Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 16 Social, Economic Justice and Women Reservation
Under section 4 of Indian constitution an important provision of social and economic justice has been made.
Meaning of Social Justice:
- Social justice means establishing equality, unity and human rights among of all the members of society without discrimination.
- The traditional social outlook of Indian society was discriminatory.
- Casteism and communalism have been great obstacles on the way of establishing social justice in India.
- Mahatma Buddha, Mahaveer swami, Kabeer, from Mahatma gandhi to Baba Ramdev, there have
- been thousands of social reformers who tried their best to correct the social structure of Indian society by ending discrimination.
- The states which lack social justice, are more prone to civil war and rebellion.
- Our society was previously based on vama system which later on having been polluted and changed in caste system
- The introduction of conservatism in the caste system led to inequality, separatism, regionalism, and upper and lower caste thinking in the society which benefited foreigners through the policy of divide and rule.
- But all the Indians were able to free India on 15 August 1947 by following the policy of unity, integration and brotherhood.
Social Justice and Indian Constitution:
- Dr Rajendra prasad and Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar considered establishing social justice to be the most important with a view to making India a welfare state.
- Our constitution is not only liberal but also it is connected to social justice. Several provisions have been made in the constitution in order to attain this goal.
- The right to equality has been included in the fundamental rights. For the betterment and protection of the interests of downtrodden, they have been given reservation in the government jobs and in the legislature also.
- According to article 38, section 4 of the constitution “the state shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as it may, a social order in which social, economic and political, justices inspire all the institutions of the national life”.
Nature of Social Justice:
- In the section 3 of Indian constitution (Fundamental Rights) and section 4 (Directive principles of the state Policy), the means to attain the social justice have been explained. All the citizens are considered equal before the law.
- In article 15 of Indian constitution, any sort of discrimination on the basis of religion, ethnicity, caste, sex, place of birth has been prohibited.
- 86th amendment of the constitution act, 2002 is an important step regarding establishment of social justice given in article 21(a). This act ensures that all the children under the age of 6 to 14 get free education as their fundamental right. It was enacted in parliament on 4 August 2009 and implemented on 1 April, 2010.
Practical Aspects of Social Justice:
- The provision of reservation has been politicized and used as a vote bank policy.
- The knowledge of the law regarding constitutional equality is limited to the well to do and well educated families in a particular class of towns and cities.
- What is more important for social justice, is that the deprived section must receive social upliftment.
- Social polarization, casteism and vole bank politics are completely against the principle of social justice. .
- Social upliftment and mental development are essential for the social justice of the deprived section.
- The main aim of economic justice is to lessen the economic disparity.
- Max, while explaining history on the basis of economic materialism, writes that the society always has had two classes:exploiter and exploited. Economic justice cannot be established with ending one class of these.
- It is because of the increasing economic disparity that tendencies like naxal movement, corruption, criminalization of politics, smuggling and terrorism have developed which are big challenges to the unity and integrity of our country.
Meaning of Economic Justice:
- Economic justice means justice in economic field.
- Fair distribution of economic resources and wealth in every society is known as economic justice so that everybody can live a respectful life.
- Pandit Nehru said, “A starving person does not know the meaning and importance of democracy.”
Economic Justice and Indian Constitution:
Article 39 has most remarkable provisions where it has been decided that the state shall carry out its policy in such a manner to ensure that:
- All citizens whether male or female have full right to get enough means of earning a living.
- Man and woman both get the same salary for same work.
- The health and strength of man or woman working as labour and tenderness of the children are not misused and due to the economic need and compulsion, they are not forced to do a job that is not according to their age and strength.
Jamindari system and Privy Purse system of Indian kings where abolished with a view to establishing economic justice.
Essential Provisions to Establish Economic Justice:
- The disparity between the poor and the rich is continuously increasing.
- Indian government shall have to make the following effective and concrete provisions to decrease economic disparity.
- Restriction on unlimited property, employment to all, equitable distribution of wealth, welfare schemes to the poor, effective system, reservation on economic basis etc.
Ground Realities of Economic Justice:
- India, today is a country having the highest growth rate, Financial year 2015-16 had a growth rate of 7 percent which is more than the growth rate of China, that was 6.5 percent. India may attain 8 percent growth rate in the coming years.
- In spite of the high growth, the rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer. The real benifits of growth have reached the urban areas only.
- The internet and technology has not reached the rural areas to the expected level, which is known as the phenomena of digital India.
- Production and manufacturing fields had been lagging behind for a long time. “Make in India” project and the possibility of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) can be meaningful for bringing about the infrastructural improvement both in villages and cities in the coming years.
- There are great possibilities of radical changes in E-Commerce through start up India which will benefit the poor indirectly.
- Indian women have yet not been able to get sufficient opportunities of employment, doing business in the industries and working in the field of politics.
- At present, government posts are reserved for women in many states.
Women Reservation in Panchayati Raj Institutions:
- By 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment, 1/3 posts of the Panchayati Raj Institutions of all the categories, have been reserved for the women. By this provision the share of active participation of ladies in the Panchayati Raj Institutions has remarkably increased. This participation has crossed the 42.3% record now.
The Demand of Reservation in the Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha The Need of Reservation:
- Increasing the participation of women by reservation in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha will be a positive step for Indian democracy. ,
- The statement in the declaration of Fourth World Conference on Women at Beijing is very important. It says that it is imperative for function and development of the democracy that equal participation of both man and woman in the process of continuous creation should be ensured so that the balance in the composition of the society is properly maintained.
A Brief History of Women Reservation Bill:
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 16 Important Terms
- Social Justice : Social justice means establishing equality, unity, and human rights among all the members of society without discrimination. No person should face discrimination on the basis of the social, religious or cultural prejudices, it is known as social justice.
- Regionalism : If the interest of one region or a state is asserted against the country as a whole or against another region/state in a hostile way, and if a conflict is promoted by such alleged interests, it is called regionalism.
- Separatism : It is the advocacy of a state of cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial, governmental or gender separation from the large group.
- Fundamental Rights : The fundamental rights are the basic human freedoms that every Indian citizen has for proper and harmonious development of personality. These rights uniformly apply to all citizens irrespective of race, place of birth, religion, caste, gender etc. There is provision of fundamental rights in Indian constitution.
- Directive Principles of state policy : The Directive principles of State Policy are mentioned in Part IV, Article 36-51 of the Indian Constitution. These are the guidelines for the framing of laws by the government.
- Forced labour : When the labourers are not paid any wages, their labour is called forced labour. In ancient times, this kind of labour was in practice under Zameendari system.
- Economic justice : Fair distribution of economic resources and wealth in every society is known as economic justice.
- Privy Purse : In India, the privy purse was a payment made to the ruling (royal) families of erstwhile princely states as part of their agreement to first integrate with India in 1947, and later to merge their states in 1949 whereby they lost all ruling rights.
- Bureaucracy : A system of government in which most of the important decisions are taken by state officials rather than by elected representatives.
- Digital Divide : The internet and technology has not reached the rural areas to the expected level which is known as the phenomena of digital India. This discrimination between the villages and the cities divide the country so this is called digital divide.
- Demonetisation : When the government of any country puts a legal ban on any old currency, this is known as demonetisation.
- Make in India : This is a type of Swadeshi movement which covers 25 sectors of economy. It was launched by the Government of India on 25 September, 2014 to encourage companies to manufacture their products in India.
- Startup India : Startup India is a scheme launched by the Modi government on 16th of January 2016. This compaign is planned to bring new opportunities to the youths of thecountry. This initiative is to encourage the young entrepreneurs to greatly involve in the entrepreneurship for better future. .
- Dr Rajendra Prasad : He was the freedom fighter and the first president of free India. He gave his valuable contribution in framing the constitution of India.
- Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar : He was an Indian jurist, economist, politician and social reformer who inspired the Dalit Buddhist movement and compaigned against social discrimination against untouchables. He also supported the rights of women and labour. He was independent India’s first law minister. He was die president of the drafting committee of the constitution of India.
- Narendra Modi : He is the Prime Minister of India. He is the 15th Prime Minister of free India. He is the first Prime Minister who is bom in free India.
- Atal Bihari Bajpayee : He was the former Prime Minister of India. His government presented the women reservation bill again in the form of 84th Constitutional Amendment.
- Dr Radhakrishnan : He was the first Vice-President and the second President of independent India. He was an educationist. He said, “Those who are poverty stricken and are wandering here and there in search of manual work and those who don’t get any manual work and are starving, cannot be proud of the constitution and its law.”
- Franklin D. Roosevelt : He served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 untill his death in 1945. He said, “Nobody can attain true freedom without economic security and economic freedom.”