Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 8 Social Science Notes Chapter 11 Concept of Development
There is a great difference in rural life and urban life. The reason behind this difference is the speed of development, the development in the cities is faster than the villages. The villages which are linked to the cities are more developed rather than the remote villages.
The difference in the level of the development creates a gap between a village and a city. Such difference is not confined up to different regions of a country, different metro cities and states but at global level this difference related to development is clearly seen among different nations.
Today the countries of the world can be divided into two parts economically:
- The developed countries and
- The developing countries.
Developed countries are those nations where the economic development has taken place very fast. Here due to fast industrial development income level per individual has been increased and physical comforts are available in abundance. England, America, Switzerland, Japan etc. fall in this category.
In developing countries the condition is seen just opposite of it. In these countries population is very high,the speed of development is low, there is lack of essential commodities. Most of the population depend upon agriculture and per capita income is low. Most of these nations were colonies of one or another developed nation. There is a presence of economic backwardness due to exploitation occurred during the foreign rule. These nations are continuously putting efforts to overcome such situation, hence these are called developing nations. India, Brazil, Indonesia etc fall in this category.
Economic development: Traditionally development is a situation in which Gross Domestic Product (G.D.P) is being increased at the rate of 5% to 7% annually. Beside such a change should occur in production and occupational structure in which share of agriculture should be decreased and share of service and investment sector should be increased or speed of industrialization could be increased in place of agriculture. But according to time, concept of economic development is redefined. According to new concept of economic development the main objective of economic development is the eradication of poverty, unemployment and economic disparities.
Economic Development in the Context of India:
According to Indian concept, economic development means exploiting optimally all the available resources available in the country according to needs and using them in nation’s interest and bringing change in economic structure and technology. Increase in production, income and employment and quality level of life could be provided to people in a sustainable manner of the resources obtained from nature. Considering nature as an invaluable gift of God, getting things from it according to needs and by their balanced consumption, making nation rich and prosperous is only the nation’s interest.
Today every nation is making effort to make economic development successful. There is a race among developed and developing nations in the world of economic development. Economic development’ is necessary to end problems of poverty, unemployment and economic disparities present in developing nations. To end fear, hunger and discrimination from the world and in view of international peace and security, economic development is the most important need of the modern era. Economic development is also related to an economically backward nations, where use of means is not done optimally for the development.
Indicators of Economic Development:
To measure development of any nation following three economic indicators are being used
- Education and
- Increase in per capita income.
At present development is measured in ‘human development indicator’, In human development indicators main stress is given education, life span and purchasing power long and healthy life, growth in education and education skills and increase in percapita income. These are the indicators of human development of any nation.
United Nations Development Programme issues human development report annually on the basis of human development indicators in 1990, which clears the status of human Development of different nations at global level.
True development is possible if all the sections of society including the disadvantaged, the backward and the marginal are benefitted by the government implemented Development schemes.
In integrated development, effort is being made to provide privilege to all classes in the process of development by making it speedy and controlling the rate of poverty. The main objective of all government plans is the integrated development.
Continuous or Sustainable Development: Economic development is a wide and continuous concept, It is related to economic needs, goods and qualitative change in standard of living and institutions. The meaning of continuous development is the process in which natural resources are exploited to fulfill the needs of present generation by keeping in mind the needs of future generations. Continuous development is also called as ‘Sustainable development’
Causes behind the emergence of the concept of continuous development:
- Environmental pollution due to modern development.
- Reckless exploitation of natural resources.
- Loss of forest area in greed of development and minerals like – Aravali region.
- Cutting of mountains in the name of building highways for transportation. It resulted in the form of decreasing mineral resources and uncertainty of rainfall.
- Excess use of chemical fertilizers and insecticides have converted the fertile land into barren and bad land. Due to it food products produced from such land become unfit and toxic, consumption of such produce had adverse effects on human and animals health. They become the victim of many diseases.
- Over exploitation of water has made many regions, specially desert regions of Rajasthan suffer acute problems like decreasing underground water level and salty water.
- Depletion of ozone layer, global warming and air pollution have emerged as problems due to release of harmful gases by the over use of means of transport, refrigerators and air conditioners. Hence there is need to check today’s culture of consumerism and skillfully and reasonable exploitation of resources. The process of development should bring prosperity for us. The advantage of which could be reach not only to present generation but future generations also. This is continuous on sustainable development.
Hindrances in the Development of Developing Countries:
Lack of capital, over population, use of conventional techniques of production, poverty, too much dependence o’n agriculture, economic disparities, low level of education and health services and lack of means of communication and basic services are the hindrances in making developing nations as developed.
As far as India is concerned India’s past had been glorious due to India’s richness in resources and wealth. India had its pride in the world as prosperous and self dependent nation. India was well known in the world for high quality garments, manufacturing of iron made goods. India is re¬establishing herself in the form of economic power in the world.
Our engineers, doctors, charted accountants, CEO’s, professionals and administrative officers are working at prestigious posts in most of the countries of the world due to their ability and hard work. At present not only the demand of Indian goods is increased in the world but increasing demand of our experts in space, research and technology is also an indicator of India’s pride in the world. Today necessity is that India should re-establish herself in the world in the form of an economic power and regain the previous status of the golden bird.