Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 11 Gandhism
- The other name of Gandhiji’s ideas and ideals is Gandhism. Currently, the philosophy and these ideals and ideas of Gandhiji are known as Gandhi Darshan, Gandhian political philosophy and Gandhism.
- Gandhiji’s method was experimental, perceptive and scientific.
Gandhiji and his Human Values:
- Gandhiji wanted to make politics pure and based on religion and justice. Gandhiji wanted to communicate the feeling of love, freedom and self-reliance in a person.
Gandhism: A Pool of Ideas of Life:
- Truth, non-violence, love and brotherhood are the basics of his ideals.
- Gandhiji was influenced by the views of Mahaveer Swami, Gautam Buddha, Socrates, Thoro and Ruskin.
- Gandhiji did not consider material pursuits or materialism as the carrier of civilization and culture. He emphasised on intensive internal development.
- Gandhiji opposed the materialistic or economic interpretation of Marx’s history, class struggle and violence. He did not like the use of violence in practice.
Sources of Gandhism:
Four sorts of effects are seen on Gandhian ideas
- Effect of religious books.
- Effect of philosophy
- Effect of reformist movements.
- Effect of socio-economic conditions.
The ideas of Gandhiji were influenced by many thinkers like-John Ruskin, Henary David Thoro, Leo-Tolstoy and Socrates.
Effect of India’s helpless position and poverty impressed Gandhiji’s ideas, which was the base of his socialistic ideas.
South Africa: Laboratory of Gandhiji’s Experiments:
- South Africa was the laboratory of Gandhiji’s experiments and his religious feelings have developed there. He studied there the ideas of western writers.
- The development of Gandhiji’s political philosophy ‘Satyagrah’ took place in resistance of white casteism and its initial experiments were done there only. A feeling of selfless human feeling developed in him there.
Spiritualization of Politics:
- For Gandhiji religion and politics are the same. He believes that the aim of politics, like the aim of religion, is to bring change in social relations that are based on injustice, torture and exploitation.
Purity of Accomplishment and Means:
- It is the quality of Gandhiji’s ideas that there is no difference in purity of accomplishment and purity of means.
- Gandhiji was not willing to get independence through deception and animal force.
- Human nature : Each philosophy starts with human definition or analysis of human nature. Hobbes, considers man quarrelsome, selfish and jealous while Roussean considers him peaceful.
- Non-violence : It means not to tease any one through heart, word, and action, A non-violent man is a statue of love, compassion, forgiveness. He has no enemy.
- Origin of Satyagarh : This word was originated in South Africa by Gandhiji.
- Meaning of Satyagarh : In simple language, it is a way to keep away evil or to keep away disputes from non-violent methods. For a simple Indian citizen, it was a way of Indian against English rule for independence.
Non-Cooperation and Its Nature:
- According to Gandhiji, it is not only man’s duty to be non-cooperate towards the evil, but also his religion. Non-cooperation can adopt the following forms:
- Strike : To stop working voluntarily in opposition is a strike. The strike is volunteer attempt for self purification, and it is heart changing for a person moving on the improper way.
- Social exclusion : It is an old tradition which came into being with castes. It is such a severe punishment that can be used effectively in a very effective manner.
- Sits in : It is related with ‘the change of ideas’. It should be necessarily peaceful.
- Hijrat : When a person or a public group has no soul power and has no power of violence, that time this activity is done. To save the self respect “Gandhiji advised Satyagrahis of Bardoli in 1928 and Satyagrahis of Limbari, Junagarh and Vithalgarh in 1939 to leave their houses.
- Civil disobedience : It is an important branch of stayagrah. It means to negate immoral laws. It is a non-violent sort of revolution.
- Fasting Tasting is such a pain that persons apply on themselves. This is the most powerful weapon of the Satyagarh.
Gandhiji’s Economic Views:
- Gandhiji’s outlook on economic problem was liberal and his suggestions were inspired with the outlook of time, need, and humanity. His such suggestions were based on reality and experience.
Present Time and Gandhiji:
- According to Gandhiji dependence on instruments is troublesome. Gandhiji’s views on instruments were influenced by the views of Ruskin, Tolstoy, and R.C. Dutta.
- Gandhiji has condemned capitalism in very strong words. He believed that capitalism had increased the feelings of poverty, unemployment, exploitation and imperialism.
Gandhiji’s Suggestion to Remove Social and Economic Differences:
- Astai and Aparigraha : Gandhiji has accepted ‘Astai’ in the form of associate ‘Vrit’ of truth and non-violence. The general meaning of ‘Astai’ is not to steal, that in not to take any thing or money without permission of its owner.
- Gandhiji did not confine Aparigrah only to collect money,but he considered it not to collect money for future prospects also.
- Theory of Trusteeship : To end the economic dissatisfaction, Gandhiji neither believed in western economy being based on capitalism, as it gives birth to exploitation, competition, and struggle, nor did he like collectivist system of east.
- According to Gandhiji’s trusteeship theory, the capitalists should use their property according to their need and become a trustee of remaining property and they should put it in public welfare work.
- Gandhiji’s swadeshi definition is not narrow in any form. He accepted only those foreign goods which were necessary to make better the home or Indian industries. He believed in exchange of things in international trade.
- Gandhi did not want to separate India from the world. He emphasized only to become self reliant. He could compromise with capital and foreign technological knowledge if it was kept under Indian control.
- Khadi’s economics :Khadi’s economics has the main place in Gandhian scheme of economic reconstruction of India. Gandhiji believed that to solve economic problem, Khadi or Charkha is the best, natural, cheap and practical way.
- From political point of view, Khadi was a movement of organization and contact. In freedom struggle, it became a symbol of unity.
Evaluation of Gandhiji’s Economic Thoughts:
- Gandhiji’s economic views have been criticised by terming them impractical. These views emphasize only one aspect of human nature and neglect worldly needs.
- Gandhiji’s theory is not only wrong in present circumstances, but these neglect technological knowledge.
- The principle of Gandhiji’s trusteeship is impractical.
- Gandhiji has condemned instruments. But the condemnation of instruments is the “condemnation of the law of origin”.
Gandhiji’s Political View:
- Gandhiji did not clearly outline his ideal of non-violent society as was done by Plato, Rousseau, Karl Marx.
- Gandhiji accepted the need for a limited state, Gandhiji opposed the state which purely represents politics and power.
- Gandhiji emphasized on the establishment of ‘limited state’. In his view, the work of the state is not only pure politics, but also should be high, the best and the welfare. Gandhiji was not in favor for excessive growth in the state’s power.
- According to Gandhiji economics, sociology, political science, religion all are related to ibe another.
- Gandhiji has spiritualised politics, and emphasized on religion word in politics.
- The biggest contribution of Gandhiji to political science is “full theory of Satyagarh”. It is based on non-violence. Contrary to the option of war available till now with the world to drive away injustice, Gandhiji presented Satyagrah principle as an alternative of war.
Evaluation of Gandhiji’s Ideas:
- War gave birth to only war, not to peace. That is why supporters of Gandhiji’s thoughts consider his ideas not only relevant for all the times, but also being universally fitted.
- Gandhiji’s principles-truth, non-violence, love and cooperation have impressed a large number of people throughout the world. .
- On the other hand, the writers who criticize Gandhiji’s thoughts tell them impractical, non-scientific, one sided, pushing the society back, supporters of capitalism, and stabilizing class distinction etc.
- Mahatma Gandhi’s ideas are full of humanity, life values and national feelings.
Important Dates Related to Incidents:
- On March 20,1937-Gandhiji wrote in ‘Harijan Sewak’, “The idea of inequality and high and low is bad between man to mem, But I do not want to take out it from the man’s heart with sword”.
- In 1928- Gandhiji advised the Bardoli Satyagrahis to leave their houses to save their self respects.
- In 1939, Gandhiji advised the Satyagrahis’ of Limbari, Junagarh, and Vitthalgarh to leave their house for Hizrat or self respect.
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 11 Important Terms
- Individualism : This philosophy emphasizes on man’s freedom and personal self-dependence. Idealism : This conception accepts the life goals of man and development of man’s personality and spiritual values.
- Socialism : In this system, property-ownership and development remains in the control of the society. This system opposes personal property.
- Liberalism : John Locke is considered the father of liberalism. This philosophy supports personal freedom. At present, this is world’s most recognized ideology.
- Non-Liberalism : This ideology copies traditional recognition on the basis of devotion. It does not have any importance of logic. New ideas are opposed in it.
- Universalism : In this Gandhiji’s philosophy, feeling of the welfare of all are included. Humanitarianism : It is a human value-based philosophy. It means that in all mankind, there should be a feeling of love, compassion, and moral feelings of sympathy.
- Spiritualism : It considers that soul has free existance from body. The meaning of spiritualism is to know the inner conscious element.
- Astai : It is one of the Panch Mahavrat of Jain religion.lt means no theft. Not to touch any thing without its owner’s permission. Gandhi accepted it in the form of truth and non-violence. Aparigrah : It is also one of the Panch Mahavrat of Jain religion. It means not to keep the money more than needed. As per Gandhiji all kind of collection is Aparigrah.
- Non-violence : It means not to tease any one with heart, statement and work. Gandhiji advised to adopt non-violence to gain the goal.
- Satyagrah : It is a way to keep the evils and dispute away from non-violence. On Gandhiji’s request, Indian citizens had adopted this way in freedom struggle against British government. Non-cooperation : It is like Satyagarh. It means not to cooperate with false and useless. Gandhiji adopted this weapon against colonial government.
- Hizrat : In this process, a man leaves his own home and goes to some other place. This is done to save one’s self respect.
Karl Marx : He was a German philosopher and socialist. He was the founder of scientific socialism.
- Gandhiji : Gandhiji was the main political and spiritual leader. He laid foundation of Satyagrah on the basis of non-violence principle.
- Laotse : A famous philosopher of ancient China.
Confucius : He was a Chinese reformer.
- John Ruskin : He was a thinker of 19th century. After reading his book ‘Uhto the last’, Gandhi translated the title in ‘Antyodaya’. Later on, this Antyodaya was defined as Sarvodaya.
- Henry David Thoreau : He was a famous American social reformer. He was the father of civil disobedience movement. With his inspiration, Gandhiji started this movement in India. ‘Walder’ was his famous book.
- Leo Tolstoy : One of the respected writers of 19th century. He was bom in Russia. He spread light of knowledge in conventional society.
- Socrates : He was well known philosopher of Greece.
- Swami Vivekanand : Famous spiritual teacher of Vedanta. In 1893, he represented India in Chicago in World All Religion Conference.