He published ‘Mirat ul’ newspaper in Persian language, Samavad Kaumudi in Bangla language and Bangadoot in Hindi language.
- In 1867 CE, Atmaram Pandurang established the ‘Prarthana Samaj’ in Bombay.
- Swami Dayanand Sarawati established Arya samaj’. Dayanand Saraswati criticized holytheism, anthropomorphism, idol worship, animal sacrifice, lie, blind Faith religious rituals and superstitions. He gave the slogan back to the Vedas. The compilation of his ideas is found in ‘Satyarth Prakash’. He started the ‘Shuddhi Movement’.
- Vivekananda founded Rama Krishana Mission in 1897 CE with the inspiration of his Guru Ramakrishan Paramhans. Vivekananda Visited Chicago city of America in September 1893 to participate in the World of Conference Religions.
- ‘Satyashodhak Samaj’ was established by Jyotiba Phule. He wrote books such as . ‘Saarvajanik Satya Dharma’ and’‘Ghulamgiri’. Theosophical society was established in New York city in the United states of America in 1875 CE by a Russian lady Helena Petrovana Blavatsky and an America Colonel Henry Steel Olcott.
- The young Bengal Movement was led by Henry Willian Derozieo.
- Among Sikh reform movements, the Akali Movement run in Punjab in 1920-21 was the major one. The major objective of this movement was to bring reform in the management of Gurudwara.
- ‘Rahenumui Mazdayasan Sabha’ was a promiment institution regarding Parsi Social reform movements. It was established in 1851 CE with the efforts of Naoraji Furdonji, Dadabhai Naoraji, S.S. Bengali etc.
- Ghulam Ahmad kaadiyari was the promoter of Ahmadiyya Movement’. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan ran Ahmadiyya Movement.
- Apart from these movements Ban on Sati system act 1829, 1980 widow remarriage act civil marriage act 1872, Age of consent act 1891, sharda act 1980 etc. were passed. Due tothese acts, Ban was imposed on sati system, widows’ poor condition and child marriage.
- Before the revolt of 1857 CE and after the revolt of 1857 CE, various revolts took place against British rule, which were called tribal resistance. In these resistances kol, Khasi, Bhumik, Santhal were the major ones.
- The santhal resistance occured in 1855-56. Shindhu and kandu were the leaders of this movement. Munda resistance occured during 1899-1900. Birsa Munda was the main leader of this.
- In India and abroad, many revolutionary incidents took place. Among these, Abhinav Bharat, Anushilan samiti, Gadar party, Azad hind fauj played important roles. In India, Maharashtra, Bengal and Punjab were the main centers of revolutionary activities.
- In 1904 CE, ‘Abhinav Bharat’ was organized under the leadership of Veer Savarkar. Its object was to free India from foreign rule. Veer Savarkar named 1857 revolt as the first war of independence and wrote a book named ‘The Indian war of independence’.
- The main members of this were kushiram Bhai parmanand, Kartar Singh Sarawa, Ramchandra etc. Lala Hardayal formed the ‘Gadar a party’ On Ist November 1913 in San Franisco in America.
- Bhagat Singh gave the slogan ‘Inqalab Zindabad’, Subhash chandra bose gave the slogan “Give me blood and I will give you freedom.
- Under the chairmanship of Rasbihari Bose, the first Indian independence league was established. Subhash Chandra Bose gave the slogan ‘Dilli Chalo’.
- In October 1924 CE, The Hindustan Republic association was formed by the efforts of Shachindra Sanyal, its object was to end the English empire with the armed revolution.
- The causes of nationalism were the following :
- Exploitative Economic policy,
- Administrative Unification,
- Development of the modes of transport and communication,
- Role of press and literature,
- Socio-religious reform movements,
- Modern Western education
- Ilbert bill controversy,
- Establishment of various institutions.
- On 9th August 1925 CE, a train was stopped in Kakori village near lucknow, and the government’s treasure was robbed. The culprits of this incident Ramprasad Bismil, Ashfaqullah Khan, Roshan Singh and Rejendra lalhiri were hanged.
- On October 30th, 1928 Lala Lajpat Rai died during lathi charge in Lahore when he opposing the Simon Commission, Bhagat Singh and Rajguru shot Sanders to avenge his death. On 23rd march 1931 Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev were hanged.
- On Ist September 1942, Subhash Chandra Bose formed ‘Azad Hind Fauj’.
- In 1885, Indian National Congress was established. A.O. Hume was the founder of this. Before this, different organizations had been formed.
- The first lady president of congress was Annie Besant.
- There were two groups in the congress, moderates and radicals. To crush the National Movement, Governor General Lord Curzon divided Bengal in two parts in 1905.
- Congress was divided in two parts in Surat session (1907) moderates and radicals. Bal, Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai and Vipin Cha’ndarapal were the chief leaders of the radicals. They were known as Lai, Bal and Pal.
- Anushilan Samiti’ was formed in 1907. Tilak wrote ‘Geeta Rahasya’ and ‘Arctic home of the Aryans.
- The electoral system was adopted on the communal basis for the first time by the 1909 Act. Central legislative assembly and provincial assemblies were extended.
First World war and Indian National Movement:
- Home Rule movement was a movement for spread of intelligence. Its objective was to obtain self rule under the British Empire through constitutional procedure.
- Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Annie Besant ran a movement for attaining self rule. Indian Homerule League was established in 1916 by Tilak.
- Annie Besant was the president of Homerule League. Tilak gave the slogan, ‘Freedom is my birth right, and I will have it.
Mahatma Gandhi and National Movement:
- Mahatma Gandhi was born on October 2,1869 at Porbander in Gujrat.
- Gandhiji first took up the path of civil disobedience in South Africa.
- At the time of the first world war, the British government gave the title of Kaiser-E-Hind to Gandhiji.
- In August 1920, the ‘Non-cooperation Movement’ was started under the leaderaship of Mahatma Gandhi.
- Due to Chauri-Chaura Incident (5 February 1922) Gandhiji annouced to call off the non¬cooperation movement.
- The khilafat movement was a reactionary movement.
- Swaraj Party was established in January 1923 by Chittaranjan Das and Motilal Nehru.
- Simon Commission came to India in January 1928. There were seven members in it but not a single Indian was a member. The objective of this commission was to render suggestions for constitutional reforms.
- The congress convention was held in 1929 in Lahore under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru. The main resolution of this convention was the demand for ‘Complete Indenpendence’.
- The path of civil disobedience was adopted when Lord Irwin rejected the Indians’ demands.
- On march 12 1930, Gandhiji began a march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi with his selected 78 followers.
- Gandhi-Irwin pact was held in March 5, 1931. Three round table conferences were held from 1930 to 1932.
- Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan is called ‘Frontier Gandhi’.
- In the second round-table conference, Mahatma Gandhi was the sole congress representative.
- Provision was made for an ‘All-India Federation’ to be established in 1935 Act.
- The Muslim League celebrated the liberation Day (Mukti Diwas) on December 22, 1939.
- Quit India Movement started on August 9, 1942. Parallel government was established during the Quit India movement in Satara, Balia and Midnapur.
- Gandhiji gave the slogan ‘Do or die’. ,
- On July 4 1947, the Indian Independence Act was presented in British Parliament. It is called the freedom act of 1947.
- The meeting of the Constituent Assembly of Indian Union was held midnight of August 14,1947.
- India achieved independence as a result of long struggle of the Indians. But it divided India into two nations namely India and Pakistan.
Important Dates and Events of the chapter:
1815 CE — 1825 CE ‘Atmiya Sabha’ was established in Calcutta.
1828 CE — Vedanta College was established in Calcutta
1829 CE — ‘Brahma Samaj’ was established in Calcutta.
1824 CE — The law related to Sati System and its end and Khasi Tribe Revolt Birth of Swami Dayanand Saraswati.
1825 CE — Revolt of the Bhils
1875 CE — Establishment of’Arya Samaj’ in Mumbai.
1863 CE — Birth of swami Vivekanand
1893 CE — Swami Vivekanand went to America (Chicago) to attend the World Religious Conference.
1897 CE — Establishment of Ramkrishna Mission.
1875 CE — Jyotiba Phule established ‘Satyashodhak Samaj’ and establishment of Theosophical Society.
1856 CE — Hindu Widow Remarriage Act was made
1872 CE — Civil Marriage Act was made.
1856 CE — End of santhal rebellion.
1885 CE — Establishment of Indian National Congress
1900 CE — Birsa Munda’s death.
1901 CE — Queen Victoria’s death
1904 CE — Establishment of Abhinav Bharat.
1905 CE — ‘Bengal-Partition’ and establishment of India House
1906 CE — Birth of Chandrashekhar Azad.
1906 CE — Establishment of Muslim League.
1907 CE — Congress dispute in Surat session.
1908 CE — Nagpur Tennakci Act was made.
1909 CE — Colonel willeye’s murder and Marley Minto reforms.
1912 CE — A bomb was thrown on Harding. ‘
1913 CE — Formation of the Gadar Party.
1914 CE — First World War and komagata Maru Incident.
1915 CE — Singapore Rebellion, Lahore Armed Revolt, establishment of Indians’ temporary government in kabul.
1916 CE — Homerule movement, Lucknow pact between congress and Muslim League.
1917 CE — Champaran Satyagrah.
1918 CE — Kheda revolt.
1919 CE — Jallianwala Massacre, Government of India Act or ‘Montague’ Chemsford’ reforms.
1920 CE — Starting of Non-cooperation Movement.
1922 CE — Chauri-Chaura Incident.
1923 CE — Establishment of Swaraj Party. .
1928 CE — Simon Commission reached Mumbai and Nehru report was presented.
1929 CE — Demand for complete independence.
1930 CE — Full IndePendence Day was celebrated and civil disobedience movement started.
1931 CE — Gandhi Irwin pact.
1932 CE — Gandhi ji again started the civil disobedience movement, third round table conference, declaration of communal award and Poona pact.
1935 CE — Government of India Act passed.
1939 CE — ‘Mukti Diwas’ celebrated by Muslim League.
1940 CE — August proposal and the start of Individual Satyagrah.
1942 CE — Cripps Mission came to India and Quit India Movement strated.
1943 CE — Proposal to celebrate’Pakistan Day’.
1945 CE — Wavell Plan and Shimla conference.
1946 CE — Navy Revolt and Cabinet Mission came to India. Direct Action day and Constitution of interim government.
1947 CE — Attlee’s announcement, the Mountbatten plan and the Indian Independence Act were passed.
- Renaissance: The meaning of Renaissance is imposed by the development of knowledge, started art, science, literature
- and languages.
- Tohft-ul muhiddin: This a Persian language newspaper.
- Shuddhi movement: This movement was started by Arya samaj. Through this, Arya samaj purified the converted Hindus and reunited them in thier native religion.
- Azad hind fauj : This army was organised by Subhash Chandra Bose in Singapore.
- Geeta Rahasya: Bal Gangadhar Tilak wrote this book.
- Birsa Munda: He was the father of Munda rebellion.
- Abhinav Bharat: It was a secret revolutionary institution. Its aim was to liberate India from foreign power.
- Vande matram: This slogan was given by Chandra Shekar Azad.
- Dada Bhai Nauraji: He was a moderate leader. He is called grandfather (Pitamah) of India.
- Liberalist period or Moderate era: 1885 to 1905 was called as the liberalist period, Gopal krishna Gokhale, Madan Mohan Malviya, FirojShah mehta ect. were the prominent liberal leaders. :
- Lal-Bal-Pal: It meant Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Vipinchandra Pal.
- Anushilan Samiti : It was a revolutionary organization of Bengal.
- Homerule Movement: It was an inltellectual publicity movement. Its purpose was to get autonomy in constitutional way under the British Empire.
- Homerule League : It was founded by Tilak in Pune and Annie Besant in Adyar (Madras).
- Kesar-A-Hind: This title was receied by Mahatma Gandhi.
- Rowlatt Act: It was a seditious law. –
- Delhi Pact: Gapdhi-Irwin Agreement is known as ‘Delhi Pact’
- Khudai khidmatgar: An organization founded by Abdul Ghafifar Khan of the Northwest frontier Province.
- Personal Satyagrah : It was run by Mahatma Gandhi. Its was to establish freedom of speech.