Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 9 Socialism
Socialism means establishment of a society or a state (country) of reasonable equality without exploitation.
Evolution of Socialism:
- For the first time, the Greek Stoic philosophy offered a principle of economic equality and social justice. In medieval period, Thomas Moore presented an ideal socialist state in his book ‘Utopia’ (1516).
- In 17th century, Bacon described socialistic thought in his book, ‘New Atlantis’. But the French Revolution (1789) proved to be a milestone for the development of socialism. In this revolution, the words- Equality, Liberty and Fraternity were embodied.
- In the development of socialism, thinkers namesly Blanky, Saint Simon, Charles Fuhreir, Robert Oven, Prudho, etc made remarkable contributions.
- In due course, thinkers like George Bernard Shaw, G.D Col, George Sorelle etc. developed many streams of socialism as Fabian Socialism, Syndicalism, Guild Socialism etc. Karl Marx presented systematical principle of socialism in 1848.
- Industrial Revolution took place and which gave birth to socialist revolution. As such, England is said to be a ‘home of Socialist views’.
- The thinkers who advocated socialism in very ordinary way are Ramsay Macdonald, R.N. Tony, Sidney, Betrin Baive, Harold Lasky, Clement Atdee, Avon M.R. Darwin, Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru, Ram Manohar Lohia and Pt. Deen Dayal Upadhyay of India.
Meaning of Socialism:
- By way of embracing democratic path, establishment of socialism.
- After setting up of socialism, democratic system remains in force. Such a system of governance is called socialism.
- In political field, its faith is preserved on the basis of liberal philosophy of human liberty.
Some Definitions of Socialism:
- Th philosophy of socialism is supportive to democracy. Pt. Nehru says- “Democratic socialism is not that one which is set up by the judiciary arrangement, but it is based on the decentralisation of political and economical powers alongwith the means of public accents.”
- The meaning of socialism is — setting up of system of economical and social justice on democratic path. The base of this doctrine is setting up of social justice and individual dignity.
Evolution of Socialism in India:
- The beginning of socialism in India goes back to 1929 when it was declared by the working committee of Indian National Congress in Lahore convention that “The poverty in not only due to the exploitation by foreign rulers but also due to ill economic concept” In 1931 during Karachi convention, the same (above) observation of poverty was repeated.
- Gandhiji established socialism according to the circumstances formed and related to Indian ideals. Afterwards, Pt. Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose, Manvendra Rai, Jai Prakash Narayan, Ram Manohar Lohia and Pt. Deen Dayal Upadhyay etc. played a significant role in maintaining the popularity of socialism among the people.
Main Features of Socialism:
- The main features of socialism are: opposition of communism and capitalism, faith in democratic system, faith in humanity, support to spiritual and moral tenets, against class struggle, support to economic and political freedom, public control on production and distribution, faith in socialism, protects against unlimited accumulation of property, aim of human welfare.
Main Objective of Socialism:
- Increase in development of all the sections of socialistic society with their involvement and cooperation. .
- Socialism always believes in acquiring power of governance by constitutional means.
Main Elements of Socialism:
Some important elements of socialism are described as under.
- Income tax must be imposed on the income of wealthy persons and the amount received from tax must be used for helping the poor.
- Banks and industries must be nationalized so that the state has full control over its economy.
- All must get the employment according to their capability and academic record. Appropriate wages and holidays must also be ensured.
- Optimum welfare schemes must be launched so that citizens may have a comfortable and happy life.
Characteristics of Socialism:
- In socialism, many good characteristics of capitalism and communism have been combined. Under this scenario, certain
characteristics are as follows :
- It considers the interest of society and individual equally.
- Socialism does not focus on eradicating private property but wants to limit it for social interest.
- This advocates an arrangement of decentralization in economic and political domains.
- It is helpful in setting up social arrangements on the basis of equality.
Defects of Socialism:
According to critics, socialism has the following defects :
- No clear thought
- Includes mutually opposite elements.
- Opposite of natural possibilities
- Patronage to corrupt arrangements.
- Against the interest of consumers.
- In principle, Socialism can be criticized, but in practical terms, it is true that there is no alternative to socialism.
Important Dates and the Events Given in the Chapter:
RBSE Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 9 Important Terms
- Socialism : It is a socio-economic philosophy. In this arrangement, ownership of property and its distribution lies with the control of the society. It restricts private ownership of property and means of production.
- Capitalism : In this monetary system, there is private ownership on the sources of productions. This economic system is implemented for profit.
- Communism : This is the highest form of socialism defined by Karl Marx. This thought advocates setting up of a society based on equality without any class discrimination.
- Marxism : This is a form of socialism presented by Marx. He presented a principle of proletariat class and laid the foundation of scientific socialism. In order to get freedom from the exploitation of capitalists, he presented a blue -print before the workers.
- Anarchy : This is a doctrine of political science which terms the existence of the state as unnecessary. Bakunin is regarded as the father of this thought.
- Stoic Philosophy : It is an ancient Greek philosophy which emphasises on self control.
- Utopia : This term was used by writer Thomas Moore for his work written in 1516. In this book, there is a description of ideal society in the name ‘Utopia’.
- New Atlantis : This is an incomplete novel written by Francis Bacon, which was published in 1627. Bacon is called the father of ‘English Essays’ and ‘Modem English poetry’.
- Industrial Revolution : In 18th and 19th centuries, hand-made goods were replaced by machine-made goods. There were very rapid development in Industrial domain by the use of highly advanced machines.
- Class-Struggle : This is the main component of Marxism. According to Marx, there has always been two opposite economic sections in the society. One group (section) of the society has had ownership and control over sources of production, whereas the other group has been delivering physical labour. There has been a trend of exploitation of the second group by the first group and because of which, there has already been a situation of struggle between them.
- Thomas Moore (1478-1535) : He was born in London. By writing the famous epic ‘Utopia’ (1516), he presented a picture of an ideal society.
- Francis Bacon (1561-1626) : He was an English philosopher, politician and writer. He is the writer of a book ‘New Atlantis’.
- Karl Marx (1818-1883) : He was a German philosopher and revolutionist. He prepared the base of communist movement by his thoughts.
- Saint Simon (1760-1825) : He was the first socialist of the world. He regarded capitalists as the main cause of poverty. According to him, every person should contribute by his work.
- Robert Oven (1771-1858) : He was one of the founders of socialism. He talked about social and economic interests by removing demerits of capitalism.
- George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950.) : He was a great playwright, mature politician and humanist. He was awarded Nobel Prize for literature.
- G.D. Col (1889-1959) : He was a famous British economist who propounded the ideology of Guild Socialism.
- Ram Manohar Lohia (1910-1967) : He was a fighter in the struggle of independence of India. He was a great socialist politician.
- Pt Nehru (1889-1964) : Pt Jawahar Lai Nehru was the first Prime Minister of India. He remained a central figure before and after the independence of India.