Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 26 Terrorism, Criminalization of Politics and Corruption
- Terrorism basically is a fragmentationary trend which has deep rapport with other separatist and divisive tendencies.
- Terrorism is not a new political concept, but it has been present in some measure and form in all political systems since ancient times.
- Terrorism, communalism and separatism are linked to each other inseparably.
- India is one of the countries most affected by terrorism.
- Globally, Islamic terrorism is present before us as a great problem.
Meaning of Terrorism:
- In Latin language, terror means : to make tremble : to make someone tremble forcibly.
- It is a psychological attack. Its aims is to get a psychological result.
- When a person or a group, peacefully, non-violently puts forward its demands in a positive way, it is called a movement. .
- When a person or a group for his improper demand, negatively engages in violence, it is called terrorism.
- Generally, terrorism gets support on the basis of religion, caste, region and race, but it fails to get support in a democratic system due to its non-democratic nature.
- In modem world, fear is the main base of so-called totalitarian regimes.
- The main aim of terrorists is to grab power by removing a smoothly functioning regime, forcefully.
- After the end of cold-war, terrorism has become a great danger to the world.
- In common behavior, terrorism becomes a weapon of poor against the powerful, and sometimes, a weapon of religious defense.
History of Terrorism:
- In the entire history of human civilization, terror has been used several times to get power.
- Historically, in autocratic societies, terror has been used as a weapon to make people accept slavery and submission.
- The Mongols and Taimur Lane, by using terror and fear, compelled large empires to kneel down.
- From 1st century Jewish extremists to 11 to 13th centuries ‘Ismaili Assassins’, killers can be counted in this category.
- In each era of human history, terrorism has been related with religion.
- Terrorism has replaced guerilla warfare in the modem era.
Global Scenario of Terrorism:
- First, USA called the organizations, like Taliban, fighters for people’s Liberation. Later on, after the incident of 9/11, the US became its great enemy.
- America created the demon of Taliban in opposition to the former Soviet Union. But after two decades that demon turned against the US.
- a After the 9/11 incidents, the U.S.A attacked the sovereign nations of Iraq and Afghanistan and waged a war against terrorism.
- The USA and its affiliates believe that it is terrorism to keep destructive weapons and to promote violent acts in its support. From this point of view, the countries which give shelter to such terrorist organisations, are being identified and isolated.
- Terrorism is not only a technique of violence and not only an art to kill someone, but also a concept.
- Terrorism has not been a local problem, its effect is not confined to a certain region. Its current diversified forms make it a fully global structure.
- The Taliban, A1 Qaida, LTTE, ISIS, Khalistan Commando Force, etc. are the terrorist organizations which have been associated with multinational cartels. These cartels are of two types- drug smuggling and other is weapons making.
- It is the strategy of terrorism to create panic among the masses through violence, to take advantage of power gained through fear, and to raise its demands.
Fanaticism and Terrorism:
- The tendency to treat terrorism as being related to religion has long been a subject of controversy.
- Terrorists have no sense of devotion to any particular faction. Instead, they have a dedication to a particular community and commitment towards the community, which is the main trend of Islamic terrorism.
- Jehadi martyrdom riddled by unlimited violence and destruction in the name of Allah and carrying out ruthless killings has become a feature of terrorism.
Nature of Terrorism:
Terrorism mainly has three characters :
- Terrorist group
- Anti-government / anarchical groups
- Government. Other governments of other countries and other terrorists groups are its spectators.
Terrorism in India:
- The Sikh terrorism in the last two decades of last century in India; Islamic terrorism of Jammu and Kashmir can be included in the definition of terrorism. Currently extremism is present in various states of north east.
- In addition to many local terrorists organizations in Jammu and Kashmir state of India, an educated foreign terrorist organization is also active supported by Pakistani.
- In India, 38 terrorist organizations have been banned under the Unauthorised Activities Act till the year 2016.
- The nature of active terrorist organizations in India is not similar.
- In India, north-eastern states, especially border states, Jammu-Kashmir, Assam, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Bihar, Bengal and Maharashtra, etc. have active terrorist groups.
- In Kashmir, militant groups get more support for religious reasons.
- Terrorism has resorted to religious fundamentalism, both in Punjab and Jammu & Kashmir.
- In Punjab, terrorists targeted the innocent citizens for assassination and the same militants in Kashmir have made it their target to harm army and other security forces.
- A major terrorist incident took place in Mumbai on March 12, 1993, in which 317 innocent people were killed in a series of bomb blasts. In this incident criminals, gangsters, Muslim fanatics and foreign agencies played a leading role. Basically, it was a terrorist activity.
- The nature of terrorist activities of Naxalite terrorist groups of Jharkhand, Bihar, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh is different from the strategy of separatist groups.
Indian States Affected by Terrorism and naxalism:
- The Indian states affected by terrorism and Naxalism are-Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, etc.
Social Background of Terrorists:
- In India, the people included in terrorist activity have different backgrounds. In it, the youth from upper and middle classes and fanatic poor class are included.
Target of Terrorist Action:
- The main targets of terrorist actions are attacks on major business centres and institutions, taking the responsibility of these attacks and to get profit from the power so derived.
Psychological Element of Terrorism:
- Terrorism is a strategy which is based on the psychological effect of fear. Under this activity terrorists influence the spectators.
Terrorism And Media Coverage:
- Terrorism flourishes under high media coverage. Terrorism and media has a complex relation and this relationship develops through the synthetic process.
- Generally there are two aims of actions of terrorist groups: (i) To attract sources of media through violence (ii) creating an atmosphere of fear and terror.
- Through these two ways, terrorists apply pressure on government for the fulfilment of their demands.
Drawbacks of Excessive Media Coverage of Terrorist Incident:
- Excessive media coverage glorifies terrorism and encourages to the creation of more such organizations. It has adverse effect on the efficiency of the administration.
- It provides a forum for terrorist groups to air their political demands.
Criminalization of Politics:
- Criminalization of Indian politics is such a phenomenon which has derailed Indian democracy.
- Bad influence of muscle and arsenal in elections has corrupted the whole democratic system.
- In election process, reformative steps have been taken to reduce corruption. Use of EVM machines, Videography of sensitive booths, appointment of fair election observers, implementation of election code of conduct, etc. positive measures have also been taken.
Meaning of the criminalization of Politics:
- In this tendency, people of criminal background directly or indirectly affect the political process.
- Taking help from criminals to enter into politics, to use them from time to time to remain in power or to get power is called the criminalization of politics.
- In India, the tendency to take politics as a profitable business leads to political criminalization.
- There is more potential for criminalisation in party politics because the way in which a party comes to power is possible only through elections.
- The reason for corruption in electoral politics is the collusion between criminals and politicians. Both of them work with the motivation to benefit from each other, inspired by their vested interests
Reasons for the Criminalization of Politics:
The main reasons are:
- Decline of the national character.
- Poverty, unemployment and lack of education.
- Lack of patriotic feeling.
- Illegal connection among police, politicians, criminals and bureaucrats.
- Mismanagement in introducing laws effectively.
- Party politics and greed to get more power.
- Drawbacks in election system.
- Mixture of wealth, power and politics.
- Effect of criminal elements in society, etc.
Present Scenario of Indian Politics:
- 34 percent of the 16th Lok Sabha members are of criminal background. Criminal cases are registered against them and are under consideration. This data has been collected by the Democratic Reforms Union in the election commission by analyzing sworn affidavits.
- Political criminalisation can be understood through two meanings. Narrow meaning implies direct interference of criminals in Parliament and Legislative assemblies. Wide meaning is related with direct or indirect interference by criminals in electoral politics and the government.
- Close relationship between political and criminal elements ignites chaos and violent activities in the country.
Measure to Stop criminalisation of Politics:
Many steps can be taken to stop criminalisation in politics:
- Developing internal democracy and accountability in political parties.
- Making legislation for the working of the political parties and their conduct.
- Prevent criminal elements from contesting elections by quick court decisions.
- Fair and transparent formation of election commission.
- A committee was constituted under the chairmanship of M.N. Vohra by the government to study the seriousness of the criminalisation of Indian politics.
- The criminalisation of politics can be reduced only by the active participation of the judiciary, police, election commission, bureaucracy and honest people in the electoral process of the country.
- Having received protection from local leaders of the Mafia gangs, politicians have started to take advantage illegally.
- It means a conduct which is immoral and improper from any angle.
- When a person starts misusing the valid rules of judicial system in order to fulfil his selfish motives, then the person is called corrupt.
Laws to Check Corruption:
- To check it ‘Corruption Prevention Act’ is most important. Responsibility of the effective execution of this law is given to Corruption Prevention Bureau.
- The officers of this bureau take immediate action, arrest the guilty, and take legal action against them.
- The government has also decided that in any case, the accused officer will not be appointed to important posts of the area.
- The Bureau of Investigation and the Commissions of inspection and audit, etc also work effectively to curb corruption.
Result of Corruption:
- Due to corruption, the able and sincere people do not get fair opportunity. Economic inequality grows in the society.
- Due to corruption, black money increases and the economic condition of the country becomes paralysed.
- The corruption, which grows at high rungs, makes lower-level employees weak and lukewarm.
Measure to Check Corruption:
- To check corruption, the common people should be more aware about government rules, reactions and activities.
- The culprit should be punished by quick legal action.
Impact of Demonetization:
- To check corruption and to make counterfeit currency useless in different parts of India, Prime Minister Narendra Modi took a historical step on November 8, 2016 and demonetised the notes of 500 and 1000.
- Control of the problem of black money will be established and on the other hand, it will help control terrorist activities in India, because terrorists were carrying out terror activities in the every comer of the country with the help of fake currency.
Important Dates and Related Events:
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 26 Important Terms
- Politics : A system to solve public problems. In ancient times, the technique to get power and to maintain it was called politics.
- Corruption : Its Meaning : An immoral, illegitimate practice by any person or organizationwhich provides profit improperly, neglecting the law, and which, in exchange gives wealth and facilities by harming public interest is called corruption. .
- Corrupted : When a person for his selfish needs disobeys judicial law and shows bad conduct, he is called a corrupted person.
- Movement: When a person or a group tries positively with peace and non-violence to fulfil just demands, is known as movement.
- Khalistan : Some years ago in Punjab, some armed insurgents advocated to create a separatecountry called Khalistan. The supporters of Khalistan had relation with Sri Lankan terrorist group, LTTE. .
- Cold War : It suggests a situation when the atmosphere between two or more countries is full of tension but there is no war actually. This kind of situation existed between U.S.A. and the former Soviet Union, after second World War.
- Foreign Policy : It means a policy which is adopted by a country vis-a-vis other countries. The policy which is implemented to establish relations with other countries is called foreign policy.
- ISIS : A dangerous pro-Islamic terrorist group. ISIS stands for “Islamic State of Iraq and Syria”.
- Multinational Company : A company which has its control and ownership on the production in more than one country.
- LTTE : Its full name was Liberation Tigers of Tamil Ealam. After 1983, it was the organization of violent Tamils which had been active in Sri Lanka.lt struggled with Sri Lankan army for a separate country of Sri Lankan Tamils. Khalistanis, Naxalites and People’s War Group had relations with LTTE.
- Colonialism : This is the ideology that inspired the powerful nations to establish their dominion over other nations arid exploit their economic and natural resources in their own interests. For example, India was a British colony before independence.
- EVM : Its full name is Electronic Voting Machine. In the current elections, such machines are being used.
- Political criminalisation : For entering into politics and to get power and to remain in power, politicians often take help of criminals. This is called political criminalisation.
- NOTA : It means ‘None of the Above’ It’s a button in EVM. If a voter does not like any candidate, he may press NOTA button.
- ISI: It’s Pakistan’s secret agency. Its full name is Inter Services Intelligence. It helps terrorists in Kashmir.
- Bureaucracy : A special organisation of skilled, trained and dutiful employees. It is also called a permanent executive or administration.
- Demonetization : When black money increases and becomes a threat to economy, the method of demonetization is adopted. In it, the government puts the old currency out of circulation and introduces new currency. Those who have black money do not dare to exchange the black money, and black money gets destroyed automatically.
- Lokayukta : It is an institution which solves the people’s complaints against administrative officers on central and state level. He is appointed for five years.
- M.N. Vohra : Under his presidentship, a committee was constituted to check the seriousness of the issue of criminalisation of politics.