Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 30 India’s Relations with Neighbouring Countries (Pakistan, China & Nepal)
Since beginning, it has been the aim of Indian foreign policy to maintain cordial peaceful and friendly relations with neighbouring countries, but India’s relations with China, Nepal and Pakistan are sensitive because of certain reasons. For mutual friendly relations, the agreement of both parties is a pre-condition.
- The partition of India and Pakistan has sown the seeds of hatred, distrust and enmity between both the two communities, Hindus and Muslims.
- Since its birth, Pakistan has started a continuous state of conflict in Asian continent by creating discord.
Problems Influencing India-Pak Relations:
These are mainly three causes of tension in Indo-Pak relations.
- Problems originated from the partition.
- Crusade against India, and open support to terrorism.
- Creating anti India groups by Pakistan.
- Due to tension between India-Pak, defence expenditure is increasing.
- For example, India and Pakistan are spending 2.9% and 4.7% of their GDP respectively.
- Pakistan is spending 8% of its GDP on its anti-India crusade and over the activities associated with terrorism. Consequentely, for the security of Siachin, India has to spend nine thousand crores rupees each year.
Problem Caused by Partition:
- Since the time of partition, there have been many instances of dispute between India and Pakistan, such as-Hyderabad dispute, Junagarh dispute, loan payment issue, river-water dispute, refugee issue and the Kashmir dispute.
- The most complicated problem between India and Pakistan is the problem of Kashmir. At the time independence, British government had declared that native Indian states can cede to India or Pakistan according to their wish. Most of the states problems were solved, but Kashmir’s problem was very complex.
- Kashmir’s majority population was, Muslim and the king was Hindu. No immediate decision was taken by the king. On October 22, 1947, from the north west province of Pakistan, in the guise of tribals (Kabaylies), Pakistani army attacked Kashmir. The king begged for help and in return agreed to merge Kashmir in India.
- India sent the army for help and after the end of the war, under a UN-sponsored plebiscite, Kashmir became an integral part of India.
- On January 1, 1948 the Indian government complained to security council and the council, to solve the problem, appointed a united nations commission comprising of five nations- Czechoslovalda, Argentina, USA, Columbia, and Belgium.
Role of UNA:
- On August 13, 1948, UNO presented different bases to stop the Indo-Pak conflict and subsequent agreement.
- With the efforts of this commission, on January 1, 1949, the war ended and a line of control was decided between the both countries. Pakistan got 32000 sq. mile area from Kashmir, whereas 53000 sq. mile area came to India.
Kashmir Dispute is Permanent between India and Pak:
- Pakistan was not prepared to allow the majority Muslim population of Kashmir valley to live with rest of the country (India) in the democratic secular way. This is why Pakistan has made the issue more complicated.
Special Right to Kashmir:
- The then king of Jammu and Kashmir, Hari Singh, on October 26, 1947, signed on a merger letter to cede Jammu and Kashmir in Indian Union.
- Under article 370, Jammu and Kashmir made its separate constitution, except for the strategic sensitivity and the security of the nation, other subjects were granted to the state. This provision was made to diffuse the contemporary situation, but in fact, the discontent could not be removed and hence remains the issue of dispute.
Kashmir Problem and Secular and Emotional Issue:
- Jammu and Kashmir is the highest sensitive area of India-China frontier. .
- Kashmir dispute is not confined to the disputed area only, but a yardstick of secularism while being an integral part of India.
- The central government cannot overlook Hindus’s exploitation and migration from Jammu and Kashmir state.
Indo-Pak War of 1965:
- War broke out between India and Pakistan over the disputed Rann of Kutch in April 1965.
- On September 22, 1965 on the proposal of security council, both the countries stopped the war and during the war India got hold of 750 square mile area of Pakistani territory.
- On January 10, 1966 with the effort of Soviet Union, Tashkent agreement was signed between Indian P.M. Lai Bahadur Shastri and Pakistan’s. Ayub Khan.
Indo-Pak War of 1971 and Shimla Agreement:
- Pakistan had to face a crushing defeat. In this war Bangladesh came into being by seccession of East Pakistan.
- On July 3, 1972 the historic Shimla agreement was signed between India and Pakistan, following its peace policy, Indian returned the land part of 5139 square km area to Pakistan.
Encouragement to Terrorism by Pakistan:
- Pakistan has always violated the Shimla agreement and the decorum of international diplomacy.
- By establishing its friendship with China, Pakistan is still supporting terrorists and sponsoring their illegal entry across India’s borders.
Indo – Pak Relations: Efforts to Improve the Relations:
- India has always been making efforts to make the relation normal. Tashkent and Shimla agreements were the efforts made in this direction.
- On April 14, 1978 a treaty between India and Pakistan was signed about Salal hydroelectricity project. , ‘
- Indian P.M. Atal Bihari Bajpai inaugurated the Delhi-Lahore-Delhi bus service in February 1999, which was historic initiative.
Talk After Talk, Result Zero:
- On July, 15, 16 of July, 2010 talks were held in Pakistan between foreign ministers of India and Pakistan, which remained inconclusive.
- On September 29, 2013, Indian P.M. Dr. Manmohan Singh met Pakistan’s P.M. Nawaz Sharif.
India’s New Government’s Positive Initiative:
- Pakistan is still spreading terrorism and illegal entry across Indian borders.
- In May 26, 2014, the newly-elected Indian P.M. Narendra Modi invited the then Pakistan’s P.M. Nawaz Sharif to his oath-taking ceremony and it was felt that the talks would start. But Pakistan’s attitude destroyed all expectations.
- On January 2, 2016, by making armed attack on Pathankot, Pakistan again sponsored illegal entry of terrorists in Kashmir.
India’s Zero Tolerance Policy:
- Pakistan is still continuously indulging in and supporting terrorist’s activities and illegal entry across India’s borders and India has now adopted a zero-tolerance policy against it.
- India was the first democratic country which gave recognition to the People’s Republic of China.
- On Tibet issue, by accepting China’s sovereignty on that area, India signed on Panchsheel agreement.
- In 1962, taking the excuse of border dispute, China suddenly attacked India.
- During British rule, the British surveyor MacMohan had decided the border between India and China.
Independent India and China:
- India’s attitude towards China has always been friendly. On October 1949, India supported the communist revolution. .
- After the 1962 war, Indo-Chinese relations became permanently strained.
- Seeing China’s attitude, Soviet Russia inclined towards India, because there was bprder dispute between China and Russia.
- There is also a water dispute along with border dispute between India and China.
Relation on the Path of Development:
- Efforts have been made through talks, agreements, high-level visits, etc., to normalise relations between India and China. But there still remains distrust and doubt.
- There is need to think seriously over economic relation with China, because China is the world’s biggest market and is a storehouse of electricity and labour. In field of modem technology, it is more advanced than India.
- Chinest President Shi Zinping on his three-day visit to India in September 17, 2014, reached Ahmedabad first. Many agreements were made during his stay in India. China agreed to invest about 1,200 billion rupees in five years.
- Indian P.M. Narendra Modi went on a visit to China on May 14-16, 2015. During this visit 24 agreements worth 10 billion dollars were made between the two countries.
- Situated in tlie north-east of India, Nepal is very important from the political point of view. In north, India’s security depends upon Nepal’s security. During British period, Nepal was fully under the control of colonial government.
Complication with Nepal:
- India’s relations with Nepal have been, deep and intimate but nowadays, there is some tension between both countries. The issues of this tension are: heterogenous treaty of 1950, river water dispute, terrorists taking shelter in Nepal etc.
Indo-Nepal Relations, Treaty of 1950:
- Due to increasing Chinese activities in Tibet, India’s worries increased over Nepal’s security. Consequendy, a historic treaty was made in 1950 between both countries.
China’s Interest in Nepal’s Internal Issues and India’s Territory:
- In 1959, Nepal’s P.M. Koirala made a journey to China and made an agreement regarding Everest top.
- Contemporary King Mahendra made an agreement with China regarding Lhasa route and posed a • danger to India.
- In 1962, during the China-India war, Nepal’s policy of neutrality caused doubt against Nepal.
Re-establishment of Relations and India-Nepal Economic, Technical Relations:
- To remove Nepal’s doubts against India, an agreement was made with Nepal on March 23, 1964.
- A large amount of wealth of India is invested in Nepal’s development programmes. Nepal gets all types of training, technical and non-technical aid from India.
End of Bi-Lateral Treaty of 1950 and Differences Between India and Nepal:
- After the completion of trade-and transit treaty with Nepal in 1989, India refused to renew it, consequently tension originated between the two countries.
- 46% of total foreign investment in Nepal comes from India.
- Nepal has made many agreements with China, neglecting India’s interests.
- Nepal’s agreement with China to make Kathmandu-Lhasa road, is an anti-India step.
Nepal’s Way of Democracy:
- Continuing for the last 11 years Maoists’ aimed struggle ended on November 21, 2006.
- The decades-old monarchy ended arid newly elected constitutional assembly declared the country a democratic nation.
P.M. Narendra Modi’s Good Faith for Nepali Government:
- On August 3-4, 2014, P.M. Narendra Modi went to Nepal on a goodwill visit and addressed its constitutional and legislative assembly.
Madheshi Movement and Indo-Nepal Relations:
- Madhesh is a poor, backward and neglected region of Nepal.
- Nepal’s indifference towards the Madheshi’s compelled them to launch a movement.
- Madhesis closed India-Nepal border; willingly or unwillingly the Indian government had to stand with Madhesis. Nepali government had to agree to some demands of the Madhesis and the movement ended.
- Nepali government for the sufficiency of petroleum products, made an agreement with China on October 24, 2015. This agreement is a threat to India.
- On February-2016, Nepali’s P.M. K.P. Sharma made a visit to India and signed nine agreements
Nepal’s Psychology and Future Policy:
- Nepal wants to develop relations with India and China on equal-distance principle so that China may be satisfied. India does not agree with this.
- Nepal wants to decrease its dependence on India and wants to strengthen its relations with China.
Important Dates And Related Events:
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 30 Important Terms
- Kashmir Dispute : In 1947 after independence, the native states were given the choice to merge with India or Pakistan or to remain independent. Due to delay in taking decision by Kashmir king Hari Singh, it became a issue of dispute between India and Pakistan.
- Separatism : It is a tendency that supports the breaking away from a group, society, culture or religion. In Kashmir, this problem is at its height.
- Jihad : It is a word of Arabic language. It is associated with Islam, The person who does not believe in Allah, Jihad is done against him. The person who does Jihad is called Mujahid.
- Terrorism : The method adopted by a person or a group of persons who intend to put negative pressure on legitimate governments through violence and chaos for the fulfillment of their unfair demands, in called terrorism.
- Buffer State : Between two big nations a self-ruled, small nation. It prevents armed conflict between two big countries. In other words, a free nation between two powerful nations, which prevents direct confrontation is called a buffer state. It is also called middle nation. For example : Nepal is like a buffer state between India and China.
- South Asia : Generally, the term South Asia is used for India. Nepal, Maldives, Bhutan, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. China is the major country of this area, but China is not considered a part of South Asia.
- Human rights : Those rights which are considered necessary for each man for living a dignified human existence are called human rights, such as justice, life security, etc.
- Kargil War : In the beginning month of 1999, at several places of India’s line of control, Pakistani soldiers, who called themselves Mujahidin, occupied Indian territory. War broke out between India and Pakistan, which is called Kargil war.
- GDP: It is a market value of final goods and services produced within the borders of a nation. This term was first used by an economist of USA.
- Referendum : It is such a direct poll in which the voters of the particular area are asked to vote to accept or reject a proposal. In other words, through it, public opinion is known about any government policy.
- Article 370 : When Kashmir became the part of India, it was given a privilege to maintain its autonomy under article 370 of Indian constitution. Under it, the state made its separate constitution.
- Tashkent Agreement: The end of Indo-Pak war of 1965 happened with the interference of UNO. Between Indian P.M. Lai Bahadur Shastri and Pakistan’s General Ayub Khan, Tashkent agreement was signed. Soviet Union played the role of a mediator in it
- Shimla, Agreement : In the Indo-Pak war of 1971, Pakistan had to face defeat again. Pakistan’s General Niazi surrendered and Bangladesh became free. Pakistan’s regime came in the hands of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. On July 3, 1972, historic Shimla agreement was signed between both countries.
- Taliban : It is a word from Pashto language which means, such students who believe in orthodox Islamic ideology. It was started in 1994 in Afghanistan. Its membership is given to the students who work as terrorists.
- Hurriyat conference : It is an organization of 23 different political, social, and religious organizations in Jammu and Kashmir. It is a political front that advocates separation of Kashmir from India. It was established on March 9, 1993.
- Surgical strike : To take revenge of army men’s martyrdom in terrorists attacks, India entered into Pakistan border and destroyed many terrorist camps in POK.
- Tibet Dispute : Historically, Tibet has been an issue of dispute between India and China. In 1950, Tibet came under China’s control. Most of Tibetan people opposed China’s occupation. In the decades of 1950 and 60, several political parties and leaders showed their support for the freedom of Tibet.
- Autonomous Tibet Area : China made the autonomous Tibet area and considers it as an integral part of China, but Tibeten people do not accept this claim. The Tibeten people refuted the Chinese claim that it has given autonomy to Tibet.
- Pt Jawahar Lai Nehru (1889-1964) : First P.M. of free India. On April 29, 1954 he signed on five principles of peaceful co-existence with China’s head Chou En Lai.
- C. Raj Gopalachari (1878-1972) : First and last governer general of free India. He was awarded the Bharat Ratna.
- Dalai Lama : Religious head of Tibetan people. After the unsuccessful revolt against Chinese occupation on Tibet, he took shelter in India.
- V.K. Krishna Menon (1896-1974) : Remained defence minister in Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru’s government. In 1962, after Indo-Chinese war, he resigned from his post.
- Lai Bahadur Shastri (1904-1966) : Became Indian P.M. after Jawahar Lai Nehru. In 1966, he signed an agreement in Tashkent with Pakistan’s General Ayub Khan.
- Indira Gandhi (1917-1984) : After Lai Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi became the Prime Minister of India. On July 3, 1972, she signed the Shimla agreement with Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
- Atal Bihari Vajpayee : (From 1924 to now) Former Indian P.M. As a top leader he went on a visit to China for the first time in 1979. Then he was foreign minister in the Cabinet of Moraiji Bhai Desai.