Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 27 Politics of Alliance
Origin of Alliance Politics:
- One party remains the major one in alliance of Indian politics.
- The parties included in alliance decide the minimum common programme acceptable in all constituents of the alliance, and which are not opposed by the parties included in alliance.
- On the bases of joint programmes by several parties, an allinace is formed.
- In the first three elections of Lok Sabha, Congress was dominant. Congress became a majority in the states.
- In the fourth general election of February 1969, Congress lost majority in many states.
- In 1977, Janta Party made its government in centre.
- From 11th to 15th Lok Sabha, no Indian party got a majority in Lok Sabha.
- In May 1996, the government of Late Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee could survive only 13 days.
- Gradually, in Indian politics, two important alliances came into being :
- National Democratic Alliance (N D A) in the leadership of BJP.
- United Progressive Alliance (U P A) in the leadership of Congress.
- In the general election of 1977, Congress lost majority in centre, and in the leadership of Morarji Desai, Janta Party’s alliance government was formed.
- Single party rule of Congress remained from of 1980 to 1989.
- In December 1989, in the leadership of V.P. Singh, Janata Dal made its government with the support of Leftist parties and BJP.
History of Alliance Government:
- The consequence of 12 th Lok Sabha elections was also a fragmented mandate, on the basis of being the largest party, BJP leader Late Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee was invited for the post of P.M.
- After the election of 13th Lok Sabha, in the leadership of Atal Bihar Vajpayee, alliance government of more that 20 parties was formed.
- After the election of 14th Lok Sabha, in the leadership of Dr. Manmohan Singh, alliance government of almost 20 parties was formed, while the the left gave external support.
- Coalition politics has a tendency of defection.
- In the election of 16th Lok Sabha, BJP got clear majority, yet in the formation of new government alliance parties were included in the cabinet.
- In the election of 16th Lok Sabha, N.D.A. alliance under the leadership of BJP got 336 seats and alliance of UPA government got only 59 seats.
- After 1984, first time in Lok Sabha election of 2014, only a single party (BJP) got full majority.
Political Characteristics of Alliance Government:
Following are the characteristics :
- Prominence of one party in coalition.
- Lack of conceptional equality in alliance.
- No permanency in alliance.
- Lack of clear thinking in coalition due to lack of isolation.
- Coalition on the bases of leaders rather than parties and principles.
- Defection trends.
- Political alliance formed on the basis of prohibition.
- Politics of pressure.
Reasons for the Formation of Coalition Government:
- India has a multi-party system, which results in more probability for any party not getting a clear majority.
- The creation and operation of parliamentary rule without majority is not feasible, therefore the practice of forming coalition government in politics has increased, o Even after getting majority in the 16th Lok Sabha, the government of BJP formed a coalition government.
- Hundreds of political parties have been formed on the basis of class interests.
- Political parties have been involved in the alliance to the tune of 20 to 24 political outfits. At present, politics of coalition has been a lasting element of Indian politics.
Positive aspect of Coalition Politics (Advantages):
Following are the advantages :
- Governance is not autocratic.
- Profit to nation by contribution of more able persons.
- Formation of powerful opposition.
- Wide public support.
- Freedom from extremist attitude etc.
Negative Aspect of Coalition Politics (Disadvantages):
Following are the disadvantageous aspects :
- Formation of temporary government
- Fear of theory of collective responsibility; getting weak.
- Weak government
- Prime Minister’s limited role
- Instability of government
- Increasing effect of local parties
- Loss of national unity.
- Lack of the rhythm in different ministries of the government.
- Lack of powerful foreign policy.
- Government’s inability to work on a clear policy.
- Encouragement to the formation of small political parties.
Political Parties’ Groups in Indian Politics:
There are three streams :
- National Democratic Alliance (NDA)
- United Progressive Alliance (UPA)
- The Left Political Parties
- The biggest NDA party is BJP while Congress in the biggest party of UPA.
Important Dates and Related Events:
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 27 Important Terms
- House of Representatives : In India, Lok Sabha is the house of representatives. Its members are directly elected by people. So it is called house of public’s representative.
- Alliance : This is also called a front when many parties in the multi-party system combine to join hands in exercising power. This arrangement is called coalition.
- Politics of alliance : Coalition is built on the basis of minimum common programme by many parties. Political parties conduct political activities on its basis. At present, this is called politics of alliance.
- National Democratic Alliance : In short it is called NDA. In 2014’s Lok Sabha election, this alliance got 336 seats. At present, under the leadership of Narendra Modi, this alliance formed govt, in centre.
- United Progressive Alliance : In short it is UPA. In 2014 this alliance got 59 seats. From 2004 to 2014, this alliance formed government in Centre under the leadership of Manmohan Singh.
- Congress : This political party, formed in 1885, its full name is Indian National Congress. In the period from 2004 to 2014 under the leadership of Manmohan Singh, it formed the government at centre.
- Defection : When a public representative wins the election by taking a symbol of a particularparty and wins the election and joins other party for his selfish interests or for some other reason. This is called defection.
- Tendency of Aaya Ram and Gaya Ram : This is a suitable description of defection. This word first of all, was used in 1967. This remark is associated with a Congress M.L.A. of Haryana who became a M L A on Congress party’s ticket. He set a record by changing his party affiliations three times in 15 days’ period.
- V.P. Singh : Became P.M. on December 2, 1989. He had been the C.M. of U.P. and defence minister of the country. By highlighting the Bofors Case, he got victory for Janata Dal in 1999 Lok Sabha election.
- Chandra Shekhar : After the decline of V.P. Singh’s government in centre in 1990, hebecame the P.M. of the country. Famous as a young Turk. He had been the president of Janata Party and remained its M.P.
- Atal Bihari Vajpayee : Leader of BJP. He became the P.M. on May 16, 1996. He was awarded the Bharat Ratna. He died on August 16, 2018.
- Jai Prakash Narayan : Sarvodaya leader, famous as Loknayak whose active cooperation helped in founding Janata Party; in the election of 1977 of Lok Sabha this party defeated Congress. Bihar’s JD(U) Party believes on the principles of this party.