Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 15 New Social Movements
Social movement is an active partner of democratic process which is complementary to public welfare efforts of a state.
Classification of Social Movements:
Social movements can be divided into four categories :
- Revolutionary movements
- Reformative movements
- Corrective movements
- Alternative movements
- Revolutionary movements are supporters of radical change in the established social norms and institutions. They may be violent also like Naxalite Movement and Leftists Movement.
- Reformative movements are advocates of gradual reform in the prevalent disparities and social problems. For this, they generally take the support of constitutional and parliamentary traditions.
- Corrective movements are centered around a particular individual or a problem. And they make efforts to get rid of that problem.
- Supporters of alternative movements advocate for establishing a separate alternative by bringing in complete change in social and cultural system of a society.
- Social movement is a conscious, collective and organised effort to establish a new system.
- The aim of all such movements is to establish a social system based on social justice.
- New social movements are inclined towards leftist ideology. Many times they have challenged the validity of state and rights of administration in the state.
- New social movements are not completely separate from political power or ideology but have a clear opinion about them.
- As against the Leftists’ ideology, many organizations like Banvasi Kalyan Parishad, Beti Bachao and Beti Parhao Andolan have given speed to the work of the state at the social level. They have done it without challenging the validity and role of the rule of the state. Hence, this stream of movement has emerged as the ideology of creative development.
New Social Movements : The main active new social movements in India are – Peasants Movements, Labour Movements, Women Empowerment Movements, Movements against Development Hazards etc.
- Peasants Movements became more important after elite capitalism and globalization which started after Blind Industrialization of 1991.
- The aim of Peasants Movements is to protect the Indian interest during the times of open market systems of globalization and privatization.
- Traditional labour movement which was limited to the Leftists’ groups only, had confined itself to the groups bargaining with the governments and industrial institutions. In the new age of globalization and liberalization, for the protection of the interests of labourers in the service sector and industrial sectors, the movements of organizations like Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh, Swadeshi Jagaran Manch are also remarkable.
- The concept of women empowerment remained influenced by the Western concept of feminism for a long time.
- At present several groups and movements have carried out many successful movements aimed at women empowerment. The name of Rashtriya Sevika Samiti is at the forefront.
- Some dangerous results of development are displacement of people due to construction of dams on the rivers or due to other projects, environmental degradation and river water disputes etc.
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 15 Important Terms
- Social Movement : These movements are basically against some social problems. Its aim is to protect and promote the interests of a deprived section.
- Corrective Movement : These movements are centred around a particular individual or a problem and make efforts to get rid of that problem.
- Alternative Movement : Supporters of alternative movements advocate for establishing a separate alternative by bringing in complete change in social and cultural system of a society.
- Anna Movement: The chief legislative aim of this movement was to alleviate corruption in the Indian government through introduction of ‘Jan Lokpal Bill’. It was launched by anti-corruption activist Anna Hazare. People supported the movement at large scale.
- Save Narmada Movement : Narmada Bachao Andolan is very powerful mass movement. It was started in 1985 against the construction of huge dam on the Narmada river.
- Naxalism : A Naxalite is a member of communist party of India (Maoist). The term Naxal derives from the name of the village Naxalbari in West Bengal, where the movement had its origin. Naxalites are considered supporters of Maoist political sentiment and ideology.
- Leftist stream : The supporters of this stream or ideology want to bring economic equality by bringing change in the society. This ideology sympathises with the backward and weak sections of society.
- 8. Displacement: This is an act or process of moving something or somebody from its place.
- Women Empowerment: Women empowerment refers to the creation of an environment for women where they can make decisions of their own for their personal benefits as well as for the society.
- Shetkari Sanghathana : Swabhimani Shetkari Sanghatana or SSS is a farmers’ movement of Maharashtra.