Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 28 Main Characteristics of Indian Foreign Policy and Non-Alignment
Indian Foreign Policy:
- Indian foreign policy has always been supporter of peaceful co-existence.
- Peace and co-existence are the next step of Indian culture basic philosophy, ‘live and let others live’, which give important directions to internal and external policy of the nation.
- After second world war especially after independence, India opposed colonialism and imperialism.
- It has been a major feature of Indian foreign policy to resist discrimination, on the basis of race and color of the human beings in the world.
- Indian claim of permanent membership in united nations security council and rise to international status, is , the indicator of the success of Indian foreign policy.
- Based on the five principles of conduct, Indian foreign policy of ‘Panchsheel’ was adopted with China in beginning and in future with other nations.
- Breaking of international relations with apartheid South African government indicates the humane side of Indian foreign policy.
Non-Alignment in Indian Foreign Policy:
- Our foreign policy has a special relationship with the principle of non-alignment.
- Non-alignment means not allying with any power group in the world, while maintaining equally cordial relations with all countries.
- The leaders of the Non-alignment Movement were Pandit Jawahar Lai Nehru of India, Joseph Broz Tito of Yugoslavia and Gamel Abdul Nasser of Egypt.
- The summit of the 17th Non-alined Movement was held from September 17 to September 18, 2016, in Margrita city of Venezuela.
- Political scientists believe that the policy of non-alignment was born due to the division of the world into two power blocs during cold war. One was led by the USA and the other by Soviet Union.
- Non-alignment policy is a policy that emphasizes the pursuit of independent policy in world politics.
- Non-alignment policy allocates adoption of absolute non-biased, independent and objective approach on all serious international problems.
- This policy is not a policy of neutralism, but it is a free policy independent of the complex factional effect of world politics.
- This policy favors peaceful settlement of international disputes.
- This policy is favored to make objective decision by evaluating the properties of international problems on the basis of merits and demerits.
- It is not a policy to be separated from the complexities of international politics, but it is a policy of meaningful contribution in global relations.
- The principle of non-alignment emphasizes the balance between opposing groups.
- India considers the pursuit of independent policy (which is free from influence of other powers) in international politics more useful to her.
The Relevance of the Non-alignment Movement in the Current Context:
- The non-alignment movement has many achievements to its credit in the period of more than 50 years. Its main achievement is the end of colonialism and imperialism, as a result of which, many countries of Asia and Africa could achieve independence.
- Non-alignment movement aims to promote unity and cooperation among budding nations and presenting their views on the world stage, staying away from groups has done important work towards reducing the regional conflicts and encouraging world peace.
- The non-aligned movement has worked as a forum for cooperation and unity among the developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America.
- There is a need for economic, social and political cooperation among developing countries and this cooperation is known as South-cooperation.
- 17 Summits have been organized till the present time of non-aligned countries.
- The 17th Summit was held recently on 17 and 18 September, 2016 in Margarita, Venezuela. Peace, sovereignty and support of development have been given main emphasis in this conference of this confluence.
- The non-alignment movement is effective to face today’s world challenges .
- Non-aligned movements is a platform that provides equal participation for developing counties of the world through which they can effectively face the world’s main challenges such as safety, environment, pollution, health problems, etc.
- There is a need to give more effective representation to developing countries in different organizations of the world.
- This movement is also useful for exchange of cultural, social and political values among the various countries of the world.
The Non-alignment Movement and Present Government:
- India was also included in the major founding countries of the non-aligned movement and it became move relevant as countries from different background like Singapore to Cuba, being its members.
- India is the most affected country by terrorism and the non-alignment movement provides an appropriate platform for isolating Pakistan on the issue of terrorism.
- India has been working for many years to become a permanent member of the UN security council and this requires continuation of the support of non-aligned countries.
- In view of the kind of foreign policy, India is pursuing, the non-alignment policy still has the same importance as it was at the time of the establishment of this organization .
New Dimensions of Indian Foreign Policy:
- The main basis of Indian foreign policy is liberal reform in economic area.
- India is a fast emerging economy in the world.
- There is a certain character and continuity of foreign policy. No change is seen in it any time.
- Indian foreign policy is so stable that hardly any change takes place in it with the change of government.
- The main aim of Indian foreign policy is to establish a safe and stable global environment, so that economic development may be continuous .
- Under the leadership of Narendra Modi’s government, according to the tradition of ‘Vasudhaiv Kutumbhkam’ gives stress to follow a peace-promoting and mutually constructive foreign policy.
- Modi government is alert from the increasing power of China in Asia and in world. To make India a strong nation, it wants to give stress on reform, corruption free economy, complexity of red tapism and structural reforms.
Beginning of New Foreign Policy:
- Three main points associated with Modi government’s foreign policy are : Trade, culture and contact.
- Demonetization would be helpful to decide the direction of Indian foreign policy, because it is a new initiative to improve the economic system of India.
Five Basis Principles:
- Encouragement to economic prosperity, growth in Indian international prestige, support to national security and encouragement for preservation of Indian rich culture and civilization for its global recognition are the five basic principles that inspire foreign policy of our government.
Neighbourhood Initiative Policy:
- After becoming P.M., Narendra Modi, to give new direction to Indian foreign policy, has adopted the neighbour first policy. He started a new chapter of foreign policy by visiting neighbouring countries.
- By calling the leaders of all SAARC countries including Mauritius in oath taking ceremony, India has presented a unique example to establish close relations with its neighboring countries.
- A treaty of hydroelectricity project was signed with Nepal. A project of India and Bhutan, 600 MW Khologenchu hydroelectricity project was started. In Afghanistan, all Indian projects were completed in time and after 4 years Colombo Jaffna train contact was re-opened with the cooperation of India.
- When Maldives was under heavy crisis, then India was the first country to send water through ships and aeroplanes under ‘Operation Neer’.
- After earthquake incident in Nepal, India was first to help with its resources and equipment.
- The policy which was known earlier as ‘Look East’, now is known as ‘Act East’ in Modi rule.
- The P.M. has traveled to Japan, Australia, Singapore and China, while foreign minister Sushma Sawaij has travelled to Singapore, Vietnam, China and Indonesia.
Indian Middle East Policy:
- Religious and Islamic orthodoxy was started in India through the Islamic countries of middle east and Afghnistan and Pakistan.
- In the age of technological globalization, in the middle east, mediaval Islamic conception is in the fashion which incites Muslims to be strong and prosperous.
- In middle east countries of Muslims influence, while the Sunni ideology is prevalent in SaudiArabia and Iraq, but, Shia concept is dominant in Iran. ,
- Almost all the gulf countries produce mineral oil and that is why their economy is strong due to export of crude petroleum.
- In importing the Islamic orthodoxy into India, the role of those 70 lac people have been indirect who have remained under influence of Islam in Arab countries
- In India traditionally the liberal population of Muslims live and the middle-east conception of orthodoxy remained responsible to taking them towards Islamic orthodoxy.
- India has made a big investment in Chabahar port of Iran.
- The fulfilment of Indian energy needs depends upon the middle east countries in which Iran is important.
- India is’ the third biggest oil-importing country. India is dependent on gulf countries for the fulfilment of oil need.
- India has purchased military hardware to the tune of 3 billion American dollars from Israel.
India, Russia, European countries and USA:
- India and Russia have been traditional friends. India purchases military equipments from Russia.
- In changed political situation, it has become imperative for India to establish relations with USA, Germany and France.
Important Dates and Related Events:
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 28 Important Terms
- Foreign Policy : It is the policy which is adopted by a country against other countries. Thus, to establish the relations with other countries, whatever policies are adopted are called foreign policy.
- Colonialism : Colonialism the policy by which any foreign power by establishing its political power on a country for more progress, exploits the resources of that country.
- Imperialism : For the fulfilment of its interests by a country and establishment of dominance on other countries and later on establishment of rule on those countries.
- Apartheid : Apartheid was the active discrimination with people on basis of their colour and race, practised by South Africa in the later half of the 20th century.
- Panchsheel’s Principles : It means the five principles of international conduct. These principles gave a new basis to Indian foreign policy. For these principles, the word ‘Panchsheel’ was first used on April 24, 1954. The five principles of Panchsheed are very important for establishment of lasting peace in the world.
- UNO : Established on October 24, 1945, the chief aim of this organisation is to maintain international peace and cooperation. This organization has a number of organs. It headquarters is in New York.
- International Monitary Fund : Established on December 27,1945 in Washington (USA), the chief aim of this organization is to establish monitary cooperation. In reality, it started working on March 1, 1947, and its other offices are in Paris and Geneva.
- Environmental Pollution : Any change in environment which causes decline in its quality.
- Zero Tolerance against Terrorism : Present foreign policy of Indian government is the policy of zero tolerance towards terrorism. It means India is fully against the terrorism and does not condone it in any form, at any place, and is fully committed to end terrorism.
- Red Tapism : Without paying attention towards the particular situation, obeying the rules ofadministrative process mechanically, delaying the responsibilities of decision in rule, laws and formalities showing incapabilities in these process, delaying administrative and public needs, is called red tapism. .
- The Policy of Look East : The Policy adopted by India government in 2014. Through it, economic relations of East Asian countries increased with India.
- The Policy of Act East: In place of look east, this policy adopted by P.M. Narendra Modi proved helpful in making stronger mutually beneficial relations with East Asia countries in economically dynamic areas.
- Gulf countries : Important countries in the Gulf region are known as gulf countries. In it Saudi Arab, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, UAE, Qatar, etc. are included. Mineral oil is exported to India from these countries.