Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 8 Science Notes Chapter 13 Information Technology
Next century would be of without words, books, eyes, ears and conflicts of heart. When man will study him through screen. The thinker might have told these imaginary words by seeing changes of this century.
Hundreds of years ago messages were send through pigeon, horse riders, by bagging drums etc. then by torch lights telegraphs in Europe. In 1837 through postal system then teleprinter and telex. But now a days due to increasing use of computer and internet these all are replaced by very modern means of communication while earlier means become limited.
Spread of events which took place in different corners of the world and their spread of information regarding these event is called Information technology.
What is Information Technology?:
The branch of technology in which computer is used to collect information by means of communication and send through them is called information technology. These means are used in excessive that without these man can not imagine life. Through means of communication like television, fax, telephone etc. messages could be sent by satellites from one place to another.
Major Modes of Communication:
One of the powerful and effective means of communication is radio. This is such a means which can send messages in the form of invisible electric waves from one place to another. It is a great means of entertainment, news, music listening etc. Police van, fire brigade, pilot, astronaut, sailors etc. keep contact with centres on land with radio. In India Radio transmission was started in 1927. In 1937 it was named All India Radio and in 1957 Aakash Vani, Radio waves are like light waves only the difference is of frequency. Frequency means in one second how many times an object vibrates. It is measured in Hertz. Radio waves can be divided into three types -r- medium wave, short wave, and ultra short waves.
Telephone: It is derived from Greek word ‘Tele’ means far and ‘phone’ means sound or sending sound upto a great distance. It was first invented by Alexander Graham Bell. In our country telephone entered in 1822 at Calcutta (Kolkata), Mumbai and Chennai with the establishment of telephone exchange, with the passage of time development took place in the functioning of telephone. At the time of independence there 82,000 telephone connection in India, which have reached to 970 million upto 2015.
In 1960 electronic exchange established, it resulted in the beginning of Subscriber Trunk Dialing Services (S.T.D) in between Lucknow and Kanpur. In telephone instrumenf the part which is kept in front of mouth is called mouth piece and part kept on ear is called ear piece. Mouth piece acts as transmitter and ear piece as a receiver. Modern telephones have developed a lot. Many people can talk together on electronic phone without leaving the office such system is called video conferencing.
At present telephones in trend are:
- Cordless telephone
- Cellular phone
Satellite phones are those phones which looks like normal smart phones. These phones can be connected to the satellite which are stationary and move around the earth in a fixed path in the universe. While normal phones can not be used this way. Cellphones can be used in remote areas, where normal phones network coverage area is not available. They can be used in the emergency situations like natural calamities when other communication systems fail.
Cellular Phone: At present the mobile phones which we are using today are a kind of cellular phone. They are working on four techniques – GSM, CDMA, D-AMP35 and PDCS.
Fax: It is an important achievement of Information technology by which graph, chart, hand written documents can be send from one place to another by telephone network like receiver is getting original copy on other end. ‘Fax’ word is originated from an english word fascimile. Fascimile is a word of Latin language, in which ‘fas’ means ‘making’ and ‘cimile’ means ‘same’. Fax system was invented by the Alexander Bell of Scotland in 1843. The use of fax is increasing day-by-day. Following services are included in use of fax:
- Exchange of graphics between advertising agency and consumer.
- Share market and scientific services.
- Sending of instructions and messages of administrative services.
- Sending datas of administrative technology.
- Sending of many types of documents in energy industries.
Television: It is such a means of communication by which moving pictures and sound both reaches to us. Through it we could see live events of whole world. On 26 January 1926 John Logi Bair presented successful programme on television in Britain. In our country first television service was began on 15 September, 1959 in Delhi.
Televisions are of two types:
- Black and white
Programmes are telecast from the centre by converting picture and sound into Radio magnetic waves. These waves are spread around the Antenna and reach to our television Antenna. These waves again converts into picture and sound in our television.
Elements of Television: Tuner circuit, amplifier, detector circuit, power supply, picture tube, and loudspeaker are the elements of television. Picture tube in general language is called screen. On screen approx two lacs points of sensitive substances are located. There are three electron tubes in colored television camera. Such mirrors are located in these tubes that they divide light coming in cameras in three parts. T.V. can be controlled manually as well as by remote. Remote control is a small rectangular box having buttons, when these buttons pressed, they produce invisible waves which are received by the television.
In present era very/ultra modern televisions are in used like: Flat T.V., L.C.D. T.V. (Liquid Crystal Display T.V.) L.E.D. T.V. (Light Emitting Diode T.V.) curved T.V. etc. In advanced techniques of telecast cable T.V. and D.T.H. (Direct to home) service is in great trend. In D.T.H. T.V. telecast through high technique multi channel T.V. programmes with the help of a small dish antenna without cable operator, by the means of satellite can be seen direct on T.V. in homes. In this 50 cm to 75 cm dish antenna is used.
E-mail or (Electronic mail): Sending letters by computer like post is called E-mail. The matter which is to be sent is prepared by word processor and send to the receiver by telephone network. The whole matter is presented on the computer, T.V. and mobile of the receiver. He can get its print also. E-mail is very fast as it saves both time and paper and is cheap also.
In our country Institute of C-Dot at Delhi has five centres and is Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore etc. make research and development on this system continuously.
Artificial Satellite and Communication:
With the help of satellite fax letter can be received in remote areas, conversation could be done on telephone with a person living in a remote area, our messages and voice can also sent upto distant area.
It is a machine which could send thousands of words from one place to another. Any message could be changed in computer language and transmitted in the form of micro vibrations. Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) is an ultramodern technique in the field of communication which has become possible only due to computer. Through this technique by only one wire voice, written matter, datas and pictures could be sent. Out of these four any two could be sent by ISDN.
It is an international way of message which is formed by connecting telephone lines with computers located at different places of the world. Informations can reach from one place to another in a moment. Internet word is formed by combining two English words ‘International’ and ‘Network’ means global system (world wide net). It is a wireless system.
Major Services based on Internet: It has converted whole world into a wholesale market, where you can purchase from very small to big things. Open any website of E-Commerce give your order and receive your most wanted thing. Credit card is the most suitable means for online purchasing, sending information to consumers through advertisement for purchasing and selling. E-commerce plays an important role in conducting business activities by utilising-Computer network, internet, worldwide web to EDI (Electronic data interchanges) E-mail, E-ft (Electronic file transfer) etc.
Telemedicine: It is mainly a system of providing medical facility, in which doctor treats those patients living in remote areas with the help of Tele-Communication and Information technology. In this system patient and doctor can see each other and can talk to each other. Beside pictures of ECG, X-Ray, CT Scan, MRI etc can be examine by opening computer video file.
Broadband: Modern technique of information telecast in which many channels can be telecast together just through one cable or wire. It is called broadband.
Social Media: It is available in many forms like writing Blog, Business network, Enterprise Social Network, Forum, Microblog, Photo Sharing, Product/Service review, Social book marking, Social gaming, Social network, Video Sharing, Virtual World etc. Facebook, Twitter, Blogger, Pinterest, Tumblers etc. Some famous social media cites are – Sharing of views and matter, Whatsapp. Hike etc. are mobile social media applications.
E-Mitra: It is an ambitions service of Rajasthan Government which is made available in all 33 districts of Rajasthan on PPP (Public Private Partnership) model with transparency to citizens. In this different governmental and private services related works are conducted under one roof i. e. E-Platform. These services are available in rural and urban areas online through Kiosk. This project is continuously running from the year 2005. Through this service, citizens can do activities like – deposit electricity bills, water bills, telephone bills, formation of bonafide certificate, ration cards, taking loan under Swarn Jayanti Gram Self employment Yojna, learner driving license, Rajasthan Roadways buses tickets, etc.
Information technology and Comfort society: It has shown a new hope for corruption free society. It can be used to make society corruption free by making Public Distribution System Computerized. Informations related to supply should be publicize through web.
- Making Public related offices computerized and through networking appropriate reforms should be made.
- Right to Information should be implemented to bring transparency in the system. For this computerized information system, Intranet, Internet and extra net should be used to exchange information at faster rate.
- Introduction of Information technology in Banking system has brought a drastic change in consumer services beside it has controlled scams and corruptions.
- It has made Public related offices like Income Tax, customs and excise, water, electricity, city corporation driving license, ration etc. paperless. These system have become transparent and less expensive.
‘What and Why’: It can be also called as safety of Information technology. It controls the unauthorized access of secret programmes of the government. Government, corporate world, Financial institutions, Hospitals and other important institutions collect and process them, then send to other computers. Hence it becomes necessary that for public and nation’s security such datas should be given safety. So, in Cyber era Cyber security is very important. Through software and technology all such activities can be made safe.