Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 13 Environment and Natural Resources
- In Indian culture, nature is said to be the mother because she nurtures all living beings of the universe. So, her conservation is our moral duty.
- In our Vedas, Puranas, Upanishads and other religious books while describing about the social importance of trees and animals, this is linked with ecology.
Indian Perspective of Environment:
- The ancient veda is : Rigveda. In it, much importance is given to man and his environment.
- Describing the importance of trees and forests, our hermits and saints emphasized on their conservation. It is explained in Rigveda how some plants are useful from the medical and religious point of view. For Example- Pipal, Tulsi, Bilve, Dhaak, Durba and Kush.
- Great economist Chanakya said that :The stability of rule depends upon the cleanliness of environment.
- In Jain religion, considering non-violence as a great duty, conservation of animals is deemed necessary.
- On September 21, 1730, in Khejadli village of Rajasthan, 363 people of Bishnoi society under the leadership of Amrita Devi, sacrificied their lives to protect trees, saying that “if a tree lives in place of us, we are ready for”.
Need of Environment Conservation:
- In the modem and technological development age, where the development is rapidly taking place, environment pollution is increasing simultaneously.
- According to the UNO report of 2016, the population of 1.20 billion people in developing countries is not getting fresh water. World’s 97% water is present as saline water in seas and oceans, which is unsuitable for fulfillment of daily needs of humans.
- Environment pollution is of many kinds, such as – air pollution, water pollution, mineral pollution, radioactive pollution and soil pollution, etc.
- The major cause of environmental pollution is: unlimited expansion of cities, industrialization, growth of transportation means, growth of luxurious means. Due to these, different dangerous pollutants are mixing in environment.
- Ozone layer, in stratosphere at the height of 11 to 35 km. is found as a thick cover. The layer absorbs the dangerous ultraviolet rays coming from the sun. That is why, this layer is called the armour of earth.
- A molecule of chlorofluorocarbon can destroy one lakh ozone molecules of stratosphere. Ozone hole found in Antarctica and the south pole, is dangerous for whole world.
- More trees should be planted to check pollution, industrial chimneys should be on correct height, catylitic converter should be fitted in cars. In place of fossil fuel, solar and wind energy should be used.
- Each year, 16 September is celebrated as international ozone day.
- Greenhouse gases are increasing environmental temperature.
- Solid orga’nic and inorganic materials, radioactive elements, industrial wastes and domestic sewage are polluting water bodies.
- Dysentry, Cholera and typhoid are some of the diseases that are increasing due to water pollution.
- The general causes of soil pollution are acid rains, excessive use of fertilizers and chemical sprays, etc. Compost and green manure should be used.
- Use of nuclear energy is increasing radioactive pollution. Animal cells get destroyed causing cancer, greying of hair and death of sea animals.
- In plastic and polythene bags, xylene, ethylene oxide, athelines oxide and Benzene are used which are dangerous for health. Plastic takes 400 years time for decomposition.
- Global warming is a great global threat. Earth’s temperature is continuously increasing due to carbon dioxide, methane, CFC and other greenhouse gases.
- Natural resources are free gifts from nature to man, such as- water resource, mineral resources, forest resources, food resources and energy resources.
- Water is the basis of entire life on earth. Water’s scarcity and excess, both influence our fives.
- The minerals obtained from mining are purified through physical and chemical processes.
- There are two types of minerals : Metalic and non-metalic minerals.
- Trees are important for man. In Indian culture, trees and forests have a major place.
- According to forest policy of nation, 33% part of the country’s area should be covered with forests.
- Feeding world’s fast-growing population is the greatest challenge.
- Green revolution gave the encouragement to intensive farming. In it, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, weedicides and fungicides are used on large scale.
- Coalmining, petroleum, naturalgarw, water power atomicpower are traditional sources of energy, whereas solar energy, Biogas, windpower come under non-traditional sources of energy.
Global Concern For Climate Change:
- On climate change, the first world meeting was held in Stockholm, Sweden from 5 to 16 June 1972. On the 20th anniversary of this conference, another global meet was held in Rio Dejaneiro (Brazil) as earth summit from 3-14 June 1992.
Environment Conservation In Indian Constitution:
- The makers of Indian constitution have given recognition to environment and its conservation on constitutional level. Through 42nd amendment of constitution, the Environment Conservation Act is included in the part of Indian constitution in directive principles and fundamental duties.
Following Acts have been passed by Indian constitution regarding environment :
- Environment Conservation Act, 1986,
- Air pollution (Removal and Control) Act: 1981
- Water pollution (Removal and Controlling) Act: 1974 – amended – 1988
- Wildlife Conservation Act 1972 – amended.
Important Dates and Related Incidents:
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 13 Important Terms
- Ecology : This is a branch of biology in which study is done about organism and its relationship with its environment.
- Technology : Group of study associated with practical, industrial art and applied science.
- Global Warming : Earth’s continuous increasing temperature is called global warming.
- Pollution : Due to addition of contaminants in atmosphere, the imbalance in nature is called pollution. Pollution contaminates water, air, soil, etc and harms animals and other living organisms.
- Smog : It is made of the association of two words ‘smoke’ and ‘fog’. In it breathing is hard.
- Ozone layer : In stratosphere at the height of 11 to 36 km, a thick covering of ozone is called ozone layer. It is like a shield for earth and atmosphere which stops ultraviolet rays of the sun from reaching earth.
- Ultraviolet rays : These sunrays have excessive quantity of energy that bums the skin and may cause a number of diseases. Ozone layer absorbs these rays.
- CFC (Cholo-fluorocarbon) : It is an organic compound. It is specially used in refrigerators and air conditioners. CFC is the main cause of the destruction of ozone layer.
- Greenhouse : It is a room made of glass roof and anti-heat conducting material walls to grow plants. Light energy can enter into it but cannot exit.
- Natural resource : Different materials or elements obtained from nature for human use, are called natural resource. These are free gifts of nature.
- Metalic Mineral : Obtained from mines in the form of ores, these are purified by chemical processes. For example- iron, copper, zinc, silver and gold, etc.
- Anthracite :It is a major variety of coal. Due to higher calorific value, it is considered the best type of coal. It consists of 90% carbon.
- Hydroelectricity : By making dams on big rivers at suitable place, turbines are rotated through fast water-stream. The electricity produced in this way is called hydroelectricity.
- Geysers : In the ground at the depth of 3 to 15 km very hot rocks are found. Due to this, at many places, sources of hot water are found on earth’s surface.
- Biogas : Animal excreta, dead plants and leaves are decomposed to produce biogas. In it, 50-60% methane is found. This gas is sent to LPG stoves through pipelines.
- Soil erosion : Due to natural and man-made causes, the shifting of upper fertile soil is called soil erosion. Due to it, agricultural production declines.
- Consumerism : It is an economic process which is direcdy associated with the belief that each element available in society is consumable.
- Environment : An envelop around the earth which consists of physical, chemical and biological constituents, is called environment.
- Acid rain : The smoke from industries, vehicles add carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide into the air. These gases react with rainwater which is called acid rain.
- Gross National Product : In a certain period in the economy of any country, the value of entire production is called GNP.
- Glaciers : The mass of accumulated ice which moves slowly on high mountain gradients is called glacier.
- Nuclear energy : The energy which is obtained from atomic minerals such as – Uranium, and Thorium, is called nuclear energy.
- Desertification : The process by which the fertile land changes into barren or sandy land through physical agents in nature and human activity is called desertification.
- Dr. M.S. Swaminathan : Famous Indian agricultural scientist. He told that through the influence of irrigation projects, quantity of salt increases in the soil.