Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 3 Religion
- Religion is the extension of divinity and spirituality that is already prevalent in a man.
- Atharvaveda has been accepted as the basic authority to carry or operate religion.
- In most of the countries of the world, secularism has been accepted as a policy in its political system.
- Historically, many religions originated and developed in different parts of the world according to time, place and culture.
- Change in time, place, culture and spiritual condition also leads to change in religion.
Meaning of Religion:
- At present time, efforts are being made to establish unity in different religions and faiths.
- Religion has always been an important concept in Indian culture and philosophy.
- In the western world , there has also been an unbroken connection between religion and politics.
- Religion is originated in eastern culture first.
- At first the process of thinking and careful study was begun in developed culture.
- In India, it is recognized in the sense of duty, non-violence, justice, good conduct and virtue.
- The wisdom of man encourages him to know the best and to do the best. This is the religion of the person i.e. Swadharma.
- Religion is universally considered sacred, but holiness of religion is relative.
- The main reason of social religion provides the basis for binding all human activities in one cord.
Religion and Secularism:
- Secularism means there should not be any discrimination against any people in term of religion.
- Secularism has a constitutional status in India. .
- he life-style of our country is not associated with the communalism even though it is under the influence of religion since ancient times.
Religion and Morality:
- The main goal of religion is to serve human beings. Religion makes us pure and teaches us to stay away from evil and it shows the path of goodness.
- In religion, not only morality but the physical properties of moral responsibility, nature and human relations and the behavior of human beings and animals have also been embedded.
Religion and Politics:
- There is a deep relation between religion and politics from ancient time but when religion and politics have negatively been connected, at that point of time politics has misused religion.
- For the misuse of religion few scholars like Bertrand Russell and E.M Foster have criticized religion a lot because religion has always caused bloodshed in the world which continues today. The basic principle of politics is to rule by policy.
- Niti (Policy) is a concept which is nurtured by moral values and the best religions conventions.
- When religion is dominated by selfish tendency, then it misdirects a person from his goal. Religion is a personal and
- private affair and any coercion of it by external force is fatal to humanity. Rational amalgamation of religion and politics is a source of human welfare; and its irrational blend destroys the both.
- Religion and politics have their distinct fields, but their origin is same. Policy-laced religion and religion-laced politics are inevitable for world peace.
Religion and Non-Violence:
- Religion and non-violence coordinate together. The main elements of both non-violence and religion are forgiveness, mercy, compassion, truth, and honesty.
Religion and Nationality:
- Religious and good conduct of religion is possible only when the person changes his mind. Whatever our religion may be or whatever system we believe, our country and nation is above all. Any religion, faith, belief or language cannot be above from our country or nation.
The Concept of Religion in Indian Culture:
- Religion is the main concept of Indian culture and philosophy.
- In Indian culture, religion has different meanings like duty, non-violence, justice, virtue, moral conduct etc.
- In India, the relation of religion is to be austerity or mannerism, whose goal is the bloom of soul.
- In the Gita, all religions are acknowledged in the form of appropriate path of Bhakti (devotion).
- Manu has detailed ten features of religion in Manu Smriti, which are patience, pardon, no hoarding, no theft, cleanliness, control over senses, intellect, knowledge, truth, no anger.
Christian Concept of Reigion:
- Christian religion is monotheist, which was originated by Jesus Christ at about 2016 years ago.
- Christian religion has the maximum number of followers in the context of world population. The basic doctrine of this religion is emphasis on non-violence.
Concept of Religion in Islam:
- Islam is one of the latest religions. The advent of Islam religion came into being in AD 622, by Mohammad Pegambar. In view of geographical map, Islam has its dominance over central part of the Globe.
- The glimpses of religion in politics and politics in religion are candidly visible in all countries having Islamic culture.
- In Islamic states, there is near drought of democratic governance and values.
- Religion is a faith and belief. Indian culture has a deep rapport with it.
- In Indian culture, the fundamental base of social and cultural activities has been ‘religion’.
- The foundation of secular state of India is based on religious tolerance, religious goodwill and morality. There in no place of violence here.
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 3 Important terms:
- Religion : So far as religion is concerned; it is used in different cultures and countries in different meanings. In India, it is recognized in the sense of duty, non- violence, justice, good conduct and virtue.
- Culture : The ideas, customs, and social behavior of a particular people or society is called culture.
- Politics : The activities associated with the governance of a country is politics.
- Gita : Hindu scripture in Sanskrit. It is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata.
- Islam : Islam is a monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God (Allah) and Muhammad is the messenger of God.
- Christianity : Christinaty is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life, teachings, and miracles of Jesus Christ.
- Budhism : Budhism is a religion largely based on original teachings of Buddha.
- Jain : Traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion. Followers of Jainism are called “Jains”.
- Mahabharat : Mahabharat is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India.
- Ramayan : Ramayan is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.
- Secularism : Secularism means there should be no discrimination against any person of any religion.
- Non-Violence : The basic elements of non-violence are- forgiveness, mercy, compassion, truth and honesty.
- Dr Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan : He was a philosopher and statesman who was the first Vice- President of India (1952-1962) and the second President of India from 1962 to 1967.
- Swami Vivekananda : He was an Indian Hindu monk, a chief disciple of Ramakrishna Paramhans. He was a key figure in the introduction of the Indian philosophies of Vedanta and Yoga to the Western world.
- Ram Manohar Lohia : He was an activist for the Indian independence movement and a socialist political leader.
- Maithilisharan Gupta : He was one of the most important modem Hindi poets. He is considered the National Poet.
- Mohammad Paigamber : He was the founder of Islam. He founded it in 622 AD. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet and God’s messenger.
- Confucius : He was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher.
- Martin Luther : He was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, and monk. He was against the theory of Pope. As per his principles man can reach to God by his belief and devotion and not by his deeds.
- Guru Nanak : Found of Sikh religion. He is regarded as the first ‘Gum’ of Sikh religion.
- B. Russel : Famous philosopher of England. He was awarded the Noble Prize.
- E.M. Foster : A famous foreign writer who wrote a lot about India. Twenty three years after the publication of his book ‘A Passage to India’ the Britishers were forced to make India free.