Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 24 Casteism and Communalism
Form of Casteism and Communalism:
- Caste is a social structure, which is found to be prevailing in India since ancient time.
- Casteism could not be eradicated till now despite accepting modem western political ideology and institutions alongwith democracy.
- By way of supporting just and unjust demands of associations formed on the basis of castes, these groups have been exploited merely for Vote bank, which has created a rift and animosity amongst different castes.
- Vote-bank politics has not only incited racial feelings, but also created social tension.
- At the outset, there was emergence of class -system in order to organise different groups in the society, which was based purely on work and profession.
- Class arrangement has developed into caste ism in modem time, which is posing a serious challenge to the unity and integrity of the country.
- The British tried to introduce separate electoral system for untouchables, but Gandhiji opposed this strongly. On the same point, Pune Pact was signed between Gandhiji and Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar. In this pact, an arrangement was made to reserve seats for proper representation of these classes.
- Caste ism was given an encouragement to flourish by the vote-bank politics of political parties and their representatives to serve their petty interest and pleasure and lust of power, o The scourge of caste ism in present has not only affected economic, social, cultural and religious life, but also politics in a big way.
- In social and religious field, the influence of caste ism has decreased, whereas in politics and administration, its increasing effects have been observed by politicians, administrative officers and central and state governments.
- For political gains, caste ism has been used as a snare.
- Caste is such a social group which regards itself as a separate entity having special characteristics and it performs marriages within its community, and which’ has a traditional line of occupation.
Role of Caste in Indian Politics:
- Casterism plays an important role in Indian politics.
- According to Jai Prakash Narayan, “Caste is the most important party in India”.
The role of caste in Indian politics can be classified as
- Role of caste in decision making.
- The selection of candidates on the basis of caste in political parties
- Practice of voting on the basis of caste.
- Caste orientation in the formation of cabinets.
- Caste and administration
- Caste (ethnic) pressure group.
- Casjte support in election campaign
- Catste in state politics .
- The rise of powerful political class (aristocracy)
Characteristics of Caste-Based Politics:
- The caste organisation and associations have increased caste -based political ambitions, e The casteist leaders obtain political gains by raising social issues.
- The relations of caste and polities are dynamic. That is, they do not remain the same, o Besides politicisation on the basis of caste, at local level also there is enthnicitization of politics.
Positive Impact of Casteism:
- Relation of caste and politics has played a binding and cohesive role between people. The people of same caste assemble at a place to take part in social panchayats even from distant places. They maintain a ‘connect’ with one another owing to developed technology of communication. There is an obvious infusion of spirit of socialization and mutual unity because of the caste bonding.
- Due to caste politics, there has been a political activism in public.
- Caste politics has impacted social culture. Among all the castes in the society, the lower castes follow the upper caste in their eating habits, clothing, lifestyle and thoughts. And as a result, there has been a cultural unity in the society.
- According to Rudolph and Rudolph, “The caste politics has lessened the differences between the castes and increased similarities among the members of different castes”.
Negative Impact of Casteism:
- Because of struggle of ethnic interests of castes, there has developed animosity, and as such , there is an atmosphere of tension among castes in the society.
- Different castes struggle for their social interests and on many occasions, the decisions taken by the government under pressure give birth to unrest in the society and the country, o As a result of caste arrangement, there has been a feeling of mutual distrust between the lower castes and the other castes.
- To fight an election on the basis of caste and to cast votes on the same basis are the result of casteism.
- For the sake of the development of free democracy, political parties must be constituted on the basis of economic and political principles and thoughts. If these are formed on the basis of casteism, then principles and thoughts become intricate and conflicting.
- Caste-induced thoughts give margin to orthodoxy and as such, scientific and progressive outlooks cannot be developed.
- Because of casteist thoughts, industrial development and business suffer in a big way. o Casteism is against the values of freedom and equality.
- True democracy must be free from casteism and influences of terrorism, o Government does work efficiently under the compulsions of big, powerful social organizations.
- Casteism is against the democratic spirit.
- Casteism creates disintegration, divisions and wrong mentality in the society.
Communalism : Meaning and Definition:
When a religious, cultural and linguistic group or community consciously considers itself a separate class and puts political demands on the basis of religious and cultural grounds and gives priority to its demands over national and social interests, then it is termed communalism.All such emotions and activities come under communalism where the emphasis on the interests of a particular group is made on the basis of religion and language. These interests are given more priority than national interest and an outlook of separation is developed or encouraged.
Objectives of Communal Organisations:
- The objectives of communal organisations are to mount pressure on administration to obtain optimum power, dignity and political rights for their members.
Origin of Communalism:
- The problem of communalism in India is contemporary to the British Rule.
- British government’s “Divide and Rule” policy was the basis of communalism.
- The establishment and development of British imperialism in India was because of diplomatic moves of the British and also on account of political struggle between Hindus and Muslims.
- Communalism in India kept on growing because of policies of British government.
- British Government further increased this problem by introducing communal electoral process .
- In 1940, Mohd. Alijinnah presented two nation principle (theory) and at last in 1947, India was partitioned on the basis of communalism.
Causes of Problem of Communalism:
The problem of communalism in India has the following main reasons
- Bitter memories of partition
- Nurturing of feeling of separation by political parties for their vested interests.
- Economic and educational backwardness of Muslims
- Laxity of Government
- Pakistani propaganda and conspiracy
- Party politics, factional polities and electoral politics
- Policy of appeasement
- Foreign money
- Politics of Vote-Bank.
Bad Repercussions of Communalism:
Because of the problem of communalism, the country has to face many harmful repercussions, and out of these, main fallouts are:
- Societal splits, mutual ill-will and an atmosphere of distrust
- Economic loss due to communal riots.
- Loss of life during communal clashes and riots.
- Birth to political instability.
- Sabotage of national unity and spirit of brotherhood.
- Threat to national security
- Hindrance to industrial and economic development.
Suggestions to Remove Communalism:
The main suggestions to remove communalism are as follows :
- Governments should make efforts to establish a sense of equality in practical terms.
- There should be inclusion of eternal, moral and spiritual values in education.
- No special concessions or grants should be given to any faction of society on the basis of its religion.
- By discarding the policy of appeasement, government should formulate a uniform civil code.
- There must be a set of rules to restrict any party from seeking or campaigning for votes on the basis of religious lines .
- Hindi’ should be made a contact language of all and efforts to this end should be made by rising above political considerations
- All-religion congregations’ should be organized so that people get knowledge of tenets of other religions, and thereby there will be religious tolerance.
- No political party should be formed in the name of a particular religion.
Sachchar Committee Report, 2006:
- In order to study the social, economic and educational status of Indian Muslims and also to suggest measures to improve their conditions, a committee was constituted under the chairmanship of Rajendra Singh Sachchar.
- After studying the condition of Muslims, the Sachchar Committee gave some suggestions wherein there was a 15-schedule programme for the welfare and development of minorities and also concessions to Muslim girls on the top of its recommendations.
- The Indian constitution rejects reservation on the basis of religion.
Important Dates and Related Events:
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 24 Important Terms
- Caste : When a group is absolutely based on heredity, then it is called a caste. It is such a social group which regards itself aloof from others and which has it own characteristics. A member of such a group shall marry within his own community and has a traditional occupation.
- Castesim.: The spirit of intense cohesion towards a caste is called caste ism. That is to say that excessive attachment of a person towards his caste, nature of thinking quite distinct from other castes and the demeanour in administration and politics on the basis of a caste is called caste ism Political Science Refresher-12 (WK353)
- Community : A religious group within which certain characteristic of separate identity, expected mental dynamism or deceleration, blind faith and bigotry towards a set of doctrines exists, is called a community.
- Pressure group : A group of people having similar interests and pursuit is called pressure group, they exert pressure on the government to achieve their goals. Labour Union, ethnic association, business lobby, etc. are some examples.
- Union Administration : Union administration refers to government of a country or central government.
- Democracy : When the power of sovereignty rests in the public, then it is called democracy. In this arrangement, people or representatives of the people have the power of governance.
- Sovereignty : The power used on an individual in accordance with constitutional provisions is called sovereignty.
- Cabinet: It is the highest unit of Indian administration. Entire arrangement of administration is run by the cabinet. It is also called the heart of Indian administrative arrangement.
- Political Party : A political party is a group of people who work to fight election to get political power in governance.
- Reservation : For the downtrodden, marginalized and backward people or community owing to their victimization on discrimination, certain part of seats are reserved in ‘ government services and educational institutions. This policy is called reservation.
- Jai Prakash Narayan : He was a famous politician. According to him, “Caste is the most important party in India.”
- Rajendra Singh’ Sachchar : He was the Chairman of Sachchax Committee constituted to study social, economic and educational conditions of Indian Muslims and make suggestions for their improvement. He was a retired Judge.