RBSE Class 12 Political Science Model Paper 1 English Medium are part of RBSE Class 12 Political Science Board Model Papers. Here we have given RBSE Class 12 Political Science Sample Paper 1 English Medium.
|Paper Set||Model Paper 1|
|Category||RBSE Model Papers|
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Sample Paper 1 English Medium
Time: 3.15 Hours
Maximum Marks: 80
General Instructions to the Examinees:
- Candidate must write his/her Roll No. on the question paper compulsorily.
- All the questions are compulsory.
- Write the answer to each question in the given answer book only.
- For questions having more than one part, the answers to those parts are to be written together in continuity.
Section Q. Nos Marks per question Word limit of answer A 1-10 1 10 Words B 11-18 2 20 Words C 19-27 4 30-40 Words D 28-30 6 250-300 Words
- Question Nos. 28,29 and 30 have internal choices.
SECTION – A
Name the author of the book entitled ‘Political Socialization’. 
Write the definition of political culture given by Almond and Powell. 
On the principle of materialism, tell the fundamental difference between Heigl and Marx. 
Explain the ‘Process of Hizrat’ briefly. 
From which constitution have the directive principles of the state embodied in the Indian Constitution been taken? 
Which fundamental right is considered by Bhimrao Ambedkar as the most important? 
According to the Indian Constitution what can be the number of total members of the Rajya Sabha? 
Who presides over the joint session organized to resolve the deadlock between both Houses of Parliament? 
Into which the policy of ‘Look East’ of Indian Foreign Policy has now been changed? 
Where is the headquarter of International Court situated? 
Section – B
Describe the role of the family as a means of political socialization. 
Write two forms of political participation. 
Explain the meaning of class struggle, as demonstrated by Karl Marx. 
Justify that Gandhiji’s ideas are based on ethics. 
In your opinion, preventive detention act is unconstitutional. Give any two arguments. 
Your neighbour has been arrested uncounstitutionally by the police. In which petition will you get relief from the court and why? 
What provisions were made to limit the size of the council of ministers in the centre by the 91st constitution amendment? 
What was the 99th constitutional amendment related to and what was its result? 
Section – C
Describe what do you think of John Rolls’s judicial views? 
Discuss different types of political culture that is proposed by Almond. 
In your opinion, Marxism is a timeless and irrelevant ideology. Give any four arguments. 
Make a table of water pollutants and their effects. 
Describe the importance of Directive Principles. (Any four) 
“During some last years, the post of the Governor has not been just formal but it has become an extremely powerful designation.” Give four arguments to confirm this statement. 
In your view, “Communalism is not a curse just for our country, but for the whole humanity.” Suggest four remedies to overcome it. 
“The relationship between fanaticism and terrorism has always been an issue of contention.” Give your opinion how fanaticism is responsible in the acceleration of terrorism. 
“United Nations is relevant in the present time also.” Explain your views in favour of this statement. 
Section – D
Explain the concept of religion in Indian culture. 
Explain the basis of power compliance and its various forms in detail.
Discuss the formation and the objectives of the National Institute of Bharat Transformation (NITI Commission). 
Explain the problems and effects of radioactive pollution.
“It is a permanent dispute of Kashmir between India and Pakistan”. Discuss the Kashmir problem in relation to this statement
“India and Nepal have been friends for long, but they have seen fluctuations in their relationship over two to three decades.” Explain India-Nepal relationships in the above context 
According to Almond and Powell, “Political culture is the personal expression of politics of the members of any political system and style of freenesses.”
On the principle of materialism, Heigl believes the basic element of creation is ‘consciousness or the soul of the world’, and, Marx believes the basic element of creation is ‘root’.
‘Hizrat’ is the process through which a person leaves his residence and goes to another place. This has been done for the sake of self-respect.
From the Constitution of Ireland.
Right of Constitutional Remedies.
Number of total members may be—250.
Speaker of the Parliament.
The role of family as a means of political socialization : Family is considered as the first school of the child through which the child learns customs and traditions. He obeys the directions of his parents. In addition to this, he learns how to put pressure in order to confirm his demands.
Two forms of political participation:
As the responsibility of the political activities increased, political participation has also increased at a rapid pace. Political participation is deeply linked with every social aspect of a developed society.
Meaning of class struggle as demonstrated by Karl Marx: According to Karl Marx— the struggle against mutual interests between capitalists and the working class is called the class struggle.
Gandhiji liked truth, non-violence, sympathy, and cooperation. These rules are so genuine that implementation of them can lead to permanent peace in the world. The environment of tension, hatred can be removed and converted into love.
Preventive detention act is unconstitutional, and there are two arguments in favour of this :
- This act is a symbol of autocracy.
- It is undemocratic and reactionary. The possibility of misuse of it always exist
In that state, I will get relieved from the court under the Habeas Corpus writ because this writ is issued on the petitioner’s request letter who understands that he has been illegally imprisoned. If the reason for making a person imprisoned is invalid, then the court orders to free him immediately.
According to the 91st constitution amendment passed in 2003 and approved by the President in 2004, the total number of ministers in the union council of Ministers cannot be more than 15% of the total members of the Lok Sabha.
99th constitutional amendment was related to the appointment of judges in the Supreme Court and High Courts. The Supreme Court upheld the decision as unconstitutional. The appointments made on the basis of the old system were restored.
John Rolls’s Judicial Views: John Rolls presented judicial views in his famous book ‘A Theory of Justice’. He has analyzed social justice in this modern context. He opposed the traditional views of justice. His judicial views are based on two beliefs :
- Everyone has the right to give equal respect to the universal freedom of basic freedom.
- Social and economic inequalities should be arranged in such a way that both of the least beneficiaries, i.e., the most backward get maximum benefit. Rolls has tried to present the theory of justice on a priority basis.
According to Almond, political cultures are four types based on political systems :
- Anglo-American Political System: Such type of political culture is found in democratic countries such as Britain, America.
- Continental European Political System: Such type of political culture is found in countries such as—France and Germany.
- Non-western or Former Industrial Political System: This type of political culture is found in many former colonies of Asia, Africa. In these countries, democracy is still in the developing state of industrial economic development.
- Copyright Political System: This type of political culture is found in many countries of Asia and Africa and the countries of military dictatorships. There is no opposition in these political cultures.
- Supporter of non-democratic and dictatorship: In Marxism, people are denied the freedom to express ideas. In this state, there is no system of protection of the life and property of an individual. Communist country such as China is an example of this. In communist countries, the ruling communist party dominates in a single party system.
- Encouragement to violence and revolution: Marxism believes in violence and revolution. It creates tension and depression.
- Enemy of Personal Liberty: Marxism is an enemy of personal liberty because it considers class struggle as necessary. In such a situation, the working class considers capitalists their natural enemies.
- To consider State as a Exploitation Tool improper: Marx considers the state to be a class organization through which the capitalists exploit the working class. But a welfare state does many positive works for the welfare of the public. The State does not differenciate among its citizens. Thus according to Marx State is not a tool of exploitation.
|1.||Arsenic||Cancer, Blackfoot disease|
|2.||Cadmium||High BP, decline in blood cells, vomiting, loose motion, Heart disease.|
|3.||Lead||Cancer, Anaemia, pregnancy disorder, defect in circulatory system.|
|4.||Mercury||Brain, Nervous system and circulatory system.|
|5.||Cromium||Skin disease, Eczema, itching, cancer.|
|6.||Sellenium||Fall of hair, Skin disease.|
|7.||Sewage (drainage)||Physical disorder dysentary, Intestine disease.|
Importance of Directive Principles: The explanation of the importance of policy of directive principles is presented under the following points :
(a) Code of conduct for governance: Directive principles act as a code of conduct for governance. There is a power of public opinion behind this, so no one responsible for the public can dare to disregard the government.
(b) Outline of public welfare state: The purpose of the Constitution preparation by the constitution makers is to set up a public welfare state which includes economic and social democracy. Directive principles fulfil this ideal.
(c) Basis of assessment of governance: Directive principles are the criteria of public governance to check success or failure. Various works of government can be evaluated by them.
(d) Assistant in the implementation of the Constitution: Directive principles are the root or foundation of the country’s rule, which means that all the powers responsible for the administration of the country will be guided by them.
The Governor is appointed by the Central government for a period of 5 years, but he can remain in office till his successor assumes his office.
Governor may be removed prematurely by the President and transferred from one state to another. Initially, the role of the Governor was limited to formalities, but in the changed political circumstances during some last years, the governor’s post has not remained formal. The following are the four clues for this:
(a) Chief Minister’s weak personality.
(b) The state government does not have a clear majority but a general majority.
(c) Party change trend and political instability.
(d) Regional parties to be more powerful.
- No effort by the Government to promote communalism: The Government should always keep in mind that such a work should not be done by it that encourages communalism. In relation to equality, efforts should be made to implement it practically rather than talk of ideas.
- Eternal moral life values education: India is a secular state but the education of eternal moral life values should be compulsory for all. There should be education that creates a feeling of nationalism and devotion in place of religion- special education
- No special facilities on the basis of religion: There is no special concession for any religious community on the basis of religion and the facilities should not be given for particular religion, which create a sense of jealousy among the people of other religions.
- Religion should not be resorted: One of the biggest reasons for communalism is the politics of profit in elections. There should be strict restriction on political parties which promote communalism to take advantage of electoral gain. There should be strict restriction on this.
(a) Due to fanaticism, followers of particular religion are involved in terrorist activities: Due to fanaticism, followers of particular religion are indulged in terror activities and people of another particular caste and religion are made to suffer terror.
(b) Producing a sense of intolerance towards other religions: In terrorism, there is no place for social rules and ethical principles. Due to fanaticism, people of a particular religion create intolerance towards other religions.
(c) Belief in religious fanaticism: Terrorist organisations create fanaticism in the youth and take them away from the national mainstream.
(d) To create separatism, isolation and terrorism through fanaticism: Religious fanaticism creates a sense of devotion to a particular community without having a sense of devotion towards the country.
Relevance of the United Nations in present time :
(a) Forum for world peace and cooperation: At present, the United Nations is playing an important role in establishing world peace. It has played an important role in establishing mutual friendship and cooperation among different countries.
(b) Initiatives in solving international problems: The United Nations has passed the proposals for the sake of establishment of international peace, to declare the region of peace in Indian sub-continent, to end racism, to provide freedom to the colonies, to work on nuclear disarmament and arms control etc., and for the solution of new international problems.
(c) Mediation in resolving international disputes: The United Nations has done mediatory work in the solution of many international disputes.
(d) Work of humanity: The United Nations has provided support to the nations of the world in various disasters, contributed to end apartheid, etc., and helped the poor nations.
Concept of religion in Indian culture
Meaning of Religion: Religion is an important concept in Indian culture and philosophy. In India, religion means—duty, non-violence, justice, good conduct and virtue and these are practised with religion. The word ‘Dharma’ is derived from Sanskrit ‘Dhra Dhatu’ which means ‘holding’. Thus, in terms of word etymology, religion can be understood as the principle or element that holds any purpose. The parallel word of ‘dharm’ in English is ‘Religion’ which means faith, beliefs or its recognition. Religion is defined as such an integrated system which associates a particular community with morality with its practice, custom and beliefs. Several definitions of religion have been given and its symptoms have been mentioned. In Manusmruti, 10 characteristics of religion were quoted :
‘Dhrati Kshma Damasteyam Sauchmindriya Nigraha.
Dheervidhya Satyamkrodho Dashkam Dharmlakshnam. ’
That means—patience, forgiveness, self-control, not/stealing, purity of the senses, control of senses, possessing wisdom, studying, speaking truth and not getting angry, are the 10 characteristics of religion.
Coordinated approach to religion in Indian Sanatan culture: Religion has been widely accepted in Indian Sanatan culture. Religion has been involved in the sphere of universal and spiritual life. It is mentioned in Indian theology—
“Yato Abhyudaya Nishreyas Siddhi Sa Dharma. ”
That is, the advancement of everyone is the religion. Though different opinions of religion have been interpreted differently from time to time, but the actual form of religion is found only in Indian culture. Religion is an art of living a life which helps in developing the sense of humanity in a person. Sanatan Dharma is considered to be an ancient religion of the world. It is based on the Vedas. Lord Krishna’s expression—
“Shuyatam dharma sarvasvam shrutwa chaapyavadharyatam.
Atmen pratikulani paresham Na Samacharet.”
Listen to all about religions and think after listening about root elements.
It is the result of coordinative mood that everyone’s welfare in Indian religion has been considered as the goal of life.
Basis of Power:
(a) Belief: The main foundation of power compliance is faith. The subordinates compliance the orders of ruling authority. The subordinates have faith in ruling authority.
(b) Integrity: One base of governance is the unity of thought between the ruling and the subordinates. Naturally, the person gives more importance to counseling, suggestions and commands of. those who keep the unity of ideas and commands with them.
(c) Public Interest: Public interest means public welfare. It is an important basis for governance. We do not follow most of the state laws under the pressure of the power of penalties, but because they promote public interest.
(d) Pressure: So many times, it is forced to take control of power and pressure. The organizations and institutions of each state system are some people who have little effect on belief or uniformity. Such people understand the language of oppression and pressure.
Forms of Power: Sociologist Max Weber mentioned three forms of rule of power:
- Conventional Power: This power is used by any person or dynasty traditionally. For example—Power of senior person of the home.
- Unique Power: The power is received by a person from his extraordinary personality As—Indira Gandhi, Mahatma Gandhi, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, and Narendra Modi, etc.
- Lawful and Logical Power: The basis of this power is the past. The person holding the power of law in that position uses it. As—the power of Prime Minister or the Collector.
National Institute of for Transforming India (NITI Commission): The NITI commission was established by the Central government in January 2015. It has replaced the previous ‘Planning Commission’. It can be explaned under the following points:
Formation of NITI Commission
- President: Prime Minister.
- Members Governing Council: The Chief Ministers of all the states, Chief Ministers the Union Territories where the Legislative Assemblies are, and the vice-Governors of other union territories.
- Regional Council: There is a provision for the formation of the regional council for a specific period for consideration and decision on regional issues affecting more than one state. These councils will also work on the instructions of the Prime Minister.
- Nominated Members of the Prime Minister: They have special qualifications and information in their fields.
- Full-Time Officers:
Vice President—Appointed by the Prime Minister.
Full-time members—two Temporary members—two.
Ex-officio members—Central council of ministers’ four members who are the appointed by Prime Minister.
Chief Executive Officer—Secretary level officer.
Secretariat—As per requirement.
At present time, the Vice President of NITI Commission is Dr. Rajeev Kumar. Two full-time members are—Dr. Vivek Devrai and Dr. V.K. Saraswat.
Objectives of NITI Commission:
- Keeping in view the national objective, developing a shared vision of national development priorities and strategies with active participation of the states.
- Promotion of cooperative federalism through initiatives of structural cooperation on a continuous basis with states and administrative mechanism.
- Initiative of structural development for building a reliable plan at village level.
- The NITI commission will ensure that the work area which has gone specifically to it has been added to the interests of national security in their economic activity policy.
- Preparation of long-term policies of development, continuous reviews of these policies and also making medium-term amendment.
- Paying special attention to those sections of the society, where there is a possibility of not being properly benefitted from the economic progress.
- The purpose of bringing the agenda of development on the momentum to provide a common platform for addressing inter-regional and inter-departmental issues.
- To activate the intellectuals and institutions of the country in national development.
- Emphasis on technology upgradation and capacity building for the implementation of programmes and policies.
- Developing best practices for good governance and continuous and judicial development, reaching outcomes through research and study.
- Editing activities necessary for achieving national development programmes and value objectives.
Problems of Radioactive Pollution: Due to radioactive pollution, the entire environment is affected. Various types of gases emerge during the testing of weapons and mining, which make the problem more complicated. At present time, this pollution is increasing rapidly. The problem then intensifies when the wastages of radioactive materials are not passed in the factories to the next stage as per standard. In such a situation, relevant motes pollute the air together. It creates a situation of human and animal distress. Thus, this is a explosive problem to the world.
Effect of Radioactive Pollution: Major effects of radioactive pollution are as follows:
(a) Damage to cells of plants, animals and humans: Radioactive substances emit so much energy in the atmosphere that the cells of plants, animals and humans are destroyed.
(b) Cause of Cancer: Contact with radioactive pollution leads to cancer.
(c) River water and sea water is polluted with nuclear explosions, causing sea creatures to be destroyed.
(d) Epidemics: The epidemic spreads through radiation pollution.
(e) Skin cancer and other problems arise from radioactive pollution.
(f) Radiation pollution leads to anemia and lung diseases also.
(g) The sensory nerves get stimulated by radiation pollution. Humans lose mental balance and behave like crazy or insane.
Kashmir Problem: The most vulnerable problem in all the problems between India-Pakistan relations is the problem of Kashmir that has continuously sustained after partition.
(a) After independence, the freedom of the country’s princely states and the beginning of the problem: After independence, two new nations came into being in the form of India and Pakistan, and as far as the princely states were concerned, the British Government announced that the princely states as per their desire and according to their wishes could mingle with either India or Pakistan. This was done by most princely states but some states, such as Hyderabad, Junagarh and Kashmir created problems. During that time, the problem of Hyderabad and Junagarh was resolved but the problem of Kashmir remained intact.
(b) Specific situation of Kashmir between India and Pakistan: Located on the . northwestern border of India, this state connects both India and Pakistan. The majority of its population was Muslim but the ruler Hari Singh was a Hindu King. In August 1947, the ruler of Kashmir did not take any immediate decision regarding the merger.
(c) Pakistani Infiltration: Pakistan wanted to occupy Kashmir. On Oct 22, 1947, the Pakistani army infiltrated the Kashmir valley in the vicinity of tribal forest of the North-west Frontier province.
(d) Attempts of solution by the Security Council: Pakistan increased infiltration into the Kashmir region, which made this the territory of war between the two nations. Being compelled, the government of India complained to the Security Council on January 1, 1948. Consequently, the Security Council appointed a commission which, after studying the situation, presented some recommendations on August 13, 1948 to end the war and create compromise between both nations. After long talks, the war ended on January 1, 1949. The final decision on the merger of Kashmir was to be decided from the referendum. On the basis of the agreement made by the commission, Pakistan was given an area of 32,000 square miles of Kashmir, whose population was 7 lacs. Pakistan named this region as Azad Kashmir.
(e) Indo-Pak war of 1965: In April, 1965, two Pakistani troops entered the Rann of Kutch and took control over many areas. At the same time, they started infiltration in Kashmir. This was a planned invasion. On 4-5 August, thousands of Guerrilla Pakistani soldiers entered Kashmir. The whole war started. Finally, the war ended on Sept. 22, 1965, on the appeal of the security council. Tashkent Agreement was signed on January 4, 1966.
(f) Pakistan’s liability: There is no doubt that the situation in Kashmir is deteriorating due to Pakistan. There was no solution due to India’s persistent attitude, and India has tried to resolve the problem many times by negotiations. At present, Pakistan has become a stronghold of terrorism and Kashmir has become the centre of terrorist activities.
India-Nepal relations: India and Nepal have long been friends. Nepal is neighbouring country of India. The way we are closer in context to the cultural relations with Nepal can hardly be with any other country, but fluctuations have been seen in our relationship over two to three decades. In the above context, the description of India-Nepal relations is presented under the following points:
- Initial Stage: Nepal is a small country in the Himalayan hills. It is a buffer state between India and China. Here, there is democratic secular government system. Nepal, which is located in the Northeast of India, is very important with strategic point of view.
- Border engagement with Nepal: India’s border in hundreds of miles of Nepal has never stopped preventing the common man from entering into one another’s region. Indians and Nepalis living on either side of the entire boarder are happily treating themselves as children of two countries and due to the similarities of language and religion, it is difficult to distinguish them.
Nepal is the only foreign country whose citizens have been recruited in the Indian Army.
- Indian Nepal Treaty of 1950: Increasing activities of China in Tibet led to India’s worries about Nepal’s security. As a result, on July 30, 1950, there was a historic treaty between the two countries.
- Economic-technical relations: India has invested a lot of money in Nepal’s development work. Nepal has gained technical and non-technical support through every kind of training provided in India.
India has provided assistance in the renewal of the medical colleges construction, road construction, telephone exchange and railway lines, etc.
- The closing Bilateral Treaty formed in 1950 and the growing differences between India and Nepal: In 1989, India refused to renovate Nepal after the completion of the trade and transit treaty with Nepal. After the end of the treaty, small differences between the two countries eventually turned into deeper tensions.
For the last few years, the following are the point of tension between Nepal and India.
- Nepal’s pressure to declare itself as a stress free zone.
- Differences in commodity transit facilities and business operations.
- Increasing China’s activities in Nepal.
- Some of the policies adopted by Nepal, such as treaty between Nepal and China regarding Tibet, neglecting Indian economic assistance by Nepal and give more importance to China’s assistance.
- Displaying more attraction towards China by some politicians from Nepal.
- Negotiations between Nepal-China in connection with Mount Everest.
- Activities of smugglers and terrorists in Nepal.
- Madheshi movement.
- Steps towards reforms in relations between the two countries: Prime Minister undertook the goodwill journey of Nepal on 3rd and 4th August, 2014, and moved a step ahead towards reform in relations between the two countries. During the visit of Nepali Prime Minister K. P. Sharma ‘Oli’ to India in February, 2016,9 agreements between two countries were signed. As a result, fractions between the two countries are gradually diminishing.
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