RBSE Class 12 Political Science Board Paper 2018 English Medium are part of RBSE Class 12 Political Science Board Model Papers. Here we have given Rajasthan RBSE Class 12 Political Science Board Paper 2018 English Medium.
|Paper Set||Board Paper 2018|
|Category||RBSE Model Papers|
Rajasthan RBSE Class 12 Political Science Board Paper 2018 English Medium
Time: 3.15 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80
General Instructions to the Examinees:
- Candidate must write his/her Roll No. on the question paper compulsorily.
- All the questions are compulsory.
- Write the answer to each question in the given answer book only.
- For questions having more than one part, the answers to those parts are to be written together in continuity.
Section Q. Nos Marks per question Word limit of answer A 1-10 1 10 Words B 11-18 2 20 Words C 19-27 4 30-40 Words D 28-30 6 250-300 Words
- Question Nos. 28,29 and 30 have internal choices.
SECTION – A
What is the meaning of ‘distributive justice’ according to Aristotle? 
Write the definition of ‘Authority’ given by Henri Fayol. 
Differentiate between traditional and modern liberalism from the perspective of the ‘State’. 
What is the difference between Socialism and Marxism on the basis of mutual relations between the capitalists and labourers? 
By which constitutional amendment, the right to property was removed from the list of foundamental rights? 
By which article ‘Untou- chability’ is prohibited in Indian constitution? 
How many seats are reserved for SC and ST in Lok Sabha at present? 
In what conditions, the judges of the Supreme Court can be removed from their post? 
Who were the Founders of Non-Aligned movement? 
Where is the Headquarter of International court of justice situated? 
SECTION – B
Explain the meaning of legal justice. 
Write two differences between power and influence. 
‘Socialism believes in democratic system’. Illuminate. 
What are the impacts of ‘surplus value’ on society according to Marx? (Any two). 
As a supporter of the directive principles of the state policy, write its any two importance. 
You consider the ‘right to constitutional remedies’ as the most important fundamental right. Give two arguments in favour of your assumption. 
Describe in brief any two repercussions of communalism. 
What were the objectives of demonetisation of the notes of five hundred and one thousand rupees done on Nov. 8, 2016? 
SECTION – C
Explain the mutual relationship between Equality and Liberty. 
Describe the following tools of political socialization: 
(a) Political parties
(b) Means of communication.
As a follower of Gandhism, which means would you use to oppose the governmental policies? 
Show any four water pollutants and their effects in a table. 
According to your view Indian constitution is the remarkable fusion of unitary and federal elements, how? Prove it. 
Describe the methods by which Indian Parliament exercise control over the executive. 
As an enlightened citizen of India, describe the features of 73rd constitutional amendment which made the Panchayati Raj very effective. (Any four) 
‘The role of caste in Indian politics is visible in various forms.’ Explain in brief any four forms according to your view. 
Accrding to your view, Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) is useful for India. Give any four arguments in favour of your view. 
SECTION – D
Write the meaning of political culture and explain its characteristics. 
Write the meaning of political participation and explain its positive and negative effects.
What is Globalisation? Explain its political impacts. 
What is Global Warming? Explain its causes.
Explain the formation and functions of the Security Council of United Nations Organisation. 
Explain the Indo-Pak war of 1971 and the ‘Simla-Agreement’
According to Aristotle, the meaning of distributive justice is that distribution of power and protection should be done in accordance with planning and contribution.
According to Henri Fayol, “Authority is the right to order and power to get the order complied with”.
Traditional liberalism regards state a necessary evil, whereas modern liberalism does not regard state a necessary evil. It accepts the state as a moral and welfare institution.
Socialism does not accept class relation between capitalist and working class, whereas Marxism, terming the interest of both the classes anti-government, regards class-struggle necessary.
By 44th constitutional amendment, right to property was removed from the list of fundamental rights.
By article 17 of the Indian constitution, ‘untouchability’ has been prohibited.
At present (incumbent) Lok Sabha, 84 and 47 seats are reserved respectively for scheduled caste(SC) and scheduled tribes (ST).
The judges of the Supreme Court can be removed even before the completion of their tenure time on the charge of misconduct or any charge on their ability/qualification.
The Founders of Non-Aligned movement were Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru of India, Marshal Tito, the President of Yugoslovakia, and Colonel Naseer, the President of Egypt.
The Headquarter of International court of justice is situated in Hague (Netherland)
Legal justice refers to all those rules and laws which are followed by the citizens in natural form. The concept of ‘rule of law’ emphasises on two points—
- The laws formed by the government should be justified.
- The government should enforce such laws in equitable manner. There should be provision of punishment in the event of contravention of these laws.
- The power, which is oppressive, has strong physical force at its back, whereas influence is psychological,
- The use of force (power) can be done against a persdn even in the aversion of his will/desire, whereas influence is relative, and its success depends on the consent of the affected person
Socialism believes in democratic arrangement. It opposes all forms of totalitarianism, as in this, there is no importance given to human personality, his honour, and freedom. Socialism is complementary to democracy. Democratic system is an irreparable part of socialism.
According to Marx, the following two effects are visible on the society of ‘additional value’:
- Pitiable condition of workers
- Reason for proletariat revoluti
- Directive principles present a blueprint of a public welfare state
- These are the basis for the public to assess the success or failure of the government.
- Through this right, only fundamental rights can be practically used.
- By this, only the Supreme Court or the High Courts can issue directives or instructions to the government to implement the fundamental rights.
- It is communalism because of which the society splits, and mutual differences and disbelief erupt.
- Communalism destroys the spirit of national unity and brotherhood. Besides, it causes danger to national security.
The objectives of demonetisation of notes of the denomination of five hundred and one thousand rupees done on Nov. 8, 2016, were to track black money, the check corruption, to make the fake currency which was nurturing terrorism, and prevention of use black money in the elections.
Mutual relationship between Equality and Liberty—There are differences in the concepts of scholars with regard to mutual relationship between Equality and Liberty.
(i) Equality and Liberty mutually opposite—Many scholars support this notion that there is no uniformity or relation Equality and Liberty. Lord Acton believes that the order of Liberty has made the concept of Liberty meaningless. The nature is embedded with inequality, and hence total equality in real sense cannot be established.
Hence, in practice, only one out of equality and liberty can be established.
(ii) Equality and Liberty are complement to each other—This is the second point of view as regards the relationship between’ equality and liberty that both are complement to each other. According to Rousseau, “Freedom cannot survie without equality. Both are necessary for the development of person. But it is also necessary that both the concepts should remain in their confinement of dignity, while uncontrolled freedom is despotic, boundless freedom is senseless.
Liberty and equality are mutually dependent and complementary. Without political success, liberty will be meaningless as a big chunk of citizens will be deprived from the participation in governance. In the case of lack of civic equality, no opportunity is left for a person to enjoy freedom. In the paucity of social equality, liberty gets confined as the privilege of some people. In the event of absence of economic success, the polarisation of property takes place with the capitalists and hence rest of the society lives under their mercy.
It is hence evident that equality is embedded in liberty. There is no mutual contradiction between them nor they are mutually separate. Both are two faces of the same coin and the ultimate objective of both is the development of person’s personality
Tools of political socialization—
(A) Political Parties—Political parties are important means of political socialisation. They perform important works of socialization through their policies, viewpoints and programmes. In order to gain political authority, they try to establish socialization of people in accordance with their principles. They at the time of elections, try to frame the people’s opinion in their favour by way of slogans, wall paintings, posters, rallies, election meetings and interest groups. The state has strong control on the matters of socialization in democratic countries and in socialist totalitarian states, whereas political parties have majority in democratic states and they are free to propagate and establish socialization in accordance with their thoughts in the state.
(B) Means of Communication—In modern era, means of communic¬ation, such as- newspaper, radio, television, internet etc. play an important role in the process of political socialization by way of widening the political knowledge and political views of the public. Means of communication render important role in defining the political expression and line of thoughts of the people.
As a follower of Gandhism, I would like to adopt the following means against government policies:
- Boycott—To oppose the use of government services, functions, items etc. is called ‘boycott’. In 1920, Gandhiji launched this type of agitation against the Britishers.
- Sit-in—This can be used against any government, professional or a person. In this, agitators express their opposition by way of sit-in or ‘hunger strike’ till their demands are not fulfilled. Gandhiji supported this type of‘sit-in’, expressing opposition to opium, wine and foreign shops.
- Strikes—This is a form of noncooperation towards of work for the fulfilment of justified demands. It should be absolutely non-violent in form.
- Civil Disobedience—According to Gandhiji, this is the most important means to end/refuse immortal, improper rules and orders. In it, the base of refusal should be non-violent and humble. Its use can be done for personal as well as collective issues. In this, state laws are disobeyed, or these are objected to.
Water pollutants and their effects:
|1.||Cadmium||High blood-pressure, decay in blood-cells, vomiting, dysentery, skin diseases.|
|2.||Lead||Cancer, anemia, disease in pregnant women, effect on nervous system.|
|3.||Mercury||Hyper poisonous, effect on brain, effect on central nervous system.|
|4.||Selenium||Hairfall, skin-related ailments.|
Federal and Unitary Elements in the Indian Constitution—In our constitution, the word “Union of States” has been used in place of ‘Union’. It’ is said in the first article of Indian constitution that as India is a union of states, likewise nomenclature has been defined. There was such an ambition of the founders of the constitution, wherein the central government should protect the unity of India, and the states are also autonomous. As a result of this, there is a mixture of federal and unitary elements in the Indian constitution. Many provisions of the constitution make the centre more powerful than the states.
For example-all very important subjects are included in the union list, upper hand of the centre in the concurrent list, special powers with centre, control of centre upon states in case of emergency, single citizenship, All India Services, right of reorganisation of states (except J & K), appointment of Governors by the President, economic dependence of states on the centre, states cannot have their separate constitution, only one constitution applies on the centre and the states.
According to the constitution, the executive, that is, council of ministers is responsible towards the Parliament. The Parliament can have control over the executive in many way. As—
- The Parliament can highlight the defects of government policies and works on the basis of adjournmeht motion.
- Members of Parliament (M.P.) can ask questions and supplementary questions from the members of the executive in relation to government policies and works.
- The Parliament can adopt other means-regarding acceptance of government control, acceptance of proposal to reduce the salary of ministers, making demand for some amendment in government bill for which the government is not in agreement with-to register its objections.
- There can be a deduction in budget by the Parliament, and because of this, the council of ministers has to resign.
- The power to dislodge the council of ministers through a no-confidence motion rests with the Lok Sabha. This proposal is introduced by the opposition party. Not passing of confidence vote and passing of no¬confidence motion—both these result in the resignation of the council of ministers.
The following are the main characteristics of 73rd constitutional amenedment because of which the Panchayati Raj has become very effective :
1. Three-tier system—By 73rd constitutional amendemnt act, a three-tier institutional structure has been provided for all the states. This three-tier structure includes :
- Gram Panchayat at village level,
- Panchayat Samiti at block levels,
- District Council at district level.
2. Direct election—Ward Panch and Sarpanch at village level, Mandal members at block level and members of district council at district level are elected directly by the people. Besides, the election of Pradhan and District head at block and district level respectively is done by the elected members.
3. System of Reservation— According to 73rd constitutional amendment act, one-third of the total seats in all institutions are reserved for women. This act also has provision of reservation for schedule caste and schedule tribe in proportion of their population. This act also authorises the state legislature to make a system of reservation for other backward classes.
4. Fixed Duration—73rd consitu- tional amendment act fixes the time duration of the members of these institutions at village (Gram) Sabha and district level.
The role of caste can be seen in various forms in Indian politics. Out of these the following are the four main forms :
- Effective role of caste in the process’of decision-making —In India, by way of organising themselves, castes impact the process of political and social decisionmaking. For an example, by organsing schedule castes and schedule tribes, they pressurise the government to increase the facilities of reservation even more.
- Selection of candidates on the basis of caste in states—Political parties, while selecting their candidates, take decision regarding this in cognizance with the political equation. If there is a majority of a particular caste, then the candidate of this caste will be chosen to fight the election. Political parties take the caste equation into their consideration in their internal organisational elections and appointments.
- Voting trend on caste basis—In the course of election compaign, a candidate who is fighting election from a particular area (constituency), indulges to invoke his caste in order to ensure that he/ she gets full support of all the voters of the caste.
- Caste representation in the formation of cabinet—It is ensured that there should be ministers from every main caste in the state council of ministers. In cabinet too, schedule caste, schedule tribe, Brahmins, Sikhs, Rajputs and Kayasthas are definitely given some portfolio.
As per our belief, ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) is useful for India. Following are the four arguments in its favour:
- India needs a market for its developing economy. Under, wherein, Make in India drive, India is encouraging not only national companies, but also multinational companies. ‘ASEAN’, nations collectively form the world’s seventh biggest economy, wherein, around 200 big companies of the world are situated. While on one side, India is in search of new market, ASEAN countries need Indian market for their products.
- India needs mineral oil, natural gas and coal. For the fulfilment of this need ASEAN is the best and the most appropriate group of nations. India’s coal demand is addressed from Indonesia and the demand of gas can be executed from Vietnam and Australia.
- India wishes to establish strong relations with ASEAN countries. India wants diplomatic and economic relations with these countries, which are now under the influence of China.
- ASEAN has provided a political platform to India and other Asian countries to discuss political and security-related issues with world powers. This organisation emphasises on dialogue in place of collision or scuffle
The Meaning of Political Culture: Political culture is related to political viewpoint of general culture. According to Amond and Powell, “Political culture is an art of personal expressions and orientations towards politics of members of any political system”. According to Sydney Barbo, “In political science, there is embedded such a system of empirical beliefs, expressable symbols and values which define the circumstance or situation wherein political process accomplishes”.
According to Allan Bal, “Formation of political cutlure happens from the group of such tendencies, beliefs and values of the society, which are directly linked to political arrangement and political subjects.” According to Lucian Pye, “The relation of political culture is to the blend of expressions, beliefs and emotions, which provide dissemination and relevance to the political process, and provide such internal thoughts and rules, that control the behaviour of in political system.”
In this way, this political culture, like social political dynamism, is also dynamic and is based on sociopolitical values.
Characteristics of Political Culture—Political culture is reflected by the traditions of the society, nature of public institutions and ambition of its citizens, its collective acumen, manners of its leaders and rules of activism etc. The main characteristics of political culture are as follows :
- Coordination with Nature—The nature of political culture is coordinating. In political culture, many life values do emerge. There sustains a struggle at lower level between new and old life values. This establishes coordination between ancient and new values of life.
- Devotion towards Moral Values— Moral values are necessary for political culture. Support of moral values is a must for political culture. In the course of establishment of moral values, there is contribution of religious form of the society, and sometimes the form of authority system.
- Abstract Shape—The abstract thoughts of people influence the political culture. When people express their wrath or resentment against any rule or work of the state, which is a result of any rule or work of the state, then the psychic of the people cannot be read out as the thoughts in people’s mind are abstract which influence the political culture.
- Dynamism—The shape of political culture is dynamic. As the values of life of a society and person are not static, instead these keep on changing in accordance with political, social and economic circumstances and social necessities, hence likewise, political culture also keeps on changing.
Meaning of Political ‘ Participation —The meaning of political participation is related to complete partnership of citizens at different levels of political arrangement.
Statement of Mockgulowski in Relation to Political Partnership—“This is related to those self- choiced actions and reactions, wherein citizens or people participate in the formation of public policies in direct or indirect form. These, conclusively, affect the entire process of policy formation in governance, and arrest the arbitary mindset of the persons in power.” Mockgulowski has the conviction, that political partnership is not a nature of democratic systems only, instead, it is available in all arrangements in varying quantum. He also believes that it is not necessary to find its quantity in abundance in modern strong democratic arrangement. Political partnership is also found in developing or other arrangements. Instead of being quantitative, it can be qualitative also.
Positive Effects of Political Participation—The following are the positive effects of political partnership:
- Political partnership itself protects the interests of participant people or encourages them. People, before opting for partnership in political activities, make assessment of its pros and cons.
- By partnership, there emerges a sense of awareness in general morality and also in social and political domains.
- Political partnership makes people to think beyond petty issues. They move forward, dumping differences on the basis of caste, creed and other obscence considerations.
- Political partnership infuses a sense of unity in people on an object of general interest.
- Political partnership infuses established relations between the ruler and the ruled. By this, there occurs a spike in political awareness and different political cultures can be drawn parallel.
Negative Effects of Political Participation—Political partne- ship has certain negative effects, which are as follows:
- In a democracy, the partnership of general public is beneficial to an extent, but it ‘being’ beyond the limit is harmful.
- There may be some delay in terms of results of some public policies, programmes and decisions. There may be a probability to burden a part of the society.
- Results of public welfare schemes/ policies may bed long-awaited by the general people, and as a result, they may stir a rebellion against the democratic system.
- If there is given an undue encouragement to partnership of general public, then they will come the routine roads with their complaints and disputes, that will lead to disruption in the routine life of the people and system of governance and public order will break down.
- When common people take to streets, it becomes cumbersome to convince and control them.
- Some bitter examples of hyper political partnership are seen in the society. We observe certain events of agitations, rallies, demonstrations, strikes, sit-ins, demage to public properties, arson, traffic jams on roads, scuffles, stone throwing incidences etc. In this situation of unrest, the so-called political people get the improper demands conceded under the disguise of democracy. This all is done in the name of political partnership.
Meaning of Globalisation— Globali-sation is a process to bind/tie all the parts of the world in one thread. It is a multi-dimensional concept that is related to every aspect of life. Globalisation has transformed the world into a small village, because distant countries of the world are brought closer to one another in-this. In the process of accelerating globalisation, technology has played a special role and has made a unique contribution.
In other words, globalisation means- international unification, opening of world market, development of strategic means of communication, globalisation of financial markets, more importance to multinational companies, flow of people beyond countries, increase in dynamism of persons, thing, capital, data and thoughts. The process of globalisation has transformed the entire world into a common and singular society.
Political Impacts of Globalisation—On global level, the political environment of the entire world has come under the influence of globalisation because of ecological change, unified economy and other powerful tendencies. National states have been affected the most owing to globalisation. There has been a change in the concept of national state. Now the state besides caring of public welfare state, has become the main deciding factor of economic and social priorities.
In the developed countries, the place of public welfare state has been taken over by the minimum non-interventionist state. Multinational companies have been established in the entire world. Because of this, autonomy of governments has been affected, but still, the importance of national state is there. States, leading in technology, have made remarkable improvement in the standard of their citizens. On global level, international conferences are being organised, so that all the nations get together and resolve various global predicaments. All the international institutions honour the fundamental principles of national sovereignty. In place of face-off between the east and west over power struggle and balance of power, there has been inception of peace, security development, environmental conservation, protection of human rights and criminal court on international level etc.
Meaning of Global Warming—It is a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth’s atmosphere, generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increasing quantity of carbon dioxide, resulting the arrest of thermal heat generated by reflecting rays on the soil. Because of concentration of thermal energy in the atmosphere, there is an increase in average temperature of the earth. This is called global warming.
Causes of Global Wanning— The following are the main causes of global warming :
- Because of human activities, there has been a consistent increase in the amount of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxide etc. and because of this, there has been an increase in the temperature of the earth.
- Because of unchecked emission of gases emitted out of vehicles and industries etc. There has been an increase in the amount of carbon dioxide.
- Deforestation is also one of the main causes of this.
- Chlorofluoro carbons used in refrigerators and fire extinguishers is also a main cause of global warming. CFC damages the ozone layer, which is a natural cover. Ozone layer prevents the harmful ultra-violet rays emitted from the sun from reaching the earth’s surface.
- Insensible cutting of forests is consitent cause of global warming. Forests control the quantity of carbon dioxide in a natural way, but rampant cutting of forests is depriving us from this natural remedy.
- Because of a big hole in ozone layer, ultra-violet rays are directly reaching the earth, causing rapid increase in earth’s temperature,
- Use of fossil fuels for the production of electricity also increases the amount of carbon dioxide in atmosphere, causing the temperature to further shoot up.
Security Council—Security Council is the executive committee of the United Nations, which has the responsibility of international peace and security. This organisation has the final responsibility of success and failure of the United Nations because it is related to the implementation of decisions of the General Assembly and the charter of the United Nations. G.J. Megon, while clarifying the importance of Security Council, says, ‘Neither in world nor in history do we find such a powerful organisation to prevent international wars. In recent years, the United Nations has proved its utility many a times.’
Organisation of (Formation of) Security Council—Security Council is called the executive of the United Nations. It is an important organ of the United Nations. It has 15 members, wherein five members—United States of America, Russia, China, France and Britain, are permanent, besides, there are 10 temporary members who are elected for two years by the Feneral Assembly through the election. Five permanent members of Security Council have ‘Veto ’ power and if any of the permanent members expresses its disagreement on any issue of importance, that every question is rejected.
Functions of the Security Council—The following are the main functions of the Security Council:
- This council is responsible for maintaining world peace and security. This compels the opposition countries to come to a negotiating table to resolve the disputes peacefully.
- In many organisational subjects under the control of Security Council, it has lawful compulsive rights. A range of functions, such as—to grant membership of United Nations to new states, election of general secretary, appointment of the judges of International Court etc. are such works which are performed by the Security Council in collusion with General Assembly.
- Security Council decides its internal issues on its own.
- Security Council has the right to take strong action against any country responsible for breach of peace.
- If a country is attacked by another country, then the Security Council has right to take diplomatic, economic and military action. And the member countries are under compulsive obligation to abide by the above decision as per the charter, for its support and implementation.
- If there is such country against which there has been disciplinary an action taken on the recommendation of the Security Council, then the country can be deprived of its membership for an indefinite period.
Indo-Pak War, 1971 and Simla Agreement—This area of east Pakistan was made of divided part of Bengal and Assam during the British rule. The people of this area were against the dominance of west Pakistan and imposition of Urdu language upon them. The people of this area also raised justified demands of holistic partnership of apt representation and political authority in administration. The condition of this area became very miserable after India-Pakistan war of 1965. Pakistan’s despotic rulers became rulers of the people.
There was a consistent increase in the unrest in east Pakistan (Bangladesh). The exploitation of autonomy began in east Pakistan under the leadership of Shaikh Mujeeb. East Pakistan was completely, under the influence of Mujeeb. Pakistani General, Yahya Khan, unleashed a string of tortures on the Bengalis. Under the sheer spree of tortures and tyranny, the affected people started infiltrating into India, leaving behind their belongings houses etc. in order to protect their lives. On an averge, 10-thousand refusees used to get into India daily.
The number of refugees touched the figure of one crore. At the same time, on 3rd December, 1971, Pakistani air force launched a very heavy bombardment on the airports of India. On 14th December 1971, Indian airforce retaliated. India threw bombs on important airports of Pakistan. After a gruesome war, Pakistani army suffered defeat, and as result a new country named Bangladesh came into existence on global map. On 16th December 1971, during a military surrender in Dhaka, General Niazi surrendered before the Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Arora of India.
Besides 93 thousand soldiers also surrendered. They all were arrested. In this way, India opted for the cessation of Indo-Pak war, 1971. India confiscated Pakistani land to the tune of 6000 sq. miles. Pakistani General Yahya Khan had to abdicate the seat of authority, and in his place, Pakistan’s authority went in the hands of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. The then Prime Minsiter of India, Indira Gandhi, and Pakistan leader, Mr Bhutto held dialogues and it was decided to hold conference between the two countries in Shimla on 28th June, 1972. Both the countries inked the historical Shimla agreement on 3rd July. The objective of this agreement was to establish peace between both the countries.
As a result of this agreement, India returned to Pakistan the land area amounting to the size of 6000 sq. miles.
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