Rajasthan Board RBSE Class 8 Social Science Notes Chapter 12 Our Constitution
What is Constitution?:
To run the administration of a nation, certain rules and working system are needed. The format of organisation of a government, citizens rights and duties are decided and formulated by these rules. A government makes the law for the citizens. It also works to protect these rights and their implementation. If such rules and laws are not there, peace and law and order would be spoilt in the whole nation and society. Hence a collection of rules and laws which directs the administration, an individual and relations between them is called constitution.
Types of Constitution:
Types of constitution may be of two types:
- Written constitution: The constitution whose provisions are in written form, they are called written constitution, like-Constitution of India and U.S.A.
- Unwritten constitution: The constitution whose provision are not written but are in the form of traditions are called unwritten Constitutions, like-Constitution of Britain.
Drafting of the Indian Constitution:
The thought of the making of our constitution did not emerge after independence but it developed along the Nation’s freedom movement.
In 1922 Mahatama Gandhi had strongly asserted that India’s political future would be made by the Indians themselves. During freedom struggle this demand of Indians took strength that they want to make their constitution without any external interference. The constitution should be constituted by such a Constituent Assembly which is elected on the basis of adult franchise. Hence British Government accepted the demand of Constituent Assembly of the Indian people. A delegation of British ministry which was named Cabinet Mission came to India.
The Cabinet Mission recommended the formation of the Constituent Assembly in its report. In July 1946, elections were held in British India. 296 public representative and 93 members were nominated in the form of state’s representative by the rulers of these states. 14 members were also included in the Constituent Assembly from Rajasthan.
On 9th December 1946, in the first session of the Constituent Assembly, Sachchidanand Sinha was elected temporary Chairman of the Constituent Assembly, followed later by Dr. Rajendra Prasad as the permanent Chairman.
On 13th December 1946, Pt. Jawahar Lai Nehru put forward ‘Objectives Proposal’ to determine the objectives of the constitution which was passed unanimously on 22nd January 1947. A Drafting committe headed by Dr. B.R. Ambedakar was constituted. It prepared our constitution 2 years 11 months and 18 days, in 114 meetings. On 26th November 1949 it was passed by the Constituent Assembly and 26th November was declared by the government of India as the Constitution Day and it was enforced on 26th January, 1950. On 26 November 2015 the first Constitution Day was celebrated in the whole country.
Features of the Indian Constitution:
- The most lengthiest and a written constitution
- Preamble of the constitution
- Inspirations from different sources
- Democratic Republic
- Fundamental Rights and Fundamental Duties (viii) Directive Principles of state policy
- Federal Administrative System
- Parliamentary system
- Independent Judiciary
- Rigid and Flexible Constitution (xiii) Single Citizenship
- Universal Adult Franchise