Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 8 Science Notes Chapter 1 Agriculture Management
Crops and Types of Management:
Every living being needs food to grow, develop and live. Plants are capable to produce food of their own but animals are not capable to produce food of their own. There is a need of regular production, management protection and distribution of crops to fulfill the needs of crores of population. India is an agriculture dominant nation, 80% of Indians resides in villages.
Due to geographical diversities, diversities are found in nutrition modes also.
Plants are grown after a fixed intervals of time to fulfills the needs of food of human beings and animals, are called crop plants. While plants that are grown in particular season are collectively called crops.
On the basis of seasons, crops are of three types:
- Rabi crop-grown between the months of October and February, like wheat, barley, gram, pea, and mustard, etc.
- Kharif crop-grown between the months of June to September, like jowar, maize, groundnut, sesame, moong, and urad etc.
- Zaid crop-grown between the months of March to June, like muskmelon, watermelon, kakri and cucumber, etc.
Classification of the crops on the basis of their uses:
- Cereals: wheat, barley, jowar, maize, and oats etc. Used for making roti and dalia .
- Pulses: arhar, moong, gram, masoor, and urad used as pulses.
- Tilhan or oil yielding: groundnut, sesame, alsi and mustard, soyabean, arandi (caster) used as oil.
- Spices: chilli, coriander, ajwain, jeera, turmeric (haldi) uses as spices.
- Fruits and vegetables: mango, ber, mausmi, malta, ladyfinger, and tinda uses as fruits and vegetables.
- Other crops: Some other crops are used as medicines and fodders. Process of crops production. Preparation of field before sowing the seeds by the farmers till the harvesting is called process of crops production.
Methods of Agriculture. [Steps of Agriculture]:
Followings are the steps of agriculture:
1. Preparation of soil
3. Fertilization or Manuring
5. Protection of crops
7. Storage of grains.
- Preparation of soil: Ploughing or tilling of land.
Tools-Ploughing can be done in two ways:
- by animals (traditional methods)
by tractor (modern methods)
- by animals (traditional methods)
- Privileges of ploughing:
- Seeds goes down under the upper layer of the soil, it helps in the smooth sprouting of the seeds.
- The roots of new plants goes deep in the soil.
- These roots can easily breathe or respire.
- Loose soil helps in the growth of beneficial microorganisms living inside the soils like- earthworms and bacteria.
Making soil loose by a plough is called ploughing.
Tools of agriculture-Plough, kudali and cultivator.
- Sowing: Selection of qualitative seeds.
- Fertilization or manuring: Those elements or nutrients which are mixed in the soil to maintain the fertility of the soil are called fertilizers.
Difference between fertilizers and manures:
- Manure is biotic or organic and natural while fertilizers are synthetic or man made.
- Natural manure is made naturally in fields by cow dung or animals dung of (compost) with the help of earthworms by the decaying of the organic matter called organic compost while fertilizers are chemicals produced in factories.
- Manure is better than fertilizers as it contains more amount of humus which increases the fertility of the soil. While fertilizers lack in humus content.
- Examples of fertilizers are – urea, ammonium sulphate, super phosphate, potash etc.
- Advantages of Organic Manure
- It is more capable in reorganization of soil.
- It helps in fast growth of beneficial bacteria’s.
- It increases the capacity of the soil to absorb water and its retention.
- It helps in proper respiration of roots.
- Irrigation: As we need water with food, in the same manner crops also require water for growth and production. artificial supply of water to the fields other than rains from time to time is called irrigation.
- Advantages of irrigation to crops
- For sprouting of seeds.
- To supply water to leaves for the process of transpiration.
- Water is a supplier of nutrients to the different parts of plants.
- Its plays an important role in growth and development of plants.
- Sources of water for irrigation
They are of two types:
- Traditional sources: chadas, handpump, dhekli rahat, moat etc.
- Modern sources : hand pump, electric pump, diesel pump.
- Advantages of modern sources:
They take less time compared to traditional resources, economic use of water etc.
- Modern methods of irrigation .
- for unlevelled land: sprinkles.
- for levelled land: drip system.
- 5. Protection of crops-Problems of crops and ways to protect
- Weeds – unwanted or undesired plants which grow along crops. Thgy do not allow nutrients required for plants growth to reach them as well as sufficient sunlight. Hence removal of weeds from time to time and use of weedicides.
- Natural calamities-floods, droughts, cold and fire, Bad effects on crops -fields get flooded, washing away of soil, crops are destroyed either by drying or fire.
Prevention : water drainage system, proper management of irrigation, prevention from fire.
- Virus or insect born diseases – cause less production. It can be prevented by spraying of insecticides, pesticides etc.
- Animals- destruction of crops, fencing and other. Safety measure should be adopt.
- Harvesting: after ripening of the crops it is cut by the farmers called harvesting.
Threshing: After harvesting it is derived to eliminate moisture then seed is seperated from husk, it is called threshing. Winowing-Seperating seeds from husk by the use of air pressure by hand or combine machine is called winowing.
- Storage of grain: After winowing farmers collect the grains in gunny bags and carries at home. He collects the husk for animals fodders. He keeps the grains for his needs and after that he sells rest in the market.
- Cylo: To protect stored grains from moisture, insects, rats, and microbes many methods are used. The places where the grains is stored are called cylo.
Main Crops Grown in Different Districts of Rajasthan:
- Bajra (coat): Alwar, Jaipur, Nagaur, Jodhpur, Sikar and Barmer.
- Macca (maize): Chittorgarh, Udaipur, Bhilwara, Banswara, Rajsamand.
- Jowar: Ajmer, Pali, Tonk, Bharatpur, Alwar.
- Rice: Hanumangarh, Bundi, Kota, Pratapgarh, Banswara.
- Wheat: Shri Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Alwar, Bharatpur, Bundi.
- Barley : Jaipur, Hanumangarh, Shri Ganganagar, Alwar, Sikar.
- Moth: Churu, Bikaner, Nagaur, Jodhpur.
- Gram: Hanumangarh, Shri Ganganagar, Bikaner, Jhunjhunu.
- Chawla: Sikar, Nagaur, Jhunjhunu.
- Arhar: Udaipur, Tonk, Jaipur.
- Groundnut: Bikaner, Sikar, Churu, Jaipur.
- Mustard: Shri Ganganagar, Bharatpur, Alwar.
- Tarameera: Shri Ganganagar, Bharatpur, Alwar.
- Soyabean: Jhalawar, Chittor, Baran.
- Cotton: Hanumangarh, Kota, Bundi, Shri Ganganagar.
- Jeera: Jalore, Jodhpur, Badmer.
- Dhaniya (coriander): Baran, Jhalawar, Kota.
Main fruits and vegetables producing areas:
- Orange: Jhalawar
- Lemon: Dhaulpur
- Guava: Swai madhopur
- Pea and tomato: jaipur
- Plumb (ber): Jaipur
- Mangoose (amla): Jaipur
- Water-melon: Tonk
- Chilly: madhopur
- Ginger: Udaipur
- Lehsun (garlic): Kota
- Malta: Shri Ganganagar
- Grapes: Shri Ganganagar
- Kakri: Bikaner
- Muskm: Pali
- Mango: Chittorgarh
- Saunf: Sirohi
- Ajwain: Chittorgarh
- Onion: Jodhpur
- Banana: Banswara
- Mausmi: Shri Ganganagar
Crops and Environment:
To keep surroundings healthy and cleanliness and greenery around us. Crops are green throughout the year and crop is always remain in the fields, greenery keeps the atmosphere pure, in this way crops directly effect the environment in the following ways
- Crops in the surroundings keeps the environment clean.
- They helps in maintaining the moisture in the atmosphere.
- They keep the balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the surroundings.
- They controls the temperature of the surroundings.
- Protect the upper layer of the soil from sand storms and floods.
- Decrease the air and sound pollution.
- Provides life and Protection to animals.
He was born on 7 August 1925 at Kummkonam in Tamil Nadu. He is famous for playing an important role in green revolution. He was specialist in genetics. He developed high quality hybrid seed of wheat by crossing mexican seeds with domestic seeds of Punjab in 1966. Green revolution makes India self dependent in wheat and rice production. He received Padam Shree awards from India government. In 1967, Padam Bhushan in 1972, and Padam Vibhushan in 1989, in the fields of science and technology.